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what metes // & how many disches / þey dyd what dishes are
serve up the
and you, the Sewer, have
And whañ be surveourel & pe Cooke / with yow
done accorde, þen shalle þe cook dresse alle þynge to be sur- III. Let the Cook
veynge borde, 676 þe surveoure sadly / & soburly / with-owteñ any the Surveyor
(Fol. 181.) surveynge, se pat ye haue officers bope courtly and connynge, 680 For drede of a dische of youre course stelynge', being stolen. whyche myght cawse a vileny ligtly in youre
seruice sewynge. And se þat ye haue seruytours semely / þe disches IV. Have proper
for to bere, Marchalles, Squyers / & sergeauntes of armes ?, if Marshals, &c.,
þat þey be there, 684 þat youre lordes mete may be brought without to bring the dishes
from the kitchen. dowt or dere; to sett it surely on þe borde / youre self nede not V. You set them feere.
skilful officers to prevent any dish
on the table
See the duties and allowances of “A Surveyour for the Kyng" (Edw. IV.) in Houschold Ord. p. 37. Among other things he is to see “that no thing be purloyned,' (cf. line 680 below), and the fourty Squyers of Household who help serve the King's table from the surveying bourde' are to see that of every messe that cummyth from the dressing bourde . . thereof be nothing withdrawe by the squires. ib. p. 45. 2 Squyers of Houshold xl .
xx squires attendaunt uppon the Kings (Edw. IV.) person in ryding . . and to help serve his table from the surveying bourde. H. Ord. p. 45. Sergeauntes of Armes IIII., whereof ii alway to be attending uppon the Kings person and chambre. In like wise at the conveyaunce of his meate at every course from the surveying bourde, p. 47.
A Meat Dinner.
I dynere of filesche.'
The furst Course.
1. Mustard and brawn.
3. Stewed Pheasant and Swan, &c.
þe wild swyne,
spice / & wyne, 688 Beeff, moton 3 / Stewed feysaund / Swan' with
fruture viaunt fyne;
A Sotelte 692 And Gabrielle gretynge hur / with
4. Baked Venison.
5. A Device of
Compare the less gorgeous feeds specified on pp. 54-5 of Liber Cure, and pp. 449-50 of Household Ordinances. Also with this and the following ‘Dinere of Fische' should be compared “the Diett for the King's Majesty and the Queen's Grace" on a Flesh Day and a Fish Day, A.D. 1526, contained in Household Ordinances, p. 174-6. Though Harry the Eighth was king, he was allowed only two courses on each day, as against the Duke of Gloucester’s three given here. The daily cost for King and Queen was £4. 35. 4d. ; yearly, £1520. 13s. 4d. See also in Markham's Houswife, pp. 98-101, the ordering of extraordinary great Feasts of Princes' as well as those for much more humble men.'
? See Recipes for Bor in Counfett, Boor in Brasey, Bore in Egurdouce, in H. Ord. p. 435.
3 Chair de mouton manger de glouton : Pro. Flesh of a Mutton is food for a glutton; (or was held so in old times, when Beefe and Bacon were your onely dainties.) Cot.
4 The rule for the succession of dishes is stated in Liber Cure, p. 55, as whole-footed birds first, and of these the greatest, as swan, goose, and drake, to precede. Afterwards come baked meats and other dainties.
5 See note to l. 535 above, 6 See the Recipe for Leche Lumbard in Household Ordinances, p. 438. Pork, eggs, pepper, cloves, currants, dates, sugar, powdered together, boiled in a bladder, cut into strips, and served with hot rich sauce.
7 Meat fritter ?, mentioned in l. 501.
The Second Course.
Two potages, blanger mangere,' & Also Iely ? : 1. Blanc Mange (of
egrets, sucking Partriche, wodcok / plovere / egret / Rabettes rabbits, sowkeret;
larks, bream, &c. Gret briddes / larkes / gentille breme de mere, dowcettes, payne puff, with leche / Ioly 6 Ambere, Leche,
poached fritters. 700 Fretoure powche / a sotelte folowynge in fere,
þe course for to fullfylle,
Angel appearing and syngynge with a mery chere,
to three Shep704 Vn-to .iij. sheperdes yppcñ añ hille.
4. Dowcets, amber
6. A Device of an
herds on a hill.
The žija Course.
1. Almond cream.
“ Creme of almondes, & mameny, be iij. course
Snipes, &c. mertenettes rost, * See “ Blaumanger to Potage "p. 430 of Household Ordinances ; Blawmangere, p. 455; Blonc Manger, L. C. C. p. 9, and Blanc Maungere of fysshe, p. 19.
2 “Gele in Chekyns or of Hennes,” and “Gelle of Flesshe," H. Ord. p. 437.
3 See the recipe " At a Feeste Roiall, Pecockes shall be dight on this Manere,” H. Ord. p. 439; but there he is to be served " forthe with the last cours." The hackle refers, I suppose, to his being sown in his skin when cold after roasting.
4 The fat of Rabet-suckers, and little Birds, and small Chickens, is not discommendable, because it is soon and lightly overcome of an indifferent stomack. Muffett, p. 110.
5 Recipe at p. 60 of this volume. Dowcet mete, or swete cake mete (bake mete, P.) Dulceum, ductileus. P. Parv. Dousette, a lytell Hawne, dariolle. Palsgrave. Fr. flannet ; m. A doucet or little custard. Cot.
6 May be Iely, amber jelly, instead of a beautiful amber leche.
3. Fresh-water crayfish, &c.
Bage fritters, &c.
The Mother of
Perche in gely / Crevise dewe douz / pety perueis!
with þe moost, 4. Baked Quinces, 708 Quynces bake / leche dugard / Fruture sage , y
speke of cost,
pat lady þat conseuyd by the holygost
712 presentid plesauntly by þe kynges of coleyn. Cologne.
Afftur þis, delicatis mo.
Blaunderelle, or pepyns, with carawey in confite, White apples,
Waffurs to ete / ypocras to drynk with delite. Ypocras. 716 now þis fest is fynysched / voyd þe table quyte ;
Go we to be fysche fest while we haue respite,
& þañ with goddes grace pe fest wille be do.
cara ways, wafers and
Clear the Table,
A Fish Dinner.
Dincre of Fische. '
The Furst Course.
1. Minnows, &c.
2. Porpoise and peas.
3. Fresh Millwell.
4. Roast Pike.
“Musclade or 3 menows // with þe Samoun bel
lows 4 // eles, lampurns in fere ;
grene myllewelle, deyntethe & not dere;
coles 6 //
Compare “For a servise on fysshe day,” Liber Cure, p. 54, and
3 For of. See Sewes on Fische Dayes, " 1. 821.
4for bellies : see the baly of be fresch samoun,' l. 823 in Sewes on Fische Dayes; or it may be for the sounds or breathing apparatus.
Pykes in Brasey, H. Ord. p. 451.
6 Purpesses, Tursons, or sea-hogs, are of the nature of swine, never good till they be fat .. it is an unsavoury meat .. yet many Ladies and Gentlemen love it exceedingly, bak'd like venison. Mouffet, p. 165.
6. A Divice:
gurnard / lampurnes bake / a leche, & a friture;
A young man 728 pypynge & syngynge / lovynge & lyght,
piping Standynge on a clowd, Sanguineus he hight,
on a cloud, and
called SanquinÞe begynnynge of pe seson þat cleped is ver." eus, or Spring
The second course.
1. Dates and Jelly,
2. Doree in Syrup,
“Dates in confyte // Iely red and white // 732 þis is good dewyngel;
Congur, somoñ, dorray // In sirippe if þey lay //
with oper disches in sewynge. Brett / turbut ? / or halybut // Carpe, base / mylet, 3. Turbot, &c.,
or trowt // 736 Cheven, 3 breme / renewynge; Zole / Eles, lampurnes / rost // a leche, a fryture, y 4. Eels, Fritters,
make now bost /
was, 740 A roughe, a red, angry syre,
An hasty mañ standynge in fyre,
called Estas, or his name was peroñ, & cleped Estas.
6. A Device :
A Man of War,
red and angry,
1 ? due-ing, that is, service; not moistening.
2 Rhombi. Turbuts . . some call the Sea-Pheasant .. whilst they be young . . they are called Butts. They are best being sodden. Muffett, p. 173. “Pegeons, buttes, and elis," are paid for as hakys (hawks) mete, on « Sept. 6 R. H(enry VII) in the Howard Household Books, 1481-90, p. 508.
3 Gulls, Guffs, Pulches, Chevins, and Millers-thombs are a kind of jolt-headed Gudgins, very sweet, tender, and wholesome. Muffett, p. 180. Randle Holme says, 'A Chevyn or a Pollarde ; it is in Latin called Capitus, from its great head; the Germans Schwall, or Alet; and Myn or Mouen ; a Schupfish, from whence we title it a Chub fish. ch. xiv. § xxvii.