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cast vinegar, &c., and bone them.

Cast vinegre & powder peron / furst fette pe bonus

þem fro.

Crabs are hard to Crabbe is a slutt / to kerve / & a wrawd' wight; carve: break every claw,

breke euery Clawe , a sondur / for þat is his

ryght: put all the meat 592 In þe brode shelle putt youre stuff / but furst in the body-shell,

haue a sight þat it be clene from skyñ / & senow / or ye

begyñ to dight. And what? ye haue piked / Þe stuff owt of euery

shelle with þe poynt of youre knyff, loke ye temper hit

welle, vinegar or verjuice 596 put vinegre / þerto, verdjus, or ayselle,3 and powder. (9)

Cast þer-on powdur, the bettur it wille smelle. Heat it, and give Send þe Crabbe to be kychyñ / þere for to hete, it to your lord.

agaya hit facche to þy souerayne sittynge at mete; Put the claws, 600 breke þe clawes of pe crabbe / Þe smalle & þe grete, broken, in a dish.

In a disch þem ye lay / if hit like your souer

and then season it with

ayne to ete.

The sea Crayfish: cut it asunder,

slit the belly of the back part,

Crevise 4 / þus wise ye must them dight:

Departe the crevise a-sondire euyn to youre sight, 604 Slytt þe bely of the hyndur part / & so do ye

right, and alle hoole take owt þe fische, like as y yow it owt;

take out the fish,

behight. Wraw, froward, ongoodly. Perversus . . exasperans. Pr. Parv. 2 for whan, when.

3 A kind of vinegar; A.S. eisile, vinegar; given to Christ on the Cross.

* Escrevisse : f. A Creuice, or Crayfish (see l. 618]; (By some Authors, but not so properly, the Crab-fish is also tearmed so.) Escrevisse de mer. A Lobster ; or, (more properly) a Sea-Creuice. Cotgrave. A Crevice, or a Crefish, or as some write it, a Crevis Fish, are in all respects the same in form, and are a Species of the Lobster, but of a lesser size, and the head is set more into the body of the Crevice than in the Lobster. Some call this a Ganwell. R. Holme, p. 338, col. 1, § xxx,

Pare awey be red skyī for dyuers cawse & dowt,
and make clene pe place also / þat ye calle his clean out the gowe

gowt, 608 hit lies in þe myddes of þe bak / looke ye pike the middle of the

back; pick it out, areise hit by be þyknes of a grote / be fische tear it off the fish,

rownd abowt.
put it in a dische leese by lees 2 / & þat ye not

forgete
to put vinegre to be same / so it towche not be and put vinegar

to it;

mete ;

and set them on

Treat the back like the crab,

612 breke be gret clawes youre self / ye nede no break the claws

cooke to trete,
Set þem oñ þe table / ye may / with-owt any the table.

maner heete.
The bak of þe Crevise, pus he must be sted :
array hym as ye dothe / Þe crabbe, if þat any be

had, 616 and bope endes of þe shelle / Stoppe them fast stopping both

with bred,
& serue / youre souereyī þer with / as he likethe

to be fedd.
Of Crevis dewe douz 3 Cut his bely a-way,

(Fol. 180.) be fische in A dische clenly þat ye lay

Crayfish : serve 620 with vineger & powdur þer vppon, þus is vsed ay, with vinegar and þañ youre souerayne / whan hym semethe, sadly

he may assay.

ends with bread,

The fresh-water

powder.

No doubt the intestinal tract, running along the middle of the body and tail. Dr Günther. Of Crevisses and Shrimps, Muffett says, p. 177, they "give also a kind of exercise for such as be weak: for head and brest must first be divided from their bodies; then each of them must be dis scaled, and clean picked with much pidling; then the long gut lying along the back of the Crevisse is to be voided.”

slice by slice. 3 The fresh-water crayfish is beautiful eating, Dr Günther says.

2

The Iolle' of þe salt sturgeoun / thyñ / take hede

Salt Sturgeon: slit its joll, or head, thin.

ye slytt,

Whelk: cut off its head and tail,

throw away its operculum, niantle, &c.,

cut it in two, and put it on the sturgeon,

adding vinegar.

Carve Baked Lampreys thus : take off the piecrust, put thin slices of bread on a Dish,

pour galentyne over the bread,

add cinnamon and red wine.

& rownd about be dische dresse ye musten hit. 624 be whelke ? / looke þat þe hed / and tayle awey

be kytt, his pyntill 3 & gutt / almond & mantille,4 awey

þer fro ye pitt; Theñ kut ye þe whelk asondur, eveñ pecis two,

and ley þe pecis þerof / vppon youre sturgeoun so, 628 rownd all abowt be disch / while þat hit wille go ;

put vinegre per-vppoñ / Þe bettur þañ wille hit do. Fresche lamprey bake 5 / þus it must be dight:

Open þe pastey lid, þer-in to haue a sight, 632 Take pen white bred þyr y-kut & lizt,

lay hit in a chargere / dische, or plater, ryght; with a spone þeñ take owt be gentille galantyne,6

In þe dische, on pe bred / ley hit, lemmañ myne, 636 þeñ take powdur of Synamome, & temper hit

with red wyne : 'Iolle of a fysshe, teste. Palsgrave. Ioll, as of salmon, &c., caput. Gouldm. in Promptorium, p. 264.

* For to make a potage of welkes, Liber Cure, p. 17. “Perwinkles or Whelks, are nothing but sea-snails, feeding upon the finest mud of the shore and the best weeds.” Muffett, p. 164.

3 Pintle generally means the penis; but Dr Günther says the whelk has no visible organs of generation, though it has a projecting tube by which it takes in water, and the function of this might have been misunderstood. Dr G. could suggest nothing for almond, but on looking at the drawing of the male Whelk (Buccinum nudatum) creeping, in the Penny Cyclopædia, v. 9, p. 454, col. 2 (art. Entomostomata), it is quite clear that the almond must mean the animal's horny, oval operculum on its hinder part. Most spiral shells have an operculum, or lid, with which to close the aperture when they withdraw for shelter. It is developed on a particular lobe at the posterior part of the foot, and consists of horny layers, sometimes hardened with shelly matter.' Woodward's Mollusca, p. 47.

* That part of the integument of mollusca which contains the viscera and secretes the shell, is termed the mantle. Woodward.

Recipe “ For lamprays baken," in Liber Cure, p. 38. 6 A sauce made of crumbs, galingale, ginger, salt, and vinegar. See the Recipe in Liber Cure, p. 30.

5

Mince the lampreys,

sauce, &c., on a hot plate,

serve up to your lord.

fresh;

þe same wold plese a pore mañ /y suppose, welle &

fyne. Mynse ye pe gobyns as thyñ as a grote, þañ lay þem vppon youre galantyne stondynge oñ a lay them on the

chaffire hoote :
640 pus must ye dizt a lamprey owt of his coffyn cote,

and so may youre souerayne ete merily be noote.
White herynge in a dische, if hit be seaward & White herrings

fresshe,
your souereyñ to ete in seesoun of yere / per-

aftur he wille Asche. 644 looke he be white by be boon / Þe roughe white the roe must be

& nesche;
with salt & wyne serue ye hym þe same / boldly,

& not to basshe.
Shrympes welle pyked / pe scales awey ye cast,

Round abowt a sawcer / ley ye þem in hast ; 648 þe vinegre in þe same sawcer, þat youre

lord

may
attast,
þañ with be said fische / he may fede hym , &

of þem make no wast."

white and tender:

serve with salt and wine,

Shrimps picked : lay them round a sawcer, and serve with vinegar."

I know about

“Now, fadir, feire falle ye / & crist yow haue in "Thanks, father,

cure, For of þe nurture of kervynge y suppose þat y be sure, Carving now.

(Fol. 180 b.) 652 but yet a-nodur office þer is / saue y dar not endure to frayne yow any further / for feere of displesure : but I hardly dare

ask you about For to be a sewere у wold

a Sewer's duties, у

hed þe connynge,
þañ durst y do my devoire / with any worship-

fulle to be wonnynge ;
656 señ þat y know pe course / & þe craft of kervynge,
y wold se pe sizt of a Sewerel / what wey he

shewethe in seruynge. 1 See the duties and allowances of “A Sewar for the Kynge,” Edw. IV., in Household Ordinances, pp. 36-7; Henry VII., p. 118. King Edmund risked his life for his assewer, p. 36.

how he is to serve.

The Duties of a
Sewer.

Office of a sewer.

"Son, since you

'ow sen yt is so, my son / þat science 'N

wold

ye wish to learn,

fayñ lere,
drede yow no þynge daungeresnes; þus? y shalle

do
my

devere I will gladly teach 660 to enforme yow feithfully with ryght gladsom chere,

& yf ye wolle lysteñ my lore / somewhat ye shalle

here: Take hede whañ be worshipfulle hed / þat is of

you.

Let the Sewer, as soon as the Master

any place

begins to say grace,

1. Ask the Panter

hath wasche afore mete / and bigynnethe to sey be

grace,
hie to the kitchen. 664 Vn-to be kechyñ þan looke

ye
take

youre trace, Entendyng & at youre commaundynge pe ser

uaundes of be place; Furst speke with þe pantere / or officere of þe

spicery

For frutes a-fore mete to ete þem fastyngely, butter,grapes,&c

668 as buttur / plommes / damesyns, grapes, and chery, Suche in sesons of þe yere / ar served / to make

men mery, if they are to be

Serche and enquere of þem / yf suche seruyse served.

shalle be pat day; þan commyñ with þe cooke , and looke what he

for fruits (as

II. Ask the Cook

wille say ;

and Surveyor

672 þe surveyoure & he / Þe certeynte telle yow wille

þay,

1 The word Sewer in the MS. is written small, the flourishes of the big initial O having taken up so much room. The name of the office of sewer is derived from the Old French esculier, or the scutellarius, i.e. the person who had to arrange the dishes, in the same way as the scutellery (scullery) was by rights the place where the dishes were kept. Domestic Architecture, v. 3, p. 80 n.

2 Inserted in a seemingly later hand,

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