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1. Concerning Original Sin,

II. Of Justification,

APOLOGY TO THE AUGSBURG CONFESSION,

55
67

III. Of love and fulfilment of the law, 92

IV. Of the Church,

129

V. Of Repentance,

146

VI. Of Confession and Expiation, 165
VII. Of the Number and Use of the
Sacraments,

182

VIII. Of Human Ordinances in the

ARTICLES CONCERNING WHICH THERE IS DISSENSION, AND IN WHICH ARE RELATED
THE ABUSES WHICH HAVE BEEN CORRECTED,
29

Article XXVI. Of diversity of meats, 36

"XXVII. Of Monastic Vows, 39

"XXVIII. Of the power of the Bishops

or Clergy, -

44

page ix

K13

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PART III. ARTICLES TO BE TREATED AMONG THE LEARNED,

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PART II. OF THE CREED,

Article I.,

I. Of Original Sin,

II. Of Freewill,

III. Of Justification by Faith,
IV. Of Good Works,

332
334

466
470
473

476

V. Of the Law and the Gospel,
VI. Of the third use of the Law,
VII. Of the holy Supper of Christ, 483

479
481

FORM OF CONCORD, PART I.-EPITOME,

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511
522
542

III. Of Justification by Faith,
IV. Of Good Works,

554

562

V. Of the Law and the Gospel,
VI. Of the third use of the Law, 567
VII. Of the holy Supper of Christ, 572

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FORM OF CONCORD, PART II.-A FULL DECLARATION,

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION.

PART 1.

OF SYMBOLS AND SYMBOLIC WRITINGS IN GENERAL.

The Term,-its Origin,-the object of Symbols,-their necessity, and their relation to the Holy Scriptures,—their Authority,—their Binding Force.

We find the appellation "Symbols," or "Symbolic Writings," very anciently employed in the Christian church, in the ordinary sense of Confession of Faith. The Apostolic Confession of Faith especially was so denominated. In the commencement of his "Exposition of the Apostolic Symbols," Ruffinus gives the following illustrations: "Historians relate that this custom prevailed also in civil wars. As the nature of their arms, the sound of their voice, as well as the rules and usages of warfare, were all the same, to guard against surprise, every prudent general gave to his soldiers certain symbols, which in Latin are called either signa or indicia,—so that, if any one approached, of whom some suspicion was entertained, on being questioned, he might give a Symbol, showing whether he were a friend or a foe." And this too is the sense of the term in the Greek language. For συμβολον is derived from συμβάλλειν in the sense of measuring or comparing one thing with another; and then to utter or repeat it in reference to something, it becomes a sign significant according to original agreement, from which we may infer or understand something,—a signal, a token; and then also it may represent a Formulary in the mysteries, a pass-word between two parties. And though no direct authority can be referred to, showing that Christian antiquity applied this term according to that general signification, yet we find the word employed among them in a variety of senses; and the idea which we now connect with the words "Symbols" and "Symbolic Writings," entirely depends upon the original signification of the word ouuponov, as well as upon its derivation. Ruffinus says in another place, that it is a sign by which to know who preaches Christ truly according to apostolic principles. Ambrose calls it the signet of the heart and the consecration of our warfare; and P. Chrysologus adopts the latter signification, where he says: "We are taught even by human custom, to name that compact or agreement, which contains the hopes of approaching or future gain, a Symbol;" but Maximus Taurinensis prefers the former sense,-that a Symbol is a token or sign by which we discriminate between the faithful and the treacherous. (1)

Augustine (2) gives us this explanation: "A Symbol is a brief but comprehensive rule of faith,-brief in the number of words, but comprehensive in the weight of sentiments." Among the moderns, Pel. King (3) has referred to the Pagan mysteries for an explanation of this term; for to these mysteries only those were admitted who possessed a determinate sign by which they were recognized; and after assigning this illustration, he says: "I supposed it preferable to derive the

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signification of this word from the Pagan rites, in which certain tokens or signs were committed to those who were admitted to the more secret ceremonies, which were unintelligible to the greater part of the superstitious populace; and these signs they called Symbols, which they mutually recognized, and which being exhibited, they were admitted without scruple to the recesses and the secret rites of that god, whose Symbols they had received." Ruffinus, however, claims for the word a still wider application, and he says, (from the love of the saying that the Apostolic Symbol was composed entirely by the contributions of the Apostles,) that Symbol is a Greek word, and may signify a collection or composition, that is the result of many efforts. We shall only add here, that this explanation depends entirely upon a grammatical confusion between the words συμβολον and συμβολε. The term Symbolus has been employed also by Plautus, in the sense of an image impressed in wax; and it occurs also in this form, in the first book (1) of the Celestial and the Happy, written against Elipandus, concerning the Apostolic Symbol, where the Symbol of Constantinople is characterized falsely as the Symbolus of Ephesian faith.

The time when the word Symbol came into general use, in the sense of Confession of Faith, and especially of Apostolic faith, John Benedict Carpzay (2) will not place earlier than the council of Nice; and indeed, before that time, we find the word very seldom employed by the Fathers of the church, while in the course of another century, the appellation, Canon, rule of the church, of faith, of truth,— the gospel of the holy apostolic faith, the exposition or definition of faith,—the science, the treatise, the inscription,-a brief repetition of the chief principles of faith, the treasure of life, the ecclesiastical confession,-the tower of faith, were quite usual; and here it must be very carefully observed, that this appellation applies no less to the explanation of the Confession of Faith,-that body of instruction which it became the duty of catechumen to inculcate. On the contrary, John Vossius (3) discovers proof of an earlier use of the word, as Ruffinus employs it in the title of his work.—the Exposition of the Apostolic Symbols,-selected and derived from his predecessors: "They desire to call this a Symbol for many and very adequate reasons." It is known besides, that this term was employed by Cyprian, (4) about the middle of the third century, and from that time was always applied as an expression for the confession of faith by the church, generally at first and at last exclusively.

This term was introduced into the evangelical church by doctor Luther in his writings: "The three Symbols, or Confession of the faith in Christ, unanimously employed in the church." We likewise find it used by Melanchthon in his "System of Doctrine;" even earlier indeed in that treatise dedicated to the Doctors of Divinity by the new statutes of the university of Wittemburg. The preface to his Corpus Julium characterizes the Augsburg Confession by this name. "The articles of which Confession serve at this time as a correct, beautiful, pure, and invincible Symbol of the reformed churches." And the preface to the Book of Concord not only denominates the same writings as "the old, acknowledged Symbols," as well as "the Symbols of Faith," but the Form of Concord, in the Epitome, page 465, and the Declaration, page 504, distinguishes it by a similar expression; and we learn here especially, page 505, what idea the evangelical church connected with that term. For it is here expressed with distinctness, that these

(1) Bibl. Patrum, London, tom. XIII. p. 363.

(2) Isagoge &c. p. 2.

(3) Dissertation concerning the Three Symbols, 320, p. 507. (1) Ep. 76 ad magnum.

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