Meaning and Use
The second Jerusalem Philosophical Encounter was held in Jerusalem on April 25-28, 1976. The symposium was originally planned to celebrate the 60th birthday of Y ehoshua Bar-Hillel, philosopher and friend. But his sudden death intervened, and turned celebration into commemoration. The topic of the symposiumwas Meaning and Use. For Bar-Hillel, the question 'meaning or use?' was of great importance, one which he took as a question of priorities. Which approach to natural language is prior: the formal, semantical approach, which accords a central position to the truth functional concept of meaning and to the theory of reference, or rather the alternative approach which accords the central position to linguistic commu nication and prefers dealing with speech acts to dealing with Statements? Bar Hillel's answer to this question, in his later years, can be summed up by our title, meaning and use: neither approach deserves priority, each is equally necessary, and they both complement each other. Those familiar with Bar Hillel's uncompromising intellectual honesty would know that this answer does not reflect a superficial wish for domestic peace, but stems rather from deep and informed convictions. The issues of meaning and use dominated Bar-Hillel's intellectuallife. At the same time his day-to-day existence was guided by the idea that the meaning of life is to be found in being useful, particularly in being useful to the community of seekers of knowledge.
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Comments by W V Quine
As A KASHER What is a Theory of Use?
JAAKKO HINTIKKA and LAURI CARLSON Conditionals Generic
HELMUT SCHNELLE Circumstance Sentences
MICHAEL DUMMETT What Does the Appeal to Use Do for
Comments by Edna UllmannMargalit
MARCELO DASCAL Conversational Relevance
Comments by Ruth Manor
HILARY PUTNAM Reference and Understanding
Comments by Michael Dummett
SAUL KRIPKE A Puzzle about Belief
Comments by Hilary Putnam
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acceptable according acts actual affairs answer appears apply appropriate argument assertion assume behavior belief called Cicero circumstances clear concept concerned conclusion connection consider contexts conversation corresponding course defined definite describe descriptions determined discussion distinction English equivalence example existence explain expression fact force French function further give given hence idea identifying implicature indicative individual intentional interesting interpretation involves kind knowledge language learning least linguistic logic London matter meaning mind mood names natural normal notion object occasion particular perhaps philosophical Pierre play position possible pragmatic present pretty principle problem properties propositional question reaction realist reason reference relation relevant respect role rules seems semantic sense sentence simple situation speaker speaking specification speech statement strategy suggest suppose theory things tion translation true truth Tully understanding University utterance
Strona 8 - Counting truth in the domain of reference, as Frege did, the study of sense thus comes down to the study of reference. But how about force? In this paper I want to consider force in the only form in which I am certain that it is a feature of sentences, that is, as it serves to distinguish the moods. The question I am concerned with is, can a theory of truth explain the differences among the moods? In trying to answer this question I am responding, belatedly,2 alas, to a challenge put to me by Yehoshua...