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brian wars, in which he had been engaged with Augustus. We know nothing more about him.
Numonius Vala, perhaps the father of the unfortunate lieutenant of Varus in the defeat A. u. c. 762.
Octavius, (Sat. I. x. 82,) an historian and poet.
Ofellus, an impersonation of the old Roman frugality, strong sense, and contentment.
Orbilius, the school-master of Horace and the eminent poet Domitius Marsus, born at Beneventum. After serving in the army, he retired to the peaceful profession of rhetoric in his native town, whence at the age of fifty he removed to Rome. He lived to be one hundred years old. His marble statue is shown in the capitol at Beneventum.
Panthoides, (the son of Panthõus,) Euphorbus, one of the bravest of the Trojans, was slain by Menelaus, who subsequently dedicated his shield in the temple of Hera near Mycenae. Pythagoras asserted that he had once been the Trojan Euphorbus, and in proof of the assertion took down at first sight a shield from a number of others in the temple, as having been borne by him at that time, in the inside of which was found an inscription proving that it had been the shield of Euphorbus. Pantilius, a wretched calumnious poet, called the Bug from his pestering attacks.
Paulus Fabius Maximus, perhaps the son of the consul of the same name who was a favorite of Augustus.
Paulus (Carm. 1. xii. 38), L. Aemilius, who gave up his life at Cannae, refusing to fly from the field.
Pedius, a celebrated orator, called Poplicòla or Publicõla.
Pelops, son of Tantalus, etc. 'Pelops' line," saeva Pelopis domus, furnished copious material for tragedy; e. g. in the murder by Pelops of his father-in-law Oenomaus; in the horrid banquet of Thyestes, son of Pelops, whose brother Atreus slew his two sons and served them as meat to their father; in the murder of Agamemnon, grandson of Pelops, by his wife Clytemnestra; in Clytemnestra's murder, with her paramour Aegisthus, by her son Orestes; and in Orestes driven to madness by the Furies. Pelops himself had been served up by his father, Tantalus, at a feast of the gods, but was afterwards restored to life. Atreus was killed by Aegisthus, his nephew and supposed son. Perellius, a usurer, who had the nickname Cicuta.
Petillius. See Capitolinus.
Phidyle = padún, Parcula, a frugal woman.
Philippus, L. Marcius, cos. 91 B. C., distinguished as an orator and
Philodēmus. An Epicurean philosopher. Some of his epigrams, and his treatises on music and on rhetoric, have been deciphered among the Herculanean MSS.
Phraātes. Phraates the IV., expelled for cruelty from the throne of Parthia, but restored to his throne by the Scythians. He submitted to Augustus.
Pisōnes. See note A. P. 24.
Pitholeon, (or Pitholaus,) a freedman of M. Otacilius, who wrote calumnious poems, and epigrams in which Greek words were mixed with Latin.
Plancus, L. Munatius, a man engaged in almost every contest in the civil wars, and on every side. At his proposition Octavius was saluted by the name of Augustus. The advice of Horace to Plancus (Carm. 1. vii.), that he should surrender himself to pleasure, was congenial to his habits. The first lines of the ode are addressed with great propriety to a former Praefect of the province of Asia, who must have known Greece well. The villa of Plancus at Tibur was no doubt familiar to the poet, and the restless life of the adventurer might wisely close in the enjoyment of repose and quiet conviviality in that beautiful neighborhood.
Plotius, a poet named, with Varius and Virgil, as among the dearest friends of Horace. He is one of those to whom Augustus intrusted the publication of the Eneid. Not a line of his poetry is known to exist.
Pělěmōn, a Platonic philosopher, was extremely profligate in his youth; but one day, when he was about thirty, on his bursting, intoxicated, into the school of Xenocrates, at the head of a band of revellers, his attention was so arrested by the discourse, which chanced to be upon temperance, that he tore off his garland and remained an attentive listener, and from that day adopted an abstemious course of life. He continued to frequent the school, and, on the death of Xenocrates, (B. c. 315), became its head.
Pollio, C. Asinius, a distinguished orator, poet, and historian of the Augustan age. He fought in the civil war on the side of Julius Caesar. Antonius appointed him governor of Gallia Transpadana, where he had the difficult task of settling the veterans in the lands assigned them, and saved the property of the poet Virgil, at Mantua, from confiscation. In B. c. 40 Pollio took an active part in effecting the reconciliation of Octavianus and Antonius at Brundisium. In B. c. 39 he was sent by Antonius, with an army, against the Parthini, an Illyrian people; having defeated them, and also having taken the Dalmatian town of Salonae, he obtained the honor of a triumph. He devoted
himself afterwards to literature, and to the exercise of his oratorical powers both in the senate and the courts of justice. A patron of Horace, Virgil, and other men of letters, and the first person to establish a public library at Rome, he also wrote tragedies, and a history of the civil wars in seventeen books, and enjoyed great fame and success as an orator.
Pomponius, a youth of prodigal habits.
Postumus. Unknown, unless the same Postumus to whom a beautiful elegy of Propertius (III. 12) is addressed.
Proculeius. C. Proculeius Varro Murēna, brother of Licinius (Carm. II. x.) and of Terentia, the wife of Maecenas, was a Roman knight of high character, who, after the civil wars, nobly shared his fortune with his brothers, whose estates had been confiscated.
Pyrrha (Carm. I. v.), uppá, with red hair.
Pyrrhia, a pilfering and tipsy maid-servant, in a comedy of Titinius. Pythias, a brazen-faced maid-servant in a play of Lucilius, who defrauds her master.
Quintilius Varus, of Cremona, a common friend of Virgil and Horace, a good critic (A. P. 438), and perhaps himself a poet, died B. C. 24. Rhodē, (pódov, podñ), Rose, Rosa.
Rufa, and Rufus, "red-head;" Rufillus, "little red-head."
Sallustius, C. Crispus, grandson of the sister of Sallust the his
Sarmentus, a buffoon probably in the retinue of Maecenas.
Scaeva, (Sat. II. i. 53), a debauched and cowardly matricide. Septimius, one of the most honored of the friends of Horace. Sestius, L., a faithful adherent of Brutus, whose frendship Horace probably formed during the campaign. Augustus, after his unexpected recovery from his illness, appointed Sestius as consul in his own place. Sisenna. Proverbial for bitter jests; the slave of his tongue.
Sisyphus, a favorite dwarf of Antonius, not more than two feet high, called Sisyphus from his clever tricks. It was the fashion to keep dwarfs.
Sybaris, the name of a luxurious city, applied to an effeminate young The name Lydia (lit. a Lydian) in the same ode denotes luxury. Tanǎis, a eunuch, a freedman of Maecenas.
Tarpa, Spurius Maecius, a distinguished critic.
Taurus, T. Statilius, cos. a second time with Augustus A. U. c. 728. Theon (adjective Theoninus), a freedman whose name was a byword for malicious slander.
Tiberius. See Claudius.
Tibullus, Albius, the gentle poet, about eleven years younger than his friend Horace, between whose fortunes and his own there is a singular coincidence.
Tigellius, L. A Sardinian, celebrated for his musical talents and his wit, which recommended him to the society of the great, in which, however, he became notorious for his insolence, fastidiousness, and affectation.
Tigellius Hermogenes. See Hermogenes.
Tillius, having been expelled from the senate by Caesar as a partisan of Pompey, resumed the laticlave after Caesar's death.
Timagenes, an orator and historian, over-free with his jests. Tiridates, raised to the throne of Parthia during the banishment of Phraātes, about A. v. c. 730, 731.
Titius, one of the young companions of Tiberius, of high aspirations as a poet.
Torquatus, Manlius. Evidently a man of high rank, eloquence, and piety.
Trebatius Testa, C., an eminent lawyer and wit, in his earlier years a friend of Cicero. He belonged, no doubt, to the circle in which Horace was intimate, and, in his old age, would not be displeased at the quiet humor with which Horace impersonates the great lawyer as regularly consulted on questions of taste and poetry, and giving his opinion with legal precision and sententious gravity.
Tullus, L. Volcatius, cos. A. U. c. 688.
Turbo, a gladiator of small stature but great courage.
Tyndăris, a fictitious name, perhaps indicating beauty like Helen's. Ustica, the name of a gently-sloping mountain near Horace's Sabine farm, opposite Lucretilis, and of the valley between the two mountains.
Vacuna, a Sabine goddess of the field and the wood, of the chase and of war, and especially of victory. (Preller.) Her temple, near the farm of Horace, was restored by Vespasian as an "aedes Victoriae.” Vala. See Numonius.
Valgius. C. Valgius Rufus, a poet, a prose writer on the art of rhetoric, and a friend of Horace.
Varia, now Vico Varo, a town of the Aequi and the nearest town to Horace's farm, is on the Anio, eight miles above Tibur (Tivoli). It is now a small place, standing on a steep rock overhanging the road, and still preserving fragments of its ancient walls of rectangular masonry. Varius, L., one of the most distinguished poets of the Augustan age:
born probably a. u. c. 672, five years after Catullus, six years before Asinius Pollio, twelve before Virgil, and seventeen before Horace: of all these poets the intimate friend. He was one of those who saved the Aeneid from the flames and assisted in correcting it. Of his poem on the death of Julius Caesar some lines survive, all pure and spirited, some of masculine beauty; of his panegyric on Augustus two lines are supposed to be quoted by Horace, Epist. 1. xvi. 27, 28. Quintilian declared that his tragedy of Thyestes might stand a comparison with any production of the Grecian stage.
Varro, P. Terentius Atacinus, so called from the river Atax in Gallia Narbonensis, his native province; a translator of respectable talents, and a not very successful writer of satires and other poems.
Varus. See Quintilius. Horace speaks of another Varus as the faithless lover of Canidia.
Veianius, a famous gladiator, who, after many battles, obtained leave to retire from the arena, and consecrated his arms to Hercules. Viscus, one of the two sons of Vibius Viscus, of the equestrian order, both of whom are said to have been poets.
Voltur (Vultur), the modern Voltore, a picturesque mountain between Lucania and Apulia, near Horace's birth-place.
Xanthias Phoceus, (Phoceus dissyllable,) i. e. youth with auburn locks (avós) from Phocis, the addition of his birth-place giving a certain formality and dignity to the address. The name is either invented by Horace, or adopted from a Greek ode. Many of Horace's love-poems are "merely a Roman artist's translations or paraphrases from the Greek originals."
Zethus and Amphion, twin-sons of Zeus (Jupiter) and Antiõpe, mythic founders of Thebes. To reconcile conflicting pretensions, Pausanias supposes that Cadmus was the original settler of the hill of the Cadmeia, while Amphion and Zethus extended the settlement to the lower city. Zethus despised music, holding it in suspicion as conducing to effeminacy and vicious sloth, and bade Amphion throw his lyre away. There is a fine contrast in the legendary characters of the two brothers, "the rude and unpolished, but energetic, Zethus, and the refined and amiable, but dreamy, Amphion." (See Grote, Hist. of Greece, I. xiv.)