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the Carrer puts the first loaf in it.

The other loaves he

pares round,

cuts one in two,
and gives the
upper half in
halves to him.
The Almoner has
a staff in his
hand.
He keeps the
broken food and
wine left, for poor
men at the gate,

per-in þe keruer a lofe schalle sette,
732 To serue god fyrst with-outen lette ;

bese oper lofes he parys a-boute,
Lays hit myd dysshe with-outen doute.

be smalle lofe he cuttis euen in twynne, 736 bo ouer dole in two lays to hym.

The aumenere a rod schalle haue in honde,
As office for almes, y vndurstonde.

Alle þe broken met he kepys y wate,
740 To dele to pore men at þe zate,

And drynke þat leues serued in halle ;
Of ryche and pore bothe grete and smalle.

He is sworne to ouer-se pe seruis wele,
744 And dele hit to þe pore euery dele ;

Seluer he deles rydand by way;
And his almys dysshe, as I zou say,

To þe porest man þat he can fynde,
748 Oper ellys I wot he is vnkynde.

and is sworn to give it all to them.

He distributes silver as he rides,

of the Server (or setter-on of Dishes).

The Cook assays the meat before it's dished. The Sewer puts the cover on it, and the cover must never be raised

De ferculario.
This wyle po squyer to kechyn shalle go,
And brynges a bof for assay þo;

bo Coke assayes þe mete vngryzt,
752 Ho sewer he takes and kouers on ryzt;

Wo so euer he takes þat mete to bere,
Schalle not so hardly po couertoure rere,

For colde ne hote, I warne zou alle,
756 For suspecyoñ of tresoun as may befalle.

Yf po syluer dysshe wylle algate brenne,
A sotelté I wylle þe kenne,

Take þe bredde cornyn and lay by-twene, 760 And kepe þe welle hit be not sene ;

I teche hit for no curtayse,
But for þyn ese.

When þe sewer comys vnto pe borde, 764 Alle þe mete he sayes at on bare worde,

for fear of
treason.
(A Dodge: If the
silver dish burns
you,
put bits of bread
under it.)

The Sewer assays all the food :

potage with a piece of bread;

fish or flesh, he eats a piece;

baked meats hot, he lifts up the crust,

and dips bread in
the gravy;
baked meats cold,
he eats a bit.

The meat-bearer stands or kneels as the Sewer does

be potage fyrst with brede y-coruyn,
Couerys hom agayn lest þey ben storuyn;

With fysshe or flessh yf [they] be serued, 768 A morselle per-of shalle he be keruyd ;

And touche pe messe ouer alle aboute,
ho sewer hit etis with-outen doute.

With baken mete yf he seruyd be þo, 772 bo lydes vp-rered or he fyr go,

be past or pye he sayes with-inne,
Dippes bredde in graué no more ne mynne;

Zif þe baken mete be colde, as may byfalle, 776 A gobet of po self he sayes with-alle.

But pou þat berys mete in hande,
Yf þo sewer stonde, loke þou stande ;

Yf he knele, knele pou so longe for out, 780 Tylle mete be sayde þat þou hase broght.

As oft at hegh borde yf brede be nede,
The butler two louys takys indede ;

bat on settes down, þ«ct oper agayn
784 He barys to cupborde in towelle playn.

As oft as þe keruer fettys drynke,
be butler assayes hit how good hym thynke;

In þe lordys cupp þat leuys vndrynken, 788 Into be almesdisshe hit schalle be sonken.

The keruer anon with-outen thouzt,
Vnkouers pe cup put he hase brouzt;

Into pe couertoure wyn he powres owt, 792 Or in-to a spare pece, with-outen doute;

Assayes, an gefes po lorde to drynke,
Or settes hit doun as hym goode thynke.
po keruer ! schalle kerue po lordes mete,

(Fol. 26.)

When bread is
wanted, the
Butler puts one
loaf on the table,
the other on the
cupboard.
The Butler assays
all the wine.

What is left in the lord's cup goes to the Alms. dish.

The Carver fills the empty cup,

assays it, and gives it the lord or puts it down. He carves the lord's meat,

1 Edward IV, had • Bannerettes, IIII, or Bacheler Knights, to be kervers and cupberers in his Courte.' "The kerver at the boarde, after the King is passed it, may chese for hymself one dyshe or two, that plentie is among... Theis kervers and cupberers . . them nedeth to be well spede in teking of degree in the schole of urbanytie.' H. Ord. p. 32-3.

and lays it on his trencher,

putting a piece of every thing in the Alms-dish,

except any favourite piece or potage seni to a stranger.

(To say inore about the Carver would require another section, so I pass it over.)

After dinner the Sewer brings the Surnape, a broad towel and a narrow, and slides it down,

796 Of what kyn pece þat he wylle ete;

And on hys trenchour he hit layes,
On þys maner with-out displayes;

In almestysshe he layes yche dele,
800 bat he is with serued at þo mele;

But he sende hit to ony strongere,
A pese þrt is hym leue and dere,

And send hys potage also,
804 hat schalle not to pe almes go.

Of keruer more, yf I shulde telle,
Anoper fytt þenne most I spelle,

Ther-fore I let hit here ouer passe,
808 To make oure talkyng summedelasse.

When þe lorde hase eten, po sewer schalle bryng
po surnape on his schulder bryng,

A narew towelle, a brode be-syde,
812 And of hys hondes he lettes hit slyde;

De vssher ledes pat on hed rygt,
po aumener po oper away shalle dyzt.

When þe vssher comys to pe borde ende,
816 po narow towelle he strecches vnkende ;

Be-fore po lorde and pe lady so dere,
Dowbelle he playes po towelle pere ;

Whenne pay haue wasshen and grace is sayde, 820 Away he takes at a brayde;

Awoydes po borde in-to po flore,
Tase away po trestis þat ben so store.

The Usher takes one end of the broad, the Almoner the other, and when it is laid, he folds the narrow towel double before his lord and lauly.

After grace removes them,

lays the table on the floor, and takes away the trestles.

Of the Chandler.

De candelario."

Now speke I wylle a lytulle whylo 824 Of þo chandeler, with-outen gyle,

1 See the Office of Chaundlerye,' H. Ord. p. 82-3. Paris candles, torches, morters, tortayes, sizes, and smalle lightes, are mentioned there.

and mortars of
wax.
He snuffs them
with short
scissors.

bat torches' and tortes ? and preketes: con make, He can make all

kinds of candles, Perchours, smale condel, I vnder-take;

little and big, Of wax þese candels alle þat brennen, 828 And morter of wax þat I wele kenne;

bo snof of hom dose a-way
With close sesours, as I 30w say ;

be sesours ben schort und rownde y-close,
832 With plate of irne vp-on bose.
In chambur no lyzt þer shalle be brent,

In bed-chambers

wax lights only Bot of wax þer-to, yf ze take tent;

shall be burnt ; In halle at soper schalle caldels (80) brenne

[Fol. 27.)

in hall, Candles of 836 Of parys, þer-in þat alle men kenne ;

Paris,
Iche messe a candelle fro alhalawghe day

each mess having To candelmesse, as I zou say ;

395), and squires Of candel liueray squiyers schalle haue, 840 So long, if hit is mon wille kraue. Of brede and ale also po boteler

give Squires their Schalle make lyueré thurgh-out pe zero

daily bread and

ale all the year, To squyers, and also wyn to knyzt,

and Knights their 844 Or ellys he dose not his office ryzt. Here endys the thryd speche.

May Christ bring
Of alle oure synnes cryst be oure leche,
And bryng vs to his vonyng place !

ing-piace. Amen! 848 Amen, sayes ze, for hys grete grace !

Amen, par charite.

one from Nov, 1 to Feb. 2 (see I.

one too.

The Butler shall

wine.

us to His dwell

1 Torche. Cereus. P. Parv.
?? same as tortayes, p. 314, note?; p. 326, n.

3 Pryket, of a candylstykke, or other lyke. Stiga, P. Parv. Candlesticks (says Mr Way) in ancient times were not fashioned with nozzles, but with long spikes or prykets. . . (See wood cut at the end of this book.) In the Memoriale of Henry, prior of Canterbury, A.D. 1286, the term prikett denotes, not the candlestick, but the candle, formed with a corresponding cavity at one end, whereby it was securely fixed upon the spike. p. 413, n. 1. Henry VIII.'s allowance "unto our right dere and welbilovede the Lady Lucy,'July 16, 1533, included ‘at our Chaundrye barr, in Wynter, every night oon preket and foure syses of Waxe, with eight Candells white lights, and oon Torche.' Orig. Letters, ed. Ellis, Series I., vol. ii. p. 31.

* See note!, p. 311.

Bp. Grossetest's Household Statutes.

[Sloane MS. 1986, p. 193, ab. 1450-60. The lust page

mentions the 19th year of Henry VI.

INcipiunt statuta familie bone Memorie dompni

Roberti Grossetest, lincolnie episcopi.

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All servants
Et alle men be warned þat seruen 301,

and warnyng should serve truly God and their

be zeue to alle men that be of howseholde, to Master;

serue god and zou trewly & diligently and to perform

yng, or the wyllyng of god to be performed and fulfyllprimus ydde. Fyrst let seruauntis doo perfytely in alle thyngis uersiculus

youre wylle, and kepe they goure commaundementis doing fully all that their Master after god and ryzthwysnesse, and with-oute condicion orders,

and also with-oute gref or offense. And sey ze, that be
principalle heuede or prelate to alle zoure seruauntis
bothe lesse and more, that they doo fully, reedyly, and
treuly, with-oute offense or ayenseyng,

alle
youre

wille 2u3

& commaundement that is not ayeynys god. T the secunde ys, that ze commaunde them that kepe and haue kepyng of zoure howseholde, a-fore zoure meynye,

that bothe with-in and with-oute the meynye be trewe, diligent, 3u8

honest, diligent, bothe chast and profitabulle. [the thrydde : commaunde ye that nomañ be admittyd in

zoure howseholde, nother inwarde nother vtwarde, but untrusty or

hit be trustyd and leuyd that ze be trewe and diligent, and namely to that office to the whiche he is admyttyd ; Also þat he be of goode maners | The

fowrethe: be hit sow3ht and examined ofte tymys yf ther Dishonest, be ony vntrewman, vnkunnyng, vnhonest, lecherous,

The upper serv. ants must be honest and

and engage no

unfit man.

iv.

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