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the Carrer puts the first loaf in it.
The other loaves he
cuts one in two,
per-in þe keruer a lofe schalle sette,
bese oper lofes he parys a-boute,
be smalle lofe he cuttis euen in twynne, 736 bo ouer dole in two lays to hym.
The aumenere a rod schalle haue in honde,
Alle þe broken met he kepys y wate,
And drynke þat leues serued in halle ;
He is sworne to ouer-se pe seruis wele,
Seluer he deles rydand by way;
To þe porest man þat he can fynde,
and is sworn to give it all to them.
He distributes silver as he rides,
of the Server (or setter-on of Dishes).
The Cook assays the meat before it's dished. The Sewer puts the cover on it, and the cover must never be raised
bo Coke assayes þe mete vngryzt,
Wo so euer he takes þat mete to bere,
For colde ne hote, I warne zou alle,
Yf po syluer dysshe wylle algate brenne,
Take þe bredde cornyn and lay by-twene, 760 And kepe þe welle hit be not sene ;
I teche hit for no curtayse,
When þe sewer comys vnto pe borde, 764 Alle þe mete he sayes at on bare worde,
for fear of
The Sewer assays all the food :
potage with a piece of bread;
fish or flesh, he eats a piece;
baked meats hot, he lifts up the crust,
and dips bread in
The meat-bearer stands or kneels as the Sewer does
be potage fyrst with brede y-coruyn,
With fysshe or flessh yf [they] be serued, 768 A morselle per-of shalle he be keruyd ;
And touche pe messe ouer alle aboute,
With baken mete yf he seruyd be þo, 772 bo lydes vp-rered or he fyr go,
be past or pye he sayes with-inne,
Zif þe baken mete be colde, as may byfalle, 776 A gobet of po self he sayes with-alle.
But pou þat berys mete in hande,
Yf he knele, knele pou so longe for out, 780 Tylle mete be sayde þat þou hase broght.
As oft at hegh borde yf brede be nede,
bat on settes down, þ«ct oper agayn
As oft as þe keruer fettys drynke,
In þe lordys cupp þat leuys vndrynken, 788 Into be almesdisshe hit schalle be sonken.
The keruer anon with-outen thouzt,
Into pe couertoure wyn he powres owt, 792 Or in-to a spare pece, with-outen doute;
Assayes, an gefes po lorde to drynke,
When bread is
What is left in the lord's cup goes to the Alms. dish.
The Carver fills the empty cup,
assays it, and gives it the lord or puts it down. He carves the lord's meat,
1 Edward IV, had • Bannerettes, IIII, or Bacheler Knights, to be kervers and cupberers in his Courte.' "The kerver at the boarde, after the King is passed it, may chese for hymself one dyshe or two, that plentie is among... Theis kervers and cupberers . . them nedeth to be well spede in teking of degree in the schole of urbanytie.' H. Ord. p. 32-3.
and lays it on his trencher,
putting a piece of every thing in the Alms-dish,
except any favourite piece or potage seni to a stranger.
(To say inore about the Carver would require another section, so I pass it over.)
After dinner the Sewer brings the Surnape, a broad towel and a narrow, and slides it down,
796 Of what kyn pece þat he wylle ete;
And on hys trenchour he hit layes,
In almestysshe he layes yche dele,
But he sende hit to ony strongere,
And send hys potage also,
Of keruer more, yf I shulde telle,
Ther-fore I let hit here ouer passe,
When þe lorde hase eten, po sewer schalle bryng
A narew towelle, a brode be-syde,
De vssher ledes pat on hed rygt,
When þe vssher comys to pe borde ende,
Be-fore po lorde and pe lady so dere,
Whenne pay haue wasshen and grace is sayde, 820 Away he takes at a brayde;
Awoydes po borde in-to po flore,
The Usher takes one end of the broad, the Almoner the other, and when it is laid, he folds the narrow towel double before his lord and lauly.
After grace removes them,
lays the table on the floor, and takes away the trestles.
Of the Chandler.
Now speke I wylle a lytulle whylo 824 Of þo chandeler, with-outen gyle,
1 See the Office of Chaundlerye,' H. Ord. p. 82-3. Paris candles, torches, morters, tortayes, sizes, and smalle lightes, are mentioned there.
and mortars of
bat torches' and tortes ? and preketes: con make, He can make all
kinds of candles, Perchours, smale condel, I vnder-take;
little and big, Of wax þese candels alle þat brennen, 828 And morter of wax þat I wele kenne;
bo snof of hom dose a-way
be sesours ben schort und rownde y-close,
wax lights only Bot of wax þer-to, yf ze take tent;
shall be burnt ; In halle at soper schalle caldels (80) brenne
in hall, Candles of 836 Of parys, þer-in þat alle men kenne ;
each mess having To candelmesse, as I zou say ;
395), and squires Of candel liueray squiyers schalle haue, 840 So long, if hit is mon wille kraue. Of brede and ale also po boteler
give Squires their Schalle make lyueré thurgh-out pe zero
daily bread and
ale all the year, To squyers, and also wyn to knyzt,
and Knights their 844 Or ellys he dose not his office ryzt. Here endys the thryd speche.
May Christ bring
ing-piace. Amen! 848 Amen, sayes ze, for hys grete grace !
Amen, par charite.
one from Nov, 1 to Feb. 2 (see I.
The Butler shall
us to His dwell
1 Torche. Cereus. P. Parv.
3 Pryket, of a candylstykke, or other lyke. Stiga, P. Parv. Candlesticks (says Mr Way) in ancient times were not fashioned with nozzles, but with long spikes or prykets. . . (See wood cut at the end of this book.) In the Memoriale of Henry, prior of Canterbury, A.D. 1286, the term prikett denotes, not the candlestick, but the candle, formed with a corresponding cavity at one end, whereby it was securely fixed upon the spike. p. 413, n. 1. Henry VIII.'s allowance "unto our right dere and welbilovede the Lady Lucy,'July 16, 1533, included ‘at our Chaundrye barr, in Wynter, every night oon preket and foure syses of Waxe, with eight Candells white lights, and oon Torche.' Orig. Letters, ed. Ellis, Series I., vol. ii. p. 31.
* See note!, p. 311.
Bp. Grossetest's Household Statutes.
[Sloane MS. 1986, p. 193, ab. 1450-60. The lust page
mentions the 19th year of Henry VI.
INcipiunt statuta familie bone Memorie dompni
Roberti Grossetest, lincolnie episcopi.
without answer ing.
and warnyng should serve truly God and their
be zeue to alle men that be of howseholde, to Master;
serue god and zou trewly & diligently and to perform
yng, or the wyllyng of god to be performed and fulfyllprimus ydde. Fyrst let seruauntis doo perfytely in alle thyngis uersiculus
youre wylle, and kepe they goure commaundementis doing fully all that their Master after god and ryzthwysnesse, and with-oute condicion orders,
and also with-oute gref or offense. And sey ze, that be
& commaundement that is not ayeynys god. T the secunde ys, that ze commaunde them that kepe and haue kepyng of zoure howseholde, a-fore zoure meynye,
that bothe with-in and with-oute the meynye be trewe, diligent, 3u8
honest, diligent, bothe chast and profitabulle. [the thrydde : commaunde ye that nomañ be admittyd in
zoure howseholde, nother inwarde nother vtwarde, but untrusty or
hit be trustyd and leuyd that ze be trewe and diligent, and namely to that office to the whiche he is admyttyd ; Also þat he be of goode maners | The
fowrethe: be hit sow3ht and examined ofte tymys yf ther Dishonest, be ony vntrewman, vnkunnyng, vnhonest, lecherous,
The upper serv. ants must be honest and
and engage no