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himself afterwards to literature, and to the exercise of his oratorical powers both in the senate and the courts of justice. A patron of Horace, Virgil, and other men of letters, and the first person to establish a public library at Rome, he also wrote tragedies, and a history of the civil wars in seventeen books, and enjoyed great fame and success as an orator.
Pomponius, a youth of prodigal habits.
Postumus. Unknown, unless the same Postumus to whom a beautiful elegy of Propertius (III. 12) is addressed.
Proculeius. C. Proculeius Varro Murena, brother of Licinius (Carm. II. X.) and of Terentia, the wife of Maecenas, was a Roman knight of high character, who, after the civil wars, nobly shared his fortune with his brothers, whose estates had been confiscated.
Pyrrha (Carm. I. v.), uppá, with red hair.
Pyrrhia, a pilfering and tipsy maid-servant, in a comedy of Titinius. Pythias, a brazen-faced maid-servant in a play of Lucilius, who defrauds her master.
Quintilius Varus, of Cremona, a common friend of Virgil and Horace, a good critic (A. P. 438), and perhaps himself a poet, died B. c. 24. Rhodē, (pódov, podn), Rose, Rosa.
Rufa, and Rufus, "red-head;" Rufillus, "little red-head."
Sallustius, C. Crispus, grandson of the sister of Sallust the his
Sarmentus, a buffoon probably in the retinue of Maecenas.
Scaeva, (Sat. II. i. 53), a debauched and cowardly matricide. Septimius, one of the most honored of the friends of Horace. Sestius, L., a faithful adherent of Brutus, whose frendship Horace probably formed during the campaign. Augustus, after his unexpected recovery from his illness, appointed Sestius as consul in his own place. Sisenna. Proverbial for bitter jests; the slave of his tongue.
Sisyphus, a favorite dwarf of Antonius, not more than two feet high, called Sisyphus from his clever tricks. It was the fashion to keep dwarfs.
Sybaris, the name of a luxurious city, applied to an effeminate young The name Lydia (lit. a Lydian) in the same ode denotes luxury. Tanǎis, a eunuch, a freedman of Maecenas.
Tarpa, Spurius Maecius, a distinguished critic.
Taurus, T. Statilius, cos. a second time with Augustus A. u. c. 728. Theon (adjective Theonīnus), a freedman whose name was a byword for malicious slander.
Tiberius. See Claudius.
Tibullus, Albius, the gentle poet, about eleven years younger than his friend Horace, between whose fortunes and his own there is a singular coincidence.
Tigellius, L. A Sardinian, celebrated for his musical talents and his wit, which recommended him to the society of the great, in which, however, he became notorious for his insolence, fastidiousness, and affectation.
Tigellius Hermogenes. See Hermogenes.
Tillius, having been expelled from the senate by Caesar as a partisan of Pompey, resumed the laticlave after Caesar's death.
Timagenes, an orator and historian, over-free with his jests. Tiridates, raised to the throne of Parthia during the banishment of Phraātes, about A. u. c. 730, 731.
Titius, one of the young companions of Tiberius, of high aspirations as a poet.
Torquatus, Manlius. Evidently a man of high rank, eloquence, and piety.
Trebatius Testa, C., an eminent lawyer and wit, in his earlier years a friend of Cicero. He belonged, no doubt, to the circle in which Horace was intimate, and, in his old age, would not be displeased at the quiet humor with which Horace impersonates the great lawyer as regularly consulted on questions of taste and poetry, and giving his opinion with legal precision and sententious gravity.
Tullus, L. Volcatius, cos. A. U. c. 688.
Turbo, a gladiator of small stature but great courage.
Turius, C. Marcus, a corrupt judge.
Tyndăris, a fictitious name, perhaps indicating beauty like Helen's. Ustica, the name of a gently-sloping mountain near Horace's Sabine farm, opposite Lucretilis, and of the valley between the two mountains. Vacuna, a Sabine goddess of the field and the wood, of the chase and of war, and especially of victory. (Preller.) Her temple, near the farm of Horace, was restored by Vespasian as an "aedes Victoriae."
Vala. Valgius. C. Valgius Rufus, a poet, a prose writer on the art of rhetoric, and a friend of Horace.
Varia, now Vico Varo, a town of the Aequi and the nearest town to Horace's farm, is on the Anio, eight miles above Tibur (Tivoli). It is now a small place, standing on a steep rock overhanging the road, and still preserving fragments of its ancient walls of rectangular masonry. Varius, L., one of the most distinguished poets of the Augustan age:
born probably A. u. c. 672, five years after Catullus, six years before Asinius Pollio, twelve before Virgil, and seventeen before Horace of all these poets the intimate friend. He was one of those who saved the Aeneid from the flames and assisted in correcting it. Of his poem on the death of Julius Caesar some lines survive, all pure and spirited, some of masculine beauty; of his panegyric on Augustus two lines are supposed to be quoted by Horace, Epist. 1. xvi. 27, 28. Quintilian declared that his tragedy of Thyestes might stand a comparison with any production of the Grecian stage.
Varro, P. Terentius Atacīnus, so called from the river Atax in Gallia Narbonensis, his native province; a translator of respectable talents, and a not very successful writer of satires and other poems.
Varus. See Quintilius. Horace speaks of another Varus as the faithless lover of Canidia.
Veianius, a famous gladiator, who, after many battles, obtained leave to retire from the arena, and consecrated his arms to Hercules. Viscus, one of the two sons of Vibius Viscus, of the equestrian order, both of whom are said to have been poets.
Voltur (Vultur), the modern Voltore, a picturesque mountain between Lucania and Apulia, near Horace's birth-place.
Xanthias Phoceus, (Phoceus dissyllable,) i. e. youth with auburn locks (avós) from Phocis, the addition of his birth-place giving a certain formality and dignity to the address. The name is either invented by Horace, or adopted from a Greek ode. Many of Horace's love-poems are "merely a Roman artist's translations or paraphrases from the Greek originals."
Zethus and Amphion, twin-sons of Zeus (Jupiter) and Antiõpe, mythic founders of Thebes. To reconcile conflicting pretensions, Pausanias supposes that Cadmus was the original settler of the hill of the Cadmeia, while Amphion and Zethus extended the settlement to the lower city. Zethus despised music, holding it in suspicion as conducing to effeminacy and vicious sloth, and bade Amphion throw his lyre away. There is a fine contrast in the legendary characters of the two brothers, "the rude and unpolished, but energetic, Zethus, and the refined and amiable, but dreamy, Amphion." (See Grote, Hist. of Greece, I. xiv.)