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CHAPTER XI. Literature of the Romans. Roman orators and miscellaneous

writers. Tiberius and Caius Gracchus, Hortensius, Cicero, Quintillian, Pliny the el-

der, Pliny the younger,
Lucian, Plutarch.

CHAPTER XII. Rise and progress of philosophy at Rome, to the death of Mar-

cus Aurelius. Numa, one of the earliest philosophers of Rome. Introduction of Gre-
cian philosophy, by Carneades the academic, Diogenes the stoic, and Critolaus the
Peripatetic, opposed by Cato the Censor; edict of the Roman senate; Scipio and others,
became disciples. Pythagorean system; Publius Nigidius. The Platonic school; Sto-
ics; Cato of Utica, a stoic; the Peripatetics; Crassus. The Epicurean system; Lucre-
tius. Introduction of Christianity, remarks thereon.

CHAPTER XIII. History of Literature, from the accession of Commodus, to

the reign of Constantine. Celsus; Modern Platonic or Eclectic sect of philosophers; Po
tamo; Ammonius; Tertullian; Clemens Alexandrinus; Origen; Plotinus; Porphery; I-
amblichus; Longinus.

CHAPTER XIV. History of literature, from the accession of Constantine, to

the foundation of the French monarchy by Clovis. Conversion of Constantine to the
Christian religion, his character; Arius and the Arian heresy; Council of Nice; Lanc-
tantius; Eusebius; Ossian; the Celtic and Scandinavian bards; Massacre of the Welsh
bards; Constantius; Julian the apostate; his attempts to subvert Christianity; encour-
ages learning; Jovian; St. Augustine; Hypatia a female philosopher of Alexandria,
basely murdered by order of the patriarch Cyril; Ausonius; Theodosius the Great.
Division of the Roman empire into the Eastern and Western empires; Incursions of the
Barbarians; Fall of the western empire in the reign of Romulus Augustulus; Learning
in the eastern empire.

CHAPTER XV. History of literature, from the foundation of the French mon-

archy by Clovis, to the reign of Charlemagne. The Druids of Gaul and Britain; their
powers; their religious doctrines; their learning. The Greek colony of Marseilles ;
the schools of Marseilles and plan of education. Introduction of Christianity into Gaul:
its effect. Sidonius; Fortunatus; Boethius; Gregory of Tours; Fredegarius; Vener-
able Bede; decline of learning in England after the death of Bede.


CHAPTER XVIII. History of literature from the begining of the eleventh to
the middle of the thirteenth century. Conquest of England by William of Normandy;
its effect upon learning; Ingulph; Anselm; Fulbert; Barengarius; scholastic philoso-
phy; crusades; William de Champeaux; Abelard; Peter Lombard; John of Salisbu-
ry; Thomas Aquinas; Roger Bacon. The Troubadours; specimens of their poetry;
Arnaud de Marveil; Pierre Vidal; decline of the Troubadours; the Trouveres; their
romances; sacred drama; extract from the "mystery of the passion."

CHAPTER XIX. History of literature from the middle of the thirteenth, to the

revival of letters in the fifteenth century. Michael Scot; John Dun Scotus; William

Occam; Mathew Paris; university of Naples; university of Paris; college of Sorbon-

ne; university of Oxford; university of Cambridge; John Wickliffe, the reformer;

Dante, extracts from his vision; Petrarch, sonnet writing; sonnets of Petrarch; Bocca-

cio; Leontius Pilatus; Geoffry Chaucer; Gower; specimens of their poetry; James I,

king of Scotland; Walsingham, Otterbourne and Elmham, English historians; Sir John

Fortescue, an eminent civilian; Earl of Worcester. Foundation of the universities of

Saint Andrews and Glasgow, in Scotland.

CHAPTER XX. The revival of learning in the fifteenth century. Emmanuel

Chrysoloras, a learned Greek, visits Italy, and revives the taste for the Greek language.
The family of Medici. Cosmo de' Medici, a distinguished patron of learning. Lorenzo
de' Medici, surnamed the magnificent; specimens of his poetry. Politiano and Luigi
Pulci, extracts from their poems. Conclusion.

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AMONG the most interesting events in the history of the world, are the rise and progress of literature, its general diffusion, and the influence it has exerted, and still continues to exert, upon the moral, intellectual and political condition of the human race. The influence of literature and science, is well worth the investigation, not only of the philosopher, who enters minutely into the examination of causes and effects, but of every rational and intelligent mind; and its history is no less a subject of interesting pursuit. It is a pleasing employment, when the mind is undisturbed by the cares of the world, or not engaged by more profound studies, to trace its progress through its various ramifications and gradations, its elevations and depressions, from its first rude beginnings, when knowledge was conveyed in symbols and hieroglyphics, to its present "high and palmy state." Like every thing else, dependant upon human exertion for its cultivation and improvement, it has had its seasons of prosperity and glory; and, notwithstanding the inestimable blessings it is calculated to bestow, it has also had its seasons of humiliation and depression.

When we compare the condition of a civilized and enlightened people with that of the wild and untutored savage, whose benighted mind no genial ray of science illumines, the influence of learning is strikingly displayed. In the latter we behold mind in a rude and uncultivated state, rough and unpolished as the most precious of gems, before the hand of the lapidary has removed the external coat which conceals its beauties. Contented with the objects which surround him, and with which he has been familiar from his infancy, the uncultivated man, notwithstanding his native energy of intellect, discovers no great merit in the improvements daily making by his more enlightened neighbours, in the arts which conduce to the comforts and conveniences of life; nor does he discover any extraordinary development of mind in the various improvements and discoveries in the different departments of science. But let these things be explained in a

manner which he can comprehend, and if he is not able, from the peculiar circumstances of his situation, to adopt them in real life, he will be constrained to acknowledge the advantages to be derived from mental cultivation. The influence of learning is obvious also, when we compare the civil and political institutions of a country, where seminaries of learning, unrestrained by arbitrary rules, are supported and encouraged by public and private munificence, and where learning is generally diffused, with those of another where knowledge is limited to a fewwhere fair science spreads not her cheering beams abroad throughout the land. In the one, the people are generally intelligent, if not learned, and are capable of understanding and properly appreciating their civil and political rights; they are in the peaceful possession of the comforts and conveniences of life, and are contented and happy. In the other, "oppression rules the hour;" the great mass of the people, debased by ignorance and superstition, are poor, wretched and dependant upon the whims and caprices of some petty tyrant, who, "clothed with a little brief authority," exercises it, not for the general good, but for his own private advantage, and to gratify his lust of power.

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Seated, as it were, upon a commanding eminence, the lover of learning at the present day, can see what it once was, and what it now is. He beholds many a solitary place made glad by the influence of literature, whilst its gentle and beneficent stream continues to flow and spread, and like the fruitful Nile, fertilizes the soil which would, otherwise, remain a barren waste, or produce only the noxious weeds of error. From this eminence he casts a retrospective glance over the plains and mountains of Greece, "the land of battle and of song," and beholds them as they were in the days of her glory and renown. The venerable groves of the academy and the lyceum rise to his view, where lessons of wisdom once flowed from the lips of a Plato and an Aristotle, and he dwells with enthusiasm upon that proud era of her history, when the streets of Athens were crowded with philosophers, orators, poets and historians, whose genius still throws a splendid light over a country, once the theatre of so many glorious achievements, now, alas! the land of oppression, ignorance and superstition. The banner of Mahomet now waves over her ruined temples, her porticos and her monuments, and but little remains to designate the spot where Athens, unrivalled in literature and unequalled in arts, once stood, the admiration of the world;

And yet how lovely in thine age of wo,
Land of lost gods and godlike men! art thou!
Thy vales of evergreen, thy hills of snow,
Proclaim thee nature's varied favorite now.

Lord Byron

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