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bustard, &c.,

&c.,

Also for bustard | betowre , & shovelere,' Gamelyn for

gamelyn? is in sesoun; Wodcok /lapewynk / Mertenet / larke, & venysoun, Salt and CinnaSparows / thrusches / alle þese .vij. with salt & cock, thrushes,

synamome : 544 Quayles, sparowes, & snytes, whañ þeire sesoun and quails, &c.

com, 3
Thus to provoke an appetide þe Sawce hathe is

operacioun.

Kervyng of Fische.

How to carve
Fish,

Now, good soñ, of kervynge of fysche y wot y

must be leere :
To peson or frumenty take pe tayle of pe bevere,

With pea sonpor furmity serve a Beaver's

| Shovelars feed most commonly upon the Sea-coast upon cockles and Shell-fish : being taken home, and dieted with new garbage and good meat, they are nothing inferior to fatted Gulls. Muffett, p. 109. Hic populus, a schevelard (the anas clypeata of naturalists). Wright's Voc., p. 253.

2 See note 6 to line 539, above.

3 Is not this line superfluous ? After 135 stanzas of 4 lines each, we here come to one of 5 lines. I suspect l. 644 is simply de trop. W. W. Skeat.

* For the fish in the Poem mentioned by Yarrell, and for references to him, see the list at the end of this Boke of Nurture.

5 Recipes for “ Grene Pesen" are in H. Ord. p. 426-7, p. 470; and Porre of Pesen, &c. p. 444.

6 Topsell in his Fourfooted Beasts, ed. Rowland, 1658, p. 36, says of Beavers, “ There hath been taken of them whose tails have weighed four pound weight, and they are accounted a very delicate dish, for being dressed they eat like Barbles : they are used by the Lotharingians and Savoyans [says Bellonius) for meat allowed to be eaten on fish-dayes, although the body that beareth them be flesh and unclean for food. The manner of their dressing is, first roasting, and afterward seething in an open pot, that so the evill vapour may go away, and some in pottage made with Saffron ; other with Ginger, and many with Brine ; it is certain that the tail and forefeet taste very sweet, from whence came the Proverbe, That sweet is that fish, which is not fish at all.

tail, salt Porpoise, &c.

Split up Herrings,

take out the roe and bones,

548 or ziff ye haue salt purpose' / zele? / torrentilles,

deynteithus fulle dere, ye must do afture pe form of frumenty, as y

said while ere. Baken herynge, dressid & dizt with white sugure; Þe white herynge by þe bak a brode ye splat hym

sure, 552 bothe roughe & boonus / voyded / þeñ may youre

lorde endure to ete merily with mustard pat ty me to his plesure. Of alle maner salt fische, looke ye pare awey the

felle, Salt samoun / Congur“, grone 5 fische / bope lynge 6

& myllewelle, 556 & on youre soueraynes trencheur ley hit, as y

eat with mustard.

Take the skin off salt tish,

Salmon, Ling, &c.,

yow telle.

and let the sauce be mustaru,

pe sawce per-to, good mustard, alway accordethe

welle.

3

1 See the recipe for “Furmente with Purpeys," H. Ord. p. 442.

? I suppose this to be Seal. If it is Eel, see recipes for “ Eles in Surre, Browet, Gravê, Brasyle,” in H. Ord. p. 467-8.

Wynkyn de Worde has a salte purpos or sele turrentyne.' If this is right, torrentille must apply to zele, and be a species of seal: if not, it must be allied to the Trout or Torrentyne, 1. 835.

Congur in Pyole, H. Ord. p. 469. “I must needs agree with Diocles, who being asked, whether were the better fish, a Pike or a Conger : That (said he) sodden, and this broild ; shewing us thereby, that all flaggy, slimy and moist fish (as Eeles, Congers, Lampreys, Oisters, Cockles, Mustles, and Scallopes) are best broild, rosted or bakt; but all other fish of a firm substance and drier constitution is rather to be sodden.'

Muffett, p. 145. 5 So MS., but grone may mean green, see l. 851 and note to it. If not ? for Fr. gronan, a gurnard. The Scotch crowner is a species of gurnard.

Lynge, fysshe, Colin, Palsgrave; but Colin, a Sea-cob, or Gull. Cotgrave. See Promptorium, p. 296.

7 Fr. Merlus ou Merluz, A Mellwell, or Keeling, a kind of small Cod whereof Stockfish is made. Cotgrave. And see Prompt. Parv. p. 318, note 4. “Cod-fish is a great Sea-whiting, called also a Keeling or Melwel.” Bennett's Muffett on Food, p. 148.

6

Hackney. (?)

Saltfysche, stokfischel / merlynge? / makerelle, but, but for Mackarel,

&c., butter tur ye may with swete buttur of Claynos 3 or els of hakenay, of Claynes or 560 þe boonus, skynnes / & fynnes, furst y-fette a-way, þen sett youre dische þere as youre souereyn may

tast & assay.
Pike“, to youre souereyñ y wold þat it be layd,

þe wombe is best, as y haue herd it saide, 564 Fysche & skyn to-gedir be hit convaied with pike sawce y-noughe per-to / & hit shalle not with plenty of

be denayd. The salt lamprey, gobeñ hit a slout 5 .vij. pecis y Salt Lampreys, assigne;

gobbets, þañ pike owt be boonus nyze pe bak spyne,

Of Pike, the belly is best,

sauce,

cut in seven

pick out the backbones,

1

Cogan says of stockfish, “Concerning which fish I will say no more than Erasmus hath written in his Colloquio. There is a kind of fishe, which is called in English Stockfish : it nourisheth no more than a stock. Yet I haue eaten of a pie made onely with Stockefishe, whiche hath been verie good, but the goodnesse was not so much in the fishe as in the cookerie, which may make that sauorie, which of it selfe is vnsavourie . . it is sayd a good Cooke can make you good meate of a whetstone. . Therfore a good Cooke is a good icwell, and to be much made of.” “Stockfish whilst it is unbeaten is called Buckhorne, because it is so tough ; when it is beaten upon the stock, it is termed stockfish.” Muffett. Lord Percy (A.D. 1512) was to have "cxl Stok fisch for the expensys of my house for an hole Yere, after ij.d. obol. the pece," p. 7, and Dccccxlij Salt fisch . . after iiij the pece," besides 9 barrels of white and 10 cades of red herring, 5 cades of Sprats (sprootis), 400 score salt salmon, 3 firkins of salt sturgeon and 5 cags of salt eels.

2 Fr. Merlan, a Whiting, a Merling. Cot. “The best Whitings are taken in Tweede, called Merlings, of like shape and vertue with ours, but far bigger.' Muffett, p. 174.

3 MS. may be Cleynes. ? what place can it be; Clayness, Claynose? Claybury is near Woodford in Essex.

• A recipe for Pykes in Brasey is in H. Ord. p. 451. The head of a Carp, the tail of a Pike, and the Belly of a Bream are most esteemed for their tenderness, shortness, and well rellishing. Muffett, p. 177.

• Cut it in gobets or lumps a-slope. “Aslet or a-slorote (asloppe, a slope), Oblique.P. Parv. But slout may be slot, bolt of a door, and so aslout = in long strips.

serve with onions and galentine.

Plaice: cut off the

fins, cross it with a knife,

sauce with wine, &c.

568 and ley hit on your lordes trenchere wheber he

sowpe or dyne, & þat ye haue ssoddyn ynons' to meddille with

galantyne.? Off playce, looke ye put a-way þe watur clend,

afftur þat þe fynnes also, þat þey be not sene; 572 Crosse hym þeñ with your knyffe þat is so kene; wyne or ale / powder per-to, youre souerayñ welle

to queme. Gurnard / roche * / breme / chevyñ / base / melet /

in her kervynge, Perche / rooches / darce 6 / Makerelle, & whitynge, 576 Codde / haddok / by be bak / splat þem in þe

dische liynge,
pike owt be boonus, clense pe refett? in pe bely

bydynge;
Soolus / Carpe / Breme de mere, & trowt,

Gurnard, Chub,

Roach, Dace, Cod,
&c., split up and
spread on the
dish.

[Fol, 179 b.)

1 Onions make a man stink and wink. Berthelson, 1754. The Onion, though it be the Countrey mans meat, is better to vse than to tast : for he that eateth euerie day tender Onions with Honey to his breakfast, shall liue the more healthfull, so that they be not too new.' Maison Rustique, p. 178, ed. 1616.

2 Recipes for this sauce are in Liber C. p. 30, and H. Ord. p. 441: powdered crusts, galingale, ginger, and salt, steeped in vinegar and strained. See note to l. 634 below.

3 See “ Plays in Cene," that is, Ceue, chives, or eschalots. H. Ord. p. 452.

4 Of all sea-fish Rochets and Gurnards are to be preferred; for their flesh is firm, and their substance purest of all other. Next unto them Plaise and Soles are to be numbered, being eaten in time; for if either of them be once stale, there is no flesh more carrion-like, nor more troublesome to the belly of min. Mouffet,

p. 164.

6 Roches or Loches in Egurdouce, H. Ord. p. 469.
6 Or dacce.

7 Rivet, roe of a fish. Halliwell. Dan, ravn, rogn (rowne of Pr. Parv.) under which Molbech refers to AS. hræfe (raven, Bosworth) as meaning roe or spawn. G. P. Marsh.

8 See “ Soles in Cyne," that is, Cyue, H. Ord. p. 452.

9 Black Sea Bream, or Old Wife. Cantharus griseus. Atkinson. “Abramides Marinæ. Breams of the Sea be a white and solid

Soles, Carp, &c.. take off as served.

þey must be takyñ of as þey in þe dische lowt, 580 bely & bak / by gobyn' be boon to pike owt,

so serve ye lordes trenchere, looke ye welle abowt.
Whale / Swerdfysche / purpose / dorray? / rosted Whale, porpoise,

wele,
Bret 3 / samon / Congur | sturgeoun / turbut, & congur, turbot,

zele, 584 þornebak / thurle polle / hound fysch" / halybut, to Halybut, ke.,

hym þat hathe heele, alle þese / cut in þe dische as youre lord etethe at cut in the dish,

meele.

Tenche in Iely or in Sawce? / loke þere ye kut and also Tench in

.

hit so,

3

and on youre lordes trenchere se þat it be do. 588 Elis & lampurnes8 rosted / where þat euer ye go,

On roast

Lamprons substance, good juice, most easie digestion, and good nourishment." Muffett, p. 148.

gobbets, pieces, see 1. 638.

2 Fr. Dorée : f. The Doree, or Saint Peters fish ; also (though not so properly) the Goldfish or Goldenie. Cotgrave.

Brett, Şxxi. He beareth Azure a Birt (or Burt or Berte) proper by the name of Brit. . . It is by the Germans termed a Brett-fish or Brett-cock. Randle Holme.

4 Rec. for Congur in Sause, H. Ord. p. 401; in Pyole, p. 469.

5 This must be Randle Holme's Dog fish or Sea Dog Fish, It is by the Dutch termed a Flackhund, and a Hundfisch : the Skin is hard and redish, beset with hard and sharp scales ; sharp and rough and black, the Belly is more white and softer. Bk II. Ch. XIV. No. lv, p. 343-4. For names of Fish the whole chapter should be consulted, p. 321—345.

6 • His flesh is stopping, slimy, viscous, & very unwholesome ; and (as Alexander Benedictus writeth) of a most unclean and damnable nourishment . . they engender palsies, stop the lungs, putrifie in the stomach, and bring a man that much eats them to infinite diseases . . they are worst being fried, best being kept in gelly, made strong of wine and spices.' Muffett, p. 189.

? Recipes for Tenches in grave, L. C. C. p. 25; in Cylk (wine, &c.), H. Ord. p. 470; in Bresyle (boiled with spices, &c.), p. 468.

* Lamprons in Galentyn, H. Ord. p. 449. “Lampreys and Lamprons differ in bigness only and in goodness ; they are both a very sweet and nourishing meat. . . The little ones called Lamprons are best broild, but the great ones called Lampreys are best baked.” Muffett, p. 181-3. See l. 630-40 of this poem.

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