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the bed he likes, and lie far from him.

If you journey

with any man, find out his name, who he is, where he is going.

With friars on a pilgrimage, do as they do.

Don't put up at a red (haired and faced) man or woman's house.

Answer opponents meekly,

but don't tell lies.

Before your lord at table,

keep your hands, feet, and

fingers still.

Don't stare about, or at the wall,

or lean against the post.

Don't pick your nose,

bou schalt enquere be curtasye

296 In what par[t] of pe bedde he wylle lye ;
Be honest and lye pou fer hym fro,
art not wyse but pou do so.

¶ With woso men, bope fer and negh,
300 The falle to go, loke pou be slegh

To aske his nome, and qweche he be,
Whidur he wille: kepe welle þes thre.
¶ With freres on pilgrimage yf þat þou go,
304 þat þei wille 3yme,' wilne pou also;
Als on nyt pou take by rest,

And byde pe day as tru mannes gest.
¶ In no kyn house pat rede mon is,
308 Ne womon of po same colour y-wys,

Take neuer þy Innes for no kyn nede,
For pose be folke pat ar to drede.

¶Yf any thurgh sturnes þe oppose,

312 Onswere hym mekely and make hym glose:
But glosand wordys pat falsed is,
Forsake, and alle that is omys.
Also yf pou haue a lorde,

316 And stondes by-fore hym at þe borde,
While pat pou speke, kepe welle by honde,
Thy fete also in pece let stonde,

¶ His curtasé nede he most breke,—

320 Stirraunt fyngurs toos when he shalle speke.
Be stabulle of chere and sumwhat lyzt,
Ne ouer alle wayue pou not thy syzt;
¶ Gase not on walles with by neghe2,
324 Fyr ne negh, logh ne heghe;

Let not pe post be-cum þy staf,
Lest pou be callet a dotet daf;
Ne delf pou neuer nose thyrle

328 With thombe ne fyngur, as 3ong gyrle;

1 AS. gyman, attend, regard, observe, keep.

2 thine eye

Rob not by arme ne no3t hit claw,
Ne bogh not doun þy hede to law;
Whil any man spekes with grete besenes,
332 Herken his wordis with-outen distresse.
¶ By strete or way yf þou schalle go,
Fro pes two þynges pou kepe pe fro,
Noper to harme chylde ne best,
336 With castyng, turnyng west ne est;
Ne chaunge pou not in face coloure,

For lyghtnes of worde in halle ne boure;
Yf þy vysage chaunge for no3t,

340 Men say pe trespas pou hase wrozght.'
By-fore by lorde, ne mawes pou make
3if pou wylle curtasie with pe take.

With hondes vnwasshen take neuer by mete; 344 Fro alle pes vices loke pou þe kepe.

Loke pou sytt—and make no stryf—
Where po est commaundys, or ellis po wyf.
Eschewe pe hezest place with wyn,2
348 But pou be beden to sitt þer-in.

Of curtasie here endis pe secunde fyt,
To heuen crist mot oure saules flyt!

352

THE THIRD BOOK.

De officiarijs in curijs dominorum.

Ow speke we wylle of officiers
Of court, and als of hor mestiers.

N

scratch your arm, or stoop your head.

1 Read ost

2 AS. win, contention, labour, war; win, wyn, joy, pleasure.

Listen when you're spoken to.

Never harm child or beast with evil eye (?)

Don't blush when you're chaffed,

or you'll be
accused of
mischief.

Don't make faces.

Wash before eating.

Sit where the host [Fol. 18.] tells you; avoid the highest place unless you're told to take it.

Of the Officers in
Lords' Courts.

Foure men per beñ þat zerdis schalle Four bear rods ;

three wands:

bere,

Porter, marshalle, stuarde, vsshere ;

The porter schalle haue pe lengest wande, 356 The marshalle a schorter schalle haue in hande; 2. Marshal,

1. Porter, the longest,

3. Usher, the

shortest,

4. Steward, a staff,

a finger thick, half

a yard long.

Of the Porter.

He keeps the Gate

and Stocks,

takes charge of misdoers

till judged,

also of clothes,

and warns strangers.

He is found in meat and drink.

On his lord's removing,

he hires horses at

4d. a piece,

the statute price.

Of the Marshal

of the Hall.

360

The vssher of chambur smallest schalle haue,
The stuarde in honde schalle haue a stafe,
A fyngur gret, two wharters long,
To reule pe men of court ymong.

¶ De Ianitore.'

¶ The porter falle to kepe po zate,

be stokkes with hym erly and late ; 3if any mañ hase in court mys-gayne, 364 To porter warde he schalle be tane, her to a-byde pe lordes wylle,

What he wille deme by ryztwys skylle.
For wesselle clothes, pat nozt be solde,
368 he po[r]ter hase put warde in holde.

Of strangers also pat comen to court,
bo porter schalle warne ser at a worde.
Lyueray he hase of mete and drynke,
372 And settis with hym who so hym thynke.
When so euer po lorde remewe schalle
To castelle til oper as hit may falle,

For cariage pe porter hors schalle hyre,
Foure pens a pece with-in po schyre;
Be statut he schalle take put on þe day,
hat is pe kyngis crye in faye.

376

¶ De Marescallo aule.2

Now of marschalle of halle wylle I spelle,3
And what falle to hys offyce now wylle y telle;

380

1 See the duties of Prince Edward's Porters, A.D. 1474, in Household Ordinances, p. *30, and of Henry VIII.'s Porters, ibid. p. 239.

2 Though Edward IV. had Marshals (Household Ordinances, p84, &c.), one of whom made the Surnape when the King was in the Hall (p. 32), or Estate in the Surnape (p. 38), yet there is no separate heading or allowance for them in the Liber Niger. Two ycomen Ushers are mentioned in p. 38, but the two yeomen Ewars, their two Grooms and Page, p. 84, perform (nearly) the duties given above to the Usher and his Grooms.

3 MS. spekle.

In absence of stuarde he shalle arest Who so euer is rebelle in court or fest; 3omon-vsshere, and grome also, 384 Vndur hym ar þes two:

bo grome for fuelle pat schalle brenne In halle, chambur, to kechyn, as I þe kenne, He shalle delyuer hit ilke a dele, 388 In halle make fyre at yche a mele; Borde, trestuls, and formes also,

he cupborde in his warde schalle go, be dosurs cortines to henge in halle, 392 þes offices nede do he schalle;

396

So longe squiers lyuerés shalle hafe,'
Of grome of halle, or ellis his knafe;
But fyre shalle brenne in halle at mete,
To Cena domini þat men hase ete;
her brow3t schalle be a holyn kene,
bat sett schalle be in erber grene,
And pat schalle be to alhalawgh day,
And of be skyfted, as y þe say.

In halle marshalle alle men schalle sett 404 After here degré, with-outen lett.2

1 Edward IV.'s Esquiers for the Body, IIII, had 'for wynter lyverey from All Hallowentide (Nov. 1) tyll Estyr, one percher wax, one candell wax, ij candells Paris, one tallwood and dimidium, and wages in the countyng-house.' H. Ord. p. 36. So the Bannerettes, IIII, or Bacheler Knights (p. 32), who are kervers and cupberers, take for wynter season, from Allhallowentyde till Estyr, one tortays, one percher, ii candelles wax, ii candelles Paris, ii talwood, ii faggotts,' and rushes, litter, all the year; which the Esquiers have too. The Percy household allowance of Wax was cciiij score vij lb. dimid. of Wax for th' expensys of my House for oone hole Yere. Viz. Sysez, Pryketts, Quarions, and Torches after ix d. the lb. by estimacion; p. 12.

2 The Liber Niger of Edw. IV. assigns this duty to one of the Gentylmen Usshers. H. Ord. p. 37.

400

Bryng in fyre on alhalawgh day,
To condulmas euen, I dar welle say.

Fires last from
Allsaints' Day to
Candlemas Eve,
(Nov. 1 to Feb. 2.)

¶ Per quantum tempus armigeri habebunt liberatam et How long Squires ignis ardebit in aula.

shall have allowances, and Fire shall burn in the Hall,

and thus long,

Squires receive their daily candle? (see 1. 839.)

He shall arrest rebels, when the steward is away. Yeoman-Usher and Groom a.e under him.

The Groom gets fuel for the fire,

and makes one in Hall for every meal;

looks after tables, trestles, forms, the cup-board, and hangings of the Hall.

[Fol. 19.]

The Marshal shall seat men in the Hall.

Of the Butler, Panter, and Cooks serving him.

They are the

Marshal's

servants.

He shall score up all messes served,

and order bread and ale for men,

but wine for gentlemen.

Each mess shall be reckoned at 6d.

and be scored up

to prevent the cook's cheating.

If bread runs

short, the Marshal orders more, ‘a reward.'

Of the Butler's duties.

He shall put a pot and loaf to each mess.

He is the panter's

mate.

The Marshal shall

see to men's
lodging.
The Lord's
Chamber and
Wardrobe are
under the Usher
of the Chamber.
Of the Usher and
Grooms of the
Chamber,

1. Usher,

¶ De pincernario, panetario, et cocis sibi seruientibus.

The botelar, pantrer, and cokes also,
To hym ar seruauntis with-outen mo;
per-fore on his 3erde skore shalle he2
408 Alle messys in halle pat seruet be,

Commaunde to sett bothe brede and ale
To alle men pat seruet ben in sale;
To gentilmen with wyne I-bake,
412 Ellis fayles po seruice, y vnder-take;
Iche messe at vjd breue shalle he

At the countyng house with oper mené ;
Yf po koke wolde say þat were more,

416 pat is po cause þat he hase hit in skore.
be panter also yf he wolde stryfe,

For rewarde pat sett schalle be be-lyue.
When brede faylys at borde aboute,

420 The marshalle gares sett with-outen doute :

More brede, pat calde is a rewarde,

So shalle hit be preuet be-fore stuarde.

De officio pincernarij.

¶ Botler shalle sett for yche a messe
424 A pot, a lofe, with-outen distresse;
Botler, pantrer, felawes ar ay,
Reken hom to-gedur fulle wel y may.

The marshalle shalle herber alle men in fere,

428 That ben of court of any mestere;

Saue pe lordys chambur, po wadrop to,
po vssher of chambur schalle tent po two.

¶ De hostiario et suis seruientibus.3 Speke I wylle A lytulle qwyle

Of vssher of chambur, with-outen gyle.

432

1 See the Office of Panetry, H. Ord. p. 70.

2 See the Office of Butler of Englond, H. Ord. p. 73.

3 See Gentylmen Usshers of Chaumbre, IIII, H. Ord. p. "This name ussher is a worde of Frenshe,' p. 38.

37.

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