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which is done to drive the devil away, to give place unto the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete. He then makes the sign of the cross upon the forehead, to signify that a Christian must not be ashamed of the faith of Christ; and upon the breast, to show that the love of Jesus should reside in the heart. He next lays his hand upon the head, to denote that he has taken possession of the person in the name of the Almighty.

After blessing the salt, which is a symbol of wisdom, he puts a small quantity into the mouth of the person to be baptised, saying, Receive the salt of wisdom; let it be to thee a propitiation unto life everlasting. Making the sign of the cross again upon the forehead of the person, the priest says: And the sign of the holy cross + which we make upon his forehead, do thou, accursed devil, never dare to violate.

After this, the priest lays the end of his stole upon the person to be baptised, and admits him into the church, saying :

P. N., Enter into the temple of God, that thou mayest have part with Christ unto life everlasting.

R. Amen.

When they have entered the church, the priest, jointly with the person to be baptised, or with the sponsors, if an infant, recites in the vulgar tongue the Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer.

The priest next exorcises the person to be baptised, and taking spittle from his mouth, applies it with his thumb to the ears of the person, saying, Ephphetha, Be thou opened ; and to the nostrils, saying: In odorem suavitatis, For a savour of sweetness. In a loud voice adding these words : Tu autem fuge, Satana, But thou fly Satan, &c.

He then interrogates the person to be baptised, or the sponsors, if an infant, as follows:

P. N., Dost thou renounce Satan?
G. I do renounce him.
P. And all his works?
G. I do renounce them.


P. And all his pomps ?
G. I do renounce them.

The priest then anoints the person to be baptised on the breast and between the shoulders in the form of a cross, and changing the violet stole for a white one, asks by name the person to be baptised:

F. N., Dost thou believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth?

G. I do believe.

P. Dost thou believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son our Lord, who was born into this world, and suffered for us?

G. I do believe.

P. Dost thou believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting?

G. I do believe.
P. N., Wilt thou be baptised ?
G. I will.

Then, the godfather, or the godmother, or both, holding the child, or touching the person to be baptised, the priest takes the water in a small vessel, and pours it therefrom thrice on the head of the child or person in the form of a cross, at the same time repeating distinctly the words once only : P. N.,

Ego te baptizo in P. N., I baptise thee in nomine Patris et Filii the name of the Father Het Spiritus Sancti. and of the Son and of the

Holy Ghost. After this the priest anoints the person or child on the top of the head in the form of the cross, and then places a white linen cloth upon it, saying:

N., Receive this white garment, and see that thou carry it without stain before the judgment-seat of our Lord Jesus Christ, that thou mayest have eternal life.

R. Amen.

He then gives a lighted candle to the person baptised, or

to the godfather (if an infant), saying: N., Receive this burning light, and keep thy baptism blameless : observe the commandments of God, that when the Lord shall come to the nuptials, thou mayest meet him, together with all the saints, in the heavenly court, and have everlasting life, and live for ever and ever. R. Amen.

He concludes by saying:
P. N., Go in peace, and the Lord be with you.
R. Amen.

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SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION. “When the apostles had heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John, who, when they were come, prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Ghost. For he was not as yet come upon any of them; but they were only baptised in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost." Acts viii. 14-17.

Confirmation is a sacrament by which the faithful, who have already been made children of God by their baptism, receive the Holy Ghost by the prayer and the imposition of the hands of the bishops, the successors of the apostles, in order to their being made strong and perfect Chris. tians, and valiant soldiers of Jesas Christ. It is called Confirmation from its effect, which is, to confirm or strengthen those that receive it in the profession of the true faith ; to give them such courage and resolution as to be willing rather to die than to turn from it, and to arm them in general against all their spiritual enemies.

2. This sacrament was originally designed and insti. tuted by our Lord for all Christians, and consequently is a divine ordinance, which all are obliged to comply with. It is so necessary, that the neglect of receiving it would be a great sin; more especially in circumstances where persons are exposed to persecution on account of their religion, or to other temptations against faith.

3. The principal effects of this sacrament are, a fortifying grace, in order to strengthen the soul against all the visible and invisible enemies of the faith; and a certain dedication and consecration of the soul by the Holy Ghost, the mark of which dedication and consecration is left in the soul as a character, which can never be effaced.

4. Hence this sacrament can be received but once; and it would be a sacrilege to attempt to receive it a second time; for which reason also the faithful are bound to take extreme care to come to this sacrament duly disposed, lest, if they should be so unhappy as to receive it in mortal sin, they should receive their own condemnation, and run the risk of being deprived for ever of its grace.

5. Now, the dispositions which the Christian must bring with him to receive worthily the sacrament of Confirmation, must be a purity of conscience, at least from all mortal sin; for which reason he ought to go to confession before he is confirmed; for the Holy Ghost will not come to a soul in which Satan reigns by mortal sin. 2. A sincere desire of giving himself up to the Holy Ghost, to follow the influence of his divine grace, to be his temple for ever, and, by his assistance, to fulfil all the

gations of a soldier of Christ. 6. Hence a Christian ought to prepare himself for this sacrament by fervent prayer, as we find the apostles prepared themselves for the receiving of the Holy Ghost. & They continued with one accord in prayer," says St. Luke (speaking of the ten days that passed between the Ascension of our Lord and Pentecost), "and they were continually in the temple praising and blessing God.” How happy shall they be, who, like them, prepare themselves for the Holy Ghost by these spiritual exercises !

7. The obligations which accompany the character of Confirmation, and which a Christian takes upon himself when he receives this sacrament, are, to bear a loyal and perpetual allegiance to the great King in whose service he enlists himself as a soldier ; to be true to his standard, the cross of Christ, the mark of which he receives on his forehead; to fight his battles against his enemies, the world, the flesh, and the devil; to be faithful unto death; and rather to die than desert from the service, or go over to the enemy by wilful sin. In fine, to live up to the glorious character of a soldier of Christ ; and to maintain that interior purity and sanctity which becomes the temple of the Holy Ghost by a life of prayer and a life of love. Where the character of our Confirmation, when we shall bring it before the judgment-seat of Christ, shall be found to have been accompanied with such a life as this, it will shine most gloriously in our souls for all eternity; but if, instead of living up to it, we should be found to have been deserters and rebels, and to have violated this sacred character by a life of sin, it will certainly rise

пр. in judgment against us, it will condemn us at the bar of divine justice, it will cast us deeper into the bottomless pites and be a mark of eternal ignominy and reproach to our souls amongst the damned.

CEREMONIES OF CONFIRMATION. The chrism used in Confirmation is a sacred ointment, composed of oil of olives and balm of Gilead, solemnly blessed by the Bishop on Maundy Thursday. The outward anointing of the forehead with chrism represents the inward anointing of the soul, in this sacrament, with the Holy Ghost. The oil, whose properties are to strengthen and invigorate the limbs, to assuage pain, &c., represents the like spiritual effects of the grace of the sacrament in the soul, penetrating and diffusing itself throughout all her powers; oil also, being a smooth and mild substance, represents that spirit of meekness and patience under the cross which is one principal effect of Confirmation. The balm, which has a particular property of preserving bodies after death from putrefaction, fitly represents the fortifying grace received in Confirmation, by which our souls are preserved from corruption after our sins have been destroyed by the sacrament of Baptism : also, being of a sweet smell, it represents the good odour or sweet savour of Christian virtues and an innocent life, with which we are to edify our neighbours, after having received this sacrament.

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