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for a King's groom may sit at a Kaight's table.
| Also it is noo rebuke to a knyght to sette a grome of the kynge at his table.
Here ends this
Here endeth the boke of seruyce, & keruynge, and sewynge, and all maner of offyce in his kynde vnto a prynce or ony other estate, & all the feestes in the yere. Enprynted by wynkyn de worde at London in Flete strete at the sygne of the sonne. The yere of our lorde god M.CCCCC.xiij.
printed by Wynkyn de Worde.
[Wynkyn .de. worde's device here.]
Wynkyn de Worde introduces some dishes, sauces, fish, and one wine, not mentioned by Russell.
The new Dishes are
Fayge (p. 271, 1. 10). This may be for Sage, the herb, or a variety of Fritter, like Fruyter vaunte (p. 271, 1. 2 ; p. 273, 1. 24), fruyter say (p. 273, 1. 24), or a dish that I cannot find, or a way of spelling figs.
Fruyter say, p. 273, 1. 21. If say is not for Sage, then it may be a fish, coutrasted with the vaunte, which I suppose to mean ‘meat.' Sey is a Scotch name for the Coalfish, Merlangus Carbonarius. Yarrell, ii. 251.
Charlet (p. 273, 1. 28). The recipe in Household Ordinances,' p. 463, is, Take swete cowe mylk and put into a panne, and cast in therto 3ɔlkes of eyren and the white also, and sothen porke brayed, and sage; and let hit boyle tyl hit crudde, and colour it with saffron, and dresse hit up, and serve hit forthe.” Another recipe for Charlet Enforsed follows, and there are others for Charlet and Charlet icoloured, in Liber Cure, p. 11.
Joutes, p. 274, last line. These are broths of beef or fish boiled with chopped boiled herbs and bread, H. Ord. p. 461. Others are made with swete almond mylke,' ib, SeeJoutus de Almonde,' p. 15, Liber Cure. For ‘Joutes' p. 47; 'for oper ioutes,' p. 48.
Browes, p. 274, last line. This is doubtless the Brus of Household Ordi. nances, p. 427, and the bruys of Liber Cure, p. 19, 1. 3, brewis, or broth, Brus was made of chopped pig's-inwards, leeks, onions, bread, blood, vinegar. For 'Brewewes in Somere 'see H. Ord. p. 453.
Chewettes, p. 275, 1. 4, were small pies of chopped-up livers of pigs, hens, and capons, fried in grease, mixed with hard eggs and ginger, and then fried or baked. Household Ordinances, p. 442, and Liber Cure, p. 41. The Chewets for fish days were similar pies of chopped turbot, haddock, and cod, ground dates, raisins, prunes, powder and salt, fried in oil, and boiled in sugar and wine. L. Cure, p. 41. Markham's Recipe for ‘A Chewet Pye' is at p. 80-1 of his English Houswife. Chewit, or small Pie; minced or otherwise. R. Holme. See also two recipes in MS. Harl. 279, fol. 38.
Flaunes (p. 275, 1. 4) were Cheesecakes, made of ground cheese beaten up with
sugar, coloured with saffron, and baked in'cofyns' or crusts. 'A Flaune of Almayne' or ' Crustade' was a more elaborate preparation of dried or fresh raisins and pears or apples pounded, with cream, eggs, bread, spices, and butter, strained and baked in ‘a faire coffyn or two.' H. Ord.
Of new Sauces, Wynkyn de Worde names Gelopere & Pegyll (p. 279, l. 4), Gelopere I cannot find, and can only suggest that its p may be fors, and that "cloves of gelofer," the clove-gilly flower, may have bein the basis of it. These cloves were stuck in ox tongues, see Lange de beof,” Liber Cure, p,
26. Muffett also recommends Gilly-flour Vinegar as the best sauce for
* Take droppyng of capone rostyd wele
Meng alle in fere, and forthe hit messe.' The new Wine is Campolet, p. 267. Henderson does not mention it; Halliwell has Campletes. A kind of wine, mentioned in a curious list in MS. Rawl. C. 86.' (See the list in the Notes to Russell, above, p. 202.] I suppose it to be the wine from • Campole. The name of a certaine white grape, which hath very white kernels.' Cotgrave.
Of new Fish W. de Worde names the Salens (p. 280, 1.8), Cottell and Tench (p. 281). Torrentyne he makes sele turrentyne (p. 280) seemingly, but has turrentyne salte as a fish salted, at p. 282, 1. 7.
Cottell, p. 282, 1. 14, the cuttlefish. Of these, Sepiæ vel Lolligines calamarie, Muffet says, they are called also‘sleewes' for their shape, and 'scribes' for their incky humour wherewith they are replenished, and are commended by Galen for great nourishers; their skins be as smooth as any womans, but their flesh is brawny as any ploughmans; therefore I fear me Galen rather commended them upon hear-say then upon any just cause or true experience.
For the Salens I can only suggest thunny. Aldrovandi, de Piscibus, treating of the synonyms of the Salmon, p. 482, says, “Græcam salmonis nomenclaturam non inuenio, neque est quod id miretur curiosus lector, cum in Oceano tantum fluminibusque in eum se exonerantibus reperiatur, ad quæ veteres Græci nunquam penetraruut. Qui voluerit, Salangem appellare poterit. £aláxĘ enim boni, id est, delicati piscis nomen legitur apud Hesychium, nec præterea qui sit, explicatur : aut a migrandi natura Karaváoporos, vel 8pópas fluviatilis dicatur, nam Aristoteles in mari dromades vocat Thunnos aliosque gregales, qui aliunde in Pontum excurrunt, et vix vno loco conquiescunt; aut nomen fingatur a saltu, & ampwv dicitur. Non placet tamen, salmonis nomen a saltu deduci, aut etiam á sale, licet saliendi natura ei optimè quadret saleque aut muria inueturaria etiam soleat. Non enim latine sed a Germanis Belgisuè Rheni accolis, aut Gallis Aquitanicis accepta vox est.” See also p. 318. "Scardula, et Incobia ex Pigis, et Plota, Salena,' Gesner, de Piscibus, p. 273. Can salens be the Greek 'owlnv, a shell-fish, perhaps like the razor-fish. Epich. p. 22.'-Liddell and Scott-? I presume not. “Solen. The flesh is sweet; they may be eaten fryed or boiled.' 1661, R. Lovell, Hist. of Animals, p. 240. ‘Solen : A genus of bivalve mollusks, having a long slender shell ; razor-fish.' Webster's Dict.
Sele turrentyne, p. 277. Seemingly a variety of seal, or of eel or sole if sele is a misprint. But I cannot suggest any fish for it.
Rochets, p. 281, 1. 5. Rubelliones. Rochets (or rathor Rougets, because they are so red) differ from Gurnards and Curs, in that they are redder by a great deal, and also lesser; they are of the like flesh and goodness, yet better fryed with onions, butter, and vinegar, then sodden. Musfett, p. 166.
The Booke of
the Allowance and
[From the reprint by Bensley & Sons (in 1817) of “The Booke of Demeanor from Small Poems entitled The
Schoole of Vertve by Richard Weste," 1619, 12mo.]
To the Reader.
R Ightly conceiue me, and obserue me well,
W Hat they should crave of Gods high Majestie,
[N.B.—The stops and sidenotes are those of the original, but
that has no Headlines.]