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scratch your arm,
or stoop your
Listen when
you're spoken to.

Never harm child
or beast with evil
eye (?)

Don't blush when
you're chaffed,

T Rob not þy arme ne nozt hit claw,

Ne bogh not doun þy hede to law;

Whil any man spekes with grete besenes, 332 Herken his wordis with-outen distresse. | By strete or way yf pou


go, Fro pes two þynges pou kepe pe fro,

Noper to harme chylde ne best,
336 With castyng, turnyng west ne est;

Ne chaunge pou not in face coloure,
For lyghtnes of worde in halle ne boure;

Yf þy vysage chaunge for nozt,
340 Men say be 'trespas pou hase wrought.'
| By-fore þy lorde, ne mawes þou make

Zif pou wylle curtasie with be take.

With hondes vnwasshen take neuer þy mete; 344 Fro alle pes vices loke pou þe kepe. | Loke pou sytt—and make no stryf-

Where po est' commaundys, or ellis po wyf.

Eschewe be hezest place with wyn,? 348 But pou be beden to sitt þer-in.

Of curtasie here endis pe secunde fyt,
To heuen crist mot oure saules flyt!

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Lords' Courts.


De officiarijs in curijs dominorum.

Of the Oficers in
Ow speke we wylle of officiers

Of court, and als of hor mestiers.
Foure men per ben þat zerdis schalle Four bear rods ;

three wands : bere, Porter, marshalle, stuarde, vsshere;

1. Porter, the

longest, The porter schalle haue be lengest wande, 356 The marshalle a schorter schalle haue in hande ; 2. Marshal,

1 Read ost
2 AS. win, contention, labour, war; win, wyn, joy, pleasure.

and warns strangers.

3. Usher, the

The vssher of chambur smallest schalle haue, shortest, 4. Steward, a staff,

The stuarde in honde schalle haue a stafe, a finger thick, half a yaru long.

A fyngur gret, two wharters long,

360 To reule pe men of court ymong. of the Porter.

De Ianitore.! He keeps the Gate The porter falle to kepe po zate, and Stocks,

be stokkes with hym erly and late; takes charge of

Zif any mañ hase in court mys-gayne, misdoers

364 To porter warde he schalle be tane,

þer to a-byde pe lordes wylle, till judged,

What he wille deme by ryztwys skylle. also of clothes,

For wesselle clothes, pat nozt be solde, 368 Þe po[r]ter hase þat warde in holde.

Of strangers also þat comen to court,

bo porter schalle warne ser at a worde. He is found in

Lyueray he hase of mete and drynke, meat and drink.

372 And settis with hym who so hym thynke. On his lord's

When so euer þo lorde remewe schalle removing,

To castelle til oper as hit may falle, he hires horses at For cariage pe porter hors schalle hyre, 4d, a piece,

376 Foure pens a pece with-in po schyre; the statute price.

Be statut he schalle take þat on þe day,
þat is Þe kyngis crye in faye.

De Marescallo aule. 2
Now of marschalle of halle wylle I spelle,3
380 And what falle to hys offyce now wylle y telle ;

1 See the duties of Prince Edward's Porters, A.D. 1474, in Household Ordinances, p. *30, and of Henry VIII.'s Porters, ibid.

of the Marshal of the Hall.

p. 239,


Though Edward IV. had Marshals (Household Ordinances, p. 84, &c.), one of whom made the Surnape when the King was in the IIall (p. 32), or Estate in the Surnape (p. 38), yet there is no separate heading or allowance for them in the Liber Niger. Two ycomen Ushers are mentioned in p. 38, but the two yeomen Ewars, their two Grooms and Page, p. 84, perform (nearly) the duties given above to the Usher and his Grooms.

3 MS, spekle.

The Groom gets

the Hall.

Fires last from

shall have allowances, and Fire

In absence of stuarde he shalle arest

He shall arrest

rebels, when the Who so euer is rebelle in court or fest;

steward is away. 3omon-vsshere, and grome also,


and Groom a.e 384 Vndur hym þes two :

under him. po grome for fuelle þat schalle brenne

fuel for the tire, In halle, chambur, to kechyn, as I be kenne,

He shalle delyuer hit ilke a dele, 388 In halle make fyre at yche a mele 3

and makes one in

Hall for every Borde, trestuls, and formes also,

meal ;

looks after tables, pe cupborde in his warde schalle go,

trestles, forms,

the cup-board, be dosurs cortines to henge in halle,

and hangings of 392 bes offices nede do he schalle; Bryng in fyre on alhalawgh day,

Allsaints' Day to
To condulmas euen, I dar welle say.

Candlemas Eve,
(Nov. 1 to Feb. 2.)

How long Squires Per quantum tempus armigeri habebunt liberatam et ignis ardebit in aula.

shall burn in the So longe squiers lyuerés shalle hafe,


and thus long, 396 Of grome of halle, or ellis his knafe ;

Squires receive

their daily candie? But fyre shalle brenne in halle at mete,

(see l. 839.) To Cena domini þat men base etc; ber browzt schalle be a holyn kene,

[Fol. 19.) 400 bat sett schalle be in erber grene,

And þat schalle be to alhalawgh day,
And of be skyfted, as y be say.
In halle marshalle alle men schalle sett

The Marshal 40+ After here degré, with-outen lett.?

1 Edward IV.'s Esquiers for the Body, IIII, had 'for wynter lyverey from All Hallowentide (Nov. 1) tyll Estyr, one percher wax, one candell wax, ij candells Paris, one tallwood and dimid. ium, and wages in the countyng-house.' H. Ord. p. 36. So the Bannerettes, IIII, or Bacheler Knights (p. 32), who are kervers and cupberers, take ‘for wynter season, from Allhallowentyde till Estyr, one tortays, one percher, ii candelles wax, ii candelles Paris, ii talwood, ii faggotts,' and rushes, litter, all the year; which the Esquiers have too. The Percy household allowance of Wax was cciiij score vij lb. dimid. of Wax for th' expensys of my House for oone hole Yere. Viz. Sysez, Pryketts, Quarions, and Torches after ix d. the lb. by estimacion ; p. 12.

2 The Liber Niger of Edw. IV. assigns this duty to one of the Gentylmen Usshers. H. Ord. p. 37.

shall seat men in the Hall.

of the Butler,
Panter, and Cooks
serring him.
They are the
He shall score up
all messes served,
and order bread
and ale for men,

but wine for gentlemen.

Each mess shall
be reckoned at 6d.

De pincernario, panetario, et cocis sibi seruientibus.

The botelar, pantrer, and cokes also,
To hym ar seruauntis with-outen mo;

ber-fore on his zerde skore shalle he ?
408 Alle messys in halle þat seruet be,

Commaunde to sett bothe brede and ale
To alle men þat seruet ben in sale ;

To gentilmen with wyne I-bake,
412 Ellis fayles po seruice, y vnder-take;

Iche messe at vjd breue shalle he
At the countyng house with oper mené;

Yf po koke wolde say þat were more,
416 Dat is þo cause þat he hase hit in skore.

be panter also yf he wolde stryfe,
For rewarde þat sett schalle be be-lyue.

When brede faylys at borde aboute,
420 The marshalle gares sett with-outen doute ;

More brede, þat calde is a rewarde,
So shalle hit be preuet be-fore stuarde.

and be scored up to prevent the cook's cheating

If bread runs short, the Marshal orders more, 'a reward.'

of the Butler's
He shall put a
pot and loaf to
each mess.

He is the panter's mate.

De officio pincernarij.?
| Botler shalle sett for yche a messe
424 A pot, a lofe, with-outen distresse;

Botler, pantrer, felawes ar ay,
Reken hom to-gedur fulle wel y may.

The marshalle shalle herber alle men in fere, 428 That ben of court of


mestere ;
Saue þe lordys chambur, þo wadrop to,
bo vssher of chambur schalle tent þo two.

The Marshal shall
see to men's
The Lord's
Chamber and
Wardrobe are
under the Usher
of the Chainber.
of the Usher and
Grooms of the

De hostiario et suis seruientibus.3
Speke I wylle A lytulle qwyle
432 Of vssher of chambur, with-outen gyle.

1. Usher,

1 See the Office of Panetry, H. Ord. p. 70.
2 See the Office of Butler of Englond, H. Ord. p. 73.

3 See Gentylmen Usshers of Chaumbre, IIII, A. Ord. P. • This name ussher is a worde of Frenshe,' p. 38.

b. 37.

2. Yeoman-usher,

per is gentylmen, zomon-vssher also,
Two gromes at po lest, A page per-to.

3. Two grooms and a Page.

The Dities of the
Grooms of the
They shall make
palets of litter 9
ft. long, 7 broad,

watered, twisted,
trodden, with
wisps at foot
and side,
twisted and
turned back; from
the floor-level to
the waist,

De Officio garcionum.!
| Gromes palettis shyn fyle and make litere,?
436 ix fote on lengthe with-out diswere ;

vij fote y-wys hit shalle be brode,
Wele watered, I-wrythen, be craft y-trode,

Wyspes drawen out at fete and syde,
- 440 Wele wrethyn and turnyd a-zayne þat tyde;

On legh vnsonken hit shalle be made,

þo gurdylstode hegh on lengthe and brade.

For lordys two beddys schalle be made, 444 Bothe vtter and inner, so god me glade,

hat henget shalle be with hole sylour,3
With crochettis 4 and loupys sett on lyour ; 5

bo valance on fylour shalle henge with wyn, 448 iij curteyns strezt drawen with-inne,

bat reche schalle euen to grounde a-boute,
Noper more, no per lesse, with-outen doute ;

He strykes hom vp with forket wande, 452 And lappes vp fast a-boute pe lyft hande ;

For lords, 2 beds, outer and inner,

hung with hangings, hooks and eyes set on the binding; the valance hang. ing on a rod (?); four curtains reaching to the ground;

these he takes up with a forked rod.

Compare H. Ord. p. 39. “Yeomen of Chambre, IIII, to make beddes, to bere or hold torches, to sette bourdes, to apparayle all chaumbres, and suche other servyce as the chaumberlayn, or usshers of chambre command or assigne.' Liber Niger Edw. IV. See also H. Ord. p. 40, Office of Warderobe of Beddes, p. 41, Gromes of Chambyr, X; and the elaborate directions for making Henry VII.'s bed, H. Ord. p. 121-2.

* Hoc stramentum, lyttere, p. 260, col. 2 (the straw with which the bed was formerly made), Wright's Vocabularies.

3 Sylure, of valle, or a nother thynge (sylure of a walle), Celatura, Celamen, Catholicon, in P. Parv. Fr. Ciel, Heauen, pl. Ciels, a canopie for, and, the Testerne and Valances of a Bed. Cotgrave. A tester over the beadde, canopus. Withals.

4 Crochet, a small hooke.

5 Lyowre, to bynde wythe precyows clothys. Ligatorium. P. Parv.

6 Fylowre, of barbours crafte, Acutecula, filarium. P. Parv. See note 3, p. 160.

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