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Fisher and

no Shippe can sayle without Hempe, ý sayle clothes, the shroudes, staies, tacles, yarde lines, warps & Cables can to the Sailor, not be made. No Plowe, or Carte can be without Plowman, ropes 'halters, trace &c. The Fisher and Fouler [! Fol. xxviii. b.] muste haue Hempe, to make their nettes.

And no Archer can wante his bowe string : and the Malt Archer.' man for his sackes. With it the belle is rong, to seruice in the Church, with many mo thynges profitable whiche are commonly knowen of euery man, he made of Hempe.

Andrew Borde on
Sleep, Rising, and Press.
[From his Regyment, ?1557.]

(Fol. E, i.] Whole men of what age or complexion so euer they

be of, shulde take theyr naturall rest and slepe in the

nyght: and to eschewe merydyall sleep. But and nede After Dinner, shall compell a man to slepe after his meate : let hym sleep standing

make a pause, and than let hym stande & lene and against a slepe agaynst a cupborde, or els let hym sytte upryght cupboard.

in a chayre and slepe. Slepynge after a full stomacke doth ingendre dyuers infyrmyties, it doth hurte the splene, it relaxeth the synewes, it doth ingendre the

dropses and the gowte, and doth make a man looke euyll [1 Fol. E, I, b.)

colored. | Beware of veneryous actes before the fyrste slepe, and specyally beware of suche thynges after dyner or after a full stomacke, for it doth ingendre the

crampe and the gowte and other displeasures. To Before bedtime bedwarde be you mery, or haue mery company aboute be merry.

you, so that to bedwarde no angre, nor heuynes, sorowe, nor pensyfulnes, do trouble or dysquyet you.

To bedwarde, and also in the mornynge, vse to haue a your bedroom,

fyre in your chambre, to wast and consume the euyl vapowres within the chambre, for the breath of man may putryfye the ayre within the chambre: I do

advertyse you not to stande nor to sytte by the fyre, but stand a good but stande or syt a good way of from the fyre, takynge way off it.

the flauour of it, for fyre doth aryfie and doth drye vp

a mannes blode, and doth make sterke the synewes and Shut your

ioyntes of man. In the nyght let the wyndowes of

Have a fire in

windows.

left side.

your howse, specyallye of your chambre, be closed. Whan you * be in your bedde, lye a lytle whyle on (* Fol. E. ii.] your lefte syde, and slepe on your ryght syde. And Lie first on your whan you do wake of your fyrste slepe, make water yf you feel your bladder charged, & than slepe on the lefte side; and looke as ofte as you do wake, so oft turne your selfe in the bedde from one syde to the other. To slepe grouellynge vpon the stomacke and to sleep grovel

ing on the belly, bely is not good, oneles the stomacke be slowe and is bad; tarde of dygestion ; but better it is to laye your hande, or your bedfelowes hande, ouer your stomacke, than to lye grouellynge. To slepe on the backe vpryght? is on the back

upright, is worse. vtterly to be abhorred': whan that you do slepe, let not your necke, nother your sholders, nother your hands, nor feete, nor no other place of your bodye, lye bare vndiscouered. Slepe not with an emptye stomacke, nor slepe not after that you haue eaten meate one howre or two after. In

your bed lye with your

head somwhat hyghe, leaste that the * meate whiche is in (* Fol. B. ii. b.] your stomacke, thorowe eructuacions or some other cause, ascende to the oryfe (sic) of the stomacke. Let your nyght cap be of scarlet: and this I do aduertyse Wear a scarlet

nightcap. you, to cause to be made a good thycke quylte of cotton,

1.1 Compare what Bulleyn says : -slepe. The night is the best time : the daie is euill: to slepe in the fielde is perilous. But vpon, or

in the bedde, liyng firste vpon the right side, untill you make water: then vpon the lefte side, is good. But to lye vpon the backe, with a gaping mouth, is daungerous : How to lie in bed. and many thereby are made starke ded in their slepe: through apoplexia, and obstruccion of the sinewes, of the places vitalle, animall, and nutrimentalle. Bullein's Bulwarke, The booke of the use of sicke men and medicenes, fol. lxx. See also Sir John Harrington's directions from Ronsovius : “ They that are in health, must first sleepe on the right side, because the meate may come to the liver, which is to the stomack as a fire vnder the pot, and thereby is digested. To them which haue but weake di- Who should put gestion, it is good to sleepe prostrate on their bellies, or to haue their hands on their bare hands on their stomackes : and to lye vpright on the

their stomachs. backe, is to bee vtterly abhorred.” p. 19.

2 This wenche lay upright, and faste slepte. Chaucer. The Reeves Tale, 1. 4192, ed. Wright.

go to stool.

Have a flock bed or els of pure flockes or of cleane wolle, and let the over your featherbed. couerynge of it be of whyte fustyan, and laye it on the fetherbed that you do lye on; and in your

bed lye not to hote nor to colde, but in a temporaunce. Olde auncyent Doctors of physicke sayth .viii. howres of slepe in sommer, and ix. in wynter, is suffycent for any man: but I do thynke that slepe oughte to be

taken as the complexion of man is. Whan you do On rising, re- ryse in the mornynge, ryse with myrth and remembre member God, brush your

God. Let your hosen be brusshed within & without, breeches, put on

and flauer the insyde of them agaynst the fyre ; vse your hose, lynnen sockes, or lynnen hosen nexte your legges : stretch, whan you be out of your bedde, stretche forth your [* Fol. B. ili.) *legges & armes, & your body; cough, and spytte, and

than go to your stoole to make your egestyon, and exonerate youre selfe at all tymes, that nature wolde expell. For yf you do make any restryction in kepynge your egestyon or your vryne, or ventosyte, it maye put you to dyspleasure in breadynge dyuers infyrmyties.

After you haue euacuated your bodye, & trussed your points, comb your head, poyntes,' kayme your heade oft, and so do dyuers tymes wash your hands in the day. And wasshe your handes & wrestes, your and face,

face, & eyes, and your teeth, with colde water; and take a stroll, after y' you be apparayled, walke in your gardyn or

parke, a thousande pase or two. And than great and noble men doth vse to here masse, & other men ihat can not do so, but muste applye theyr busynes, doth serue god with some prayers, surrendrynge thankes to hym for hys manyfolde goodnes, with askynge mercye

Truss your

1 Fricacion is one of the euacuacions, yea, or clensynges of mankinde, as all the learned affirmeth : that mankinde should rise in the mornyng, and haue his apparell warme, stretchyng foorthe his

handes and legges. Preparyng the bodie to the stoole, and then and combing the begin with a fine Combe, to kembe the heere vp and down : then head.

with a course warme clothe, to chafe or rubbe the hedde, necke, breast, armeholes, bellie, thighes, &c., and this is good to open the pores. 1562 Bulloin's Bulwarke, The booke of the vse of sicke men and medicenes, fol. lxvij. See Vaughan below, No. 2, p. 249.

pray to God.

or Frication

for theyr offences. And before you go to your refecti*on, moderatly exercise your body with some labour, [* Fol. E. iii. b.] or playeng at the tennys, or castyng a bowle, or paysyng Play at tennis,

or wield weights, weyghtes or plommettes of leede in your handes, or some other thyng, to open your poores, & to augment naturall heate. At dyner and supper' vse not to drynke At meals, sundry drynkes, and eate not of dyuers meates : but feede of .ii. or .iii. dysshes at the moste. After that eat only of 2 or 3

dishes; you haue dyned and supte, laboure not by and by after, but make a pause, syttynge or standynge vpryght the space of an howre or more with some pastyme : drynke not moch after dyner. At your supper, vse

let supper-dishes

be light. lyght meates of dygestyon, and refrayne from grose meates; go not to bed with a full nor an emptyo stomacke. And after your supper make a pause or you go to bed ; and go to bed, as I sayde, with myrth. Furthermore as concernynge your apparell

. In wynter, next your shert vse you to weare a petycote of Wear a scarlet scarlet : your dowb*let vse at plesure : But I do (* Fol. B. iv.) aduertyse you to lyne your Iacket vnder this fasshyon Have a jacket

Bye you fyne skynnes of whyte lambe & of white and black blacke lambe. And let your skynner cut both ý sortes diamond-wise. of the skynnes in smale peces triangle wyse, lyke halfe a quarell of a glasse wyndowe. And than sewe togyther a* whyte pece and a blacke, lyke a whole [* MS. a a) quarell of a glasse wyndowe : and so sewe vp togyther

1 Drunkards, bench-wislers, that will quaffe untill thei are starcke
staring madde like Marche Hares : Fleming-like Sinckars; brain-
lesse like infernall Furies. Drinkyng, braulyng, tossyng of the
pitcher, staryng, pissyng*, and sauyng your reuerence, beastly
spuyng vntill midnight. Therefore let men take hede of dronken-
nes to bedward, for feare of sodain death : although the Flemishet
nacion vse this horrible custome in their vnnaturall watching all
the night. Bullein, fol. lxix-lxx, see also fol. xj.
* Compare A. Borde of the “base Doche man,” in his Introduction,

+ I am a Flemyng, what for all that
Although I wyll be dronken other whyles as a rat.

A. Borde, Introduction.

pety cote.

or maner

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