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Florus, Julius, a writer of graceful and pleasing verses, who went into the East with Tiberius, among the younger men attached to his


Fonteius Capito, the negotiator on the part of Aatonius in the treaty of Brundisium. He had a house or farm at or near Formiae.

Fufidius, an avaricious usurer.

Fufius, an actor who fell asleep in the part of Iliona.

See Catienus.

Fundanius, a comic poet, greatly admired in his day. He was a friend of Maecenas.

Furius. See Bibaculus.

Furnius, a faithful and elegant historian.


See Aristius.

Lactea, implying milky-whiteness of complexion. Gigantes, sons of Terra, of monstrous size, with fearful countenances and the tails of dragons. They made an attack upon heaven, armed with huge rocks and trunks of trees; but were killed by Jupiter and the other gods, and buried under Ætna. Horace, like Virgil, seems to mix the legends of the Gigantes and the Titanes.

Glaucus, the Lycian, exchanged his golden armor with Diomedes' armor of bronze. (Iliad, vi. 230 sqq.)

Glycera, (yukɛpá,) means sweet, "Dulcinea."

Gnatia (Egnatia), a town in Apulia, on the coast.

Gracchus (Epist. II. ii. 89), tr. a Gracchus. Both Caius and Tiberius were famous as orators.

Grosphus, Pompeius, a Roman knight, resident in Sicily, of whom Horace held a high opinion.

Gyas, the name of a hundred-handed giant, son of Gaea and Ouranos, (Earth and Heaven,) with two brothers, Kottos and Obriareos. Hesiod. Theog. 149. (Others read Gyges.)

Haedilia, according to a marginal note in cod. Bernensis 363 (of the ninth century), a mountain and forest near Lucretilis and Ustica, in the neighborhood of Horace's farm.

Hagna, a freed woman beloved by Balbinus.

Hermogenes Tigellius, a teacher of music, probably a Greek, and perhaps an adopted son of L. Tigellius. He was an enemy and detractor of Horace, who repays him with some of the bitterest touches of his satire.

Hippolyte having falsely accused Peleus to her husband Acastus of an attempt upon her virtue, Acastus took him to Mount Pelion, where they hunted wild beasts; and when Peleus, overcome with fatigue, had fallen asleep, Acastus left him alone and concealed his sword, that he

might be destroyed by wild beasts. Peleus was saved, however, by the intervention of Chiron or Hermes.

Iarbīta, a certain Cordus (or Codrus, Verg. Ecl. VII. 26), a man of Moorish birth, who aspired to the fame of letters, and endeavoring to equal Timagenes in the force of his declamation, burst some of the vessels of his diaphragm, and died. He perhaps had taken the name of Iarbita to affect a descent from the Mauretanian kings; or the wits of Rome had given him that name.

Iccius (unknown except from Carm. I. xxix. and Epist. I. xii.) had devoted himself to philosophy and letters, but when the invasion of Arabia under Aelius Gallus took place, was seized with a sudden access of military ardor and the hope of enriching himself with the spoils of the East. The fatal issue of the campaign left him poorer than before; but he found employment as the manager of Agrippa's Sicilian estates. Horace consoles him for his poverty, and persuades him that happiness is yet in his power.

Ilia, or Rea Silvia, a Vestal virgin, mother by Mars of Romulus and Remus. Amulius caused her to be drowned in the Anio, in which river (according to the general story) she exchanged her earthly life for that of a goddess, and became the wife of the river-god. Another story, which Horace follows, represents her as thrown into the Tiber, and marrying the god of that river.

Iliona, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, was the wife of the Thracian king Polymestor (or Polymnestor), to whom she bore a son Deiphilus. With him she exchanged her brother Polydōrus, who was intrusted to her care at the beginning of the Trojan war, and whom she brought up in such a way that her husband himself regarded him as his own son. The Greeks having bribed Polymestor to murder Polydorus, in his error he slew his own son instead. In the Iliona, a tragedy of Pacuvius, the shade of Deiphilus appears to his mother in her sleep, and beseeches her to bury him.

Iulus Antonius. See Antonius.

Labeo, a man notorious for some act of mad cruelty to a slave.

Laberius, Decimus, a Roman knight, and a distinguished writer of mimes. When he was sixty years old, Julius Caesar in effect compelled him to appear upon the stage, although the occupation of an actor was considered as disgraceful to a gentleman. He took, however, his revenge. His prologue (which has been preserved for us by Macrobius) awakened compassion, and during the performance he adroitly availed himself of his various characters to point his wit at Caesar. In the person of a beaten Syrian slave he cried out, "Marry! Quirites, but


we lose our freedom," and all eyes were turned upon the dictator; it was followed by a sentence, "equal to the most pregnant of Tacitus :' "He must fear many, whom so many fear."

Lalǎge, (λadayń), i. e. the prattler.

Lamia, L. Aelius, of a very noble family; a warm friend of Horace ; cos. A. U. c. 756. Horace speaks of him (Epist. I. xiv.) as mourning the death of his brother Quintus.

Laomedon, king of Troy, whom Neptune and Apollo, having displeased Jupiter, were condemned to serve for wages. When they had built for him the walls of Troy, he refused to give them the reward he had promised.

Leuconoe, perhaps a fictitious person, or perhaps the whole ode addressed to her (1. xi.) is a translation from the Greek.

Licinius Murēna, L., called by adoption A. Terentius Varro Murēna, brother of Terentia the wife of Maecenas, and (by adoption) of Proculeius. He was of the college of augurs, and had a house at Formiae. After Horace had written to him the tenth ode of the second book, recommending an unambitious life, he engaged or was.implicated in the conspiracy of Fannius Caepio against the life of Augustus, for which he suffered death.

Licinus, a barber, advanced to a senator by Julius Caesar: on him was written the celebrated epitaph:


"Marmoreo Licinus tumulo jacet, at Cato parvo,

Pompeius nullo; credimus esse deos?"

Licymnia, generally supposed to indicate Terentia, the wife of MaeThe quantity of the syllables in the two names is the same. So Catullus substitutes Lesbia for Clodia, Tibullus Delia for Plania and Flavia for Plautia, Propertius Cynthia for Hostia. The name Ligyhymnia, Ligymnia, i. e. voce canens acuta, and seems to have been selected with reference to her dulces cantus. (Carm. II. xii.)

Ligurīnus, an imaginary youth.

Lollius, M., Palicanus (or Paullinus). It may be that Horace knew Lollius's better qualities only, and that it was partly to console him after his defeat in Germany A. U. c. 738 that the Ode IV. ix. was written. He had served with distinction as Propraetor in Gaul, and was consul with Lepidus A. U. c. 733. Horace did not live to hear of his rapacity in the East, which induced him to take bribes of the Parthians. His guilt was betrayed to Augustus, and he slew himself to escape public disgrace. It is singular that Horace should have chosen to celebrate the contempt of wealth as one of the virtues of Lollius.

Lollius Maximus, (perhaps son of the


addressed in two

epistles. In Epist. 1. ii. Horace seems to have taken the privilege of an intimate friend of the family to write to Lollius, who was employed in studying oratory at Rome and composing declamations. Throughout this graceful letter, he moralizes to the young student out of Homer, as an Englishman might out of Shakespeare, as the great storehouse for examples of vice and virtue to which he might perpetually recur.

Lucilius, C. The first writer of hexameter satire. The few broken fragments of his writings which remain show great force, vehemence, and even picturesqueness of expression, but his verses are hard and harsh; his language, though at times strongly vernacular, strains after Greek compounds; and we can even now, (says Milman,) if we compare the idiomatic pellucidity of Horace, understand the sense of the word muddy (lutulentus) as applied to the flow of the verse of Lucilius. Lupus, C. Cornelius Lentulus, consul 156 B. C. An object of fierce satire to Lucilius.

Lyce, a fictitious name from Xúkos, a wolf.

Maecenas, C. Cilnius, traced his descent from the Lucumones of Etruria. His paternal ancestors were the Cilnii, mentioned by Livy (x. 3, 5); his maternal ancestors were also of Etruscan origin, and it was from them that the name of Maecenas was derived. Well educated, and versed both in Greek and Latin literature, he was not only a patron of the most eminent poets of his time, but was himself a writer both in verse and prose. The favored confidant of Augustus, he aided him in the administration, and wisely counselled mild and prudent measures. His enormous wealth, his culture, and his intimacy with the sovereign, gave him the highest social position in the capital. Content with this, and especially fond of his ease, he declined the highest honors of the state, and preferred to remain a simple knight. "What did he care, whether his toga had a broad or narrow stripe of purple?" He built upon the Esquiline hill a palace, whence he had a prospect over the whole city and neighborhood of Rome, as far as Forli, Tusculum, Palaestrina, etc., one of the most splendid which can be conceived; and here, in the midst of the voluptuous garden into which he had converted the heretofore unwholesome Esquiline hill, he was enabled to enjoy the pleasures of the most beautiful villa. Here, after the toils and disquiets of the civil wars, and after he had at length attained the end of all his exertions, A. U. c. 727 (about the fortieth year of his life), while he saw Augustus in quiet possession of a power and dignity which he was conscious was his work, he abandoned himself to his natural inclinations for quiet, pleasure, and those arts which are the offspring and the parents of contentment. His house, his table,

his gardens, were the resort of all the wits, virtuosi, actors, joyous spirits, and agreeable idlers in Rome. Everything breathed enjoyment, mirth, and pleasure. It was a kind of court of Alcinous, where every one was welcome who could contribute anything to the amusement of the master and his company. (Wieland, quoted by Milman.)

In the latter part of his life, he suffered greatly from ill-health, accompanied with an unmanly fear of death.

Maenius, a notorious prodigal and miserable jester on his own prodigality and enormous debts. On the first day of the year he was heard to pray aloud, "O, Jupiter, that I owed 40,000 sestertia!" Some one asking the meaning of this extraordinary prayer "I should gain 100 per cent.; I owe 80,000."

Malthinus, probably a fictitious name, said by the old scholiasts to indicate Maecenas; but this is doubtful.

Megilla. Μέγιλλα perhaps from μέγας, as Μίκυλλος from μικρός. Messala, M. Valerius Corvinus, the patron and friend of Tibullus. He was considered as almost the last of the great Roman orators. After important military service, the latter part of his life was passed in dignified retirement, and in the patronage and enjoyment of letters. Metella, wife of Lentulus Spinther. From her ear the son of Aesopus drew the pearl which he melted and drank.

Metellus, Q. Caecilius, Macedonicus, cos. 143 B. c. (Sat. II. i. 67.) Metellus, Q. Caecilius, Celer. His consulship, A. u. c. 694, is the date of the first triumvirate, which Horace regards as the beginning of the civil war.

Mucius Scaevola, P., a great lawyer.

Munatius, a youth in the retinue of Tiberius, a. u. c. 733.

Murēna. See Licinius.

Musa. See Antonius.

Mystes, a slave of the poet Valgius.

Nerius, a well-known usurer.

Nerones, Tiberius (see Claudius) and Drusus, the step-sons of Augustus.

Novius, (Sat. 1. vi. 40,) a homo novus, tribune of the people. An upstart.

Novius minor, an ugly usurer, always early at business near the statue of Marsyas.

Numicius, a young man of whom we know nothing more than that he stood so high in Horace's regard and esteem, as to have his name inscribed in that pleasing poem, the sixth epistle of the first book.

Numida Plotius returns, after ten year absence, from the Canta

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