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Mustard for

brawn, &c.,

Verjuice for veal,

&c.,

Chawdon for

cygnet and swan,

Garlic, &c., for beef and goose,

Ginger for fawn, &c.,

Mustard and sugar for pheasant, &c.,

Gamelyn for

heronsew, &c.,

Sugar and Salt for brew, &c.,

532 suche sawce as hym likethe / to make hym glad &

mery.

Mustard is meete for brawne / beef, or powdred2 motoun;

verdius to boyled capoun / veel / chiken /or bakoñ; And to signet & swañ, convenyent is pe chawdon1;

536 Roost beeff/ & goos / with garlek, vinegre, or pepur, in conclusioun.

5

Gynger sawce to lambe, to kyd / pigge, or fawn/in fere;

to feysand, partriche, or cony / Mustard with pe

sugure;

Sawce gamelyn to heyron-sewe / egret / crane / & plovere ;

540 also brewe7/ Curlew / sugre & salt with watere of pe ryvere;

1 Recipe for lumbardus Mustard' in Liter Cure, p. 30.

2 Fleshe poudred or salted. Caro salsa, vel salita. Withals.

3 The juice of unripe grapes. See Maison Rustique, p. 620.

"3

4 Chaudwyn, 1. 688 below. See a recipe for "Chaudern for Swannes in Household Ordinances, p. 441; and for "pandon (MS. chaudon *) for wylde digges, swannus and piggus," in Liber Cure, p. 9, and "Sawce for swannus," Ibid, p. 29. It was made of chopped liver and entrails boiled with blood, bread, wine, vinegar, pepper, cloves, and ginger.

See the recipe "To make Gynger Sause" in H. Ord. p. 441, and "For sawce gynger," L. C. C. p. 52.

6

No doubt the "sawce fyne þat men calles camelyne" of Liber Cure, p. 30, raysons of corouns,' nuts, bread crusts, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, powdered together and mixed with vinegar. "Camelin, sauce cameline, A certaine daintie Italian sauce." Cot. A bird mentioned in Archæologia, xiii. 341. Hall. See note

1. 422.

* Sloane 1986, p. 48, or fol. 27 b. It is not safe to differ from Mr Morris, but on comparing the C of Chaudon for swannis,' col. 1, with that of 'Caudelle of almonde,' at the top of the second col., I have no doubt that the letter is C. So on fol. 31 b. the C of Chaudon is more like the C of Charlet opposite than the T of Take under it. The C of Caudel dalmon on fol. 34 b., and that of Cultellis, fol. 24, 1. 5, are of the same shape.

Also for bustard / betowre & shovelere, Gamelyn for

bustard, &c.,

gamelyn 2 is in sesoun;

Wodcok/lapewynk/ Mertenet / larke, & venysoun,
Sparows/thrusches / alle pese .vij. with salt &

synamome:

544 Quayles, sparowes, & snytes, whañ þeire sesoun and quails, &c.

com,3

Thus to provoke an appetide pe Sawce hathe is

operacioun.

Kerbyng of Fische.

No
Tow, good son, of kervynge of fysche y wot y
must be leere:

To peson5 or frumenty take pe tayle of pe bevere,

1 Shovelars feed most commonly upon the Sea-coast upon cockles and Shell-fish being taken home, and dieted with new garbage and good meat, they are nothing inferior to fatted Gulls. Muffett, p. 109. Hic populus, a schevelard (the anas clypeata of naturalists). Wright's Voc., p. 253.

:

2 See note 6 to line 539, above.

Is not this line superfluous? After 135 stanzas of 4 lines each, we here come to one of 5 lines. I suspect 1. 544 is simply de trop. W. W. Skeat.

4 For the fish in the Poem mentioned by Yarrell, and for references to him, see the list at the end of this Boke of Nurture.

5 Recipes for "Grene Pesen" are in H. Ord. p. 426-7, p. 470; and Porre of Pesen, &c. p. 444.

6 Topsell in his Fourfooted Beasts, ed. Rowland, 1658, p. 36, says of Beavers, "There hath been taken of them whose tails have weighed four pound weight, and they are accounted a very delicate dish, for being dressed they eat like Barbles: they are used by the Lotharingians and Savoyans [says Bellonius] for meat allowed to be eaten on fish-dayes, although the body that beareth them be flesh and unclean for food. The manner of their dressing is, first roasting, and afterward seething in an open pot, that so the evill vapour may go away, and some in pottage made with Saffron ; other with Ginger, and many with Brine; it is certain that the tail and forefeet taste very sweet, from whence came the Proverbe, That sweet is that fish, which is not fish at all."

Salt and Cinna

mon for wood

cock, thrushes,

&c.,

How to carve

Fish.

With pea soup or furmity serve a Beaver's

tail, salt Porpoise, &c.

Split up Herrings,

take out the roe and bones,

eat with mustard.

Take the skin off salt fish,

Salmon, Ling, &c.,

and let the sauce be mustard,

548 or 3iff ye haue salt purpose1 / zele2 / torrentille3, deynteithus fulle dere,

ye must do afture pe forme of frumenty, as y said while ere.

Baken herynge, dressid & dizt with white sugure;
pe white herynge by pe bak a brode ye splat hym

sure,

552 bothe roughe & boonus / voyded / þeñ may youre
lorde endure

to ete merily with mustard pat tyme to his plesure.
Of alle maner salt fische, looke ye pare awey the
felle,

6

Salt samoun/Congur, grone 5 fische / bope lynge & myllewelle7,

556 & on youre soueraynes trencheur ley hit, as y

yow telle.

pe sawce per-to, good mustard, alway accordethe welle.

1 See the recipe for "Furmente with Purpeys," H. Ord. p. 442. 2 I suppose this to be Seal. If it is Eel, see recipes for "Eles in Surre, Browet, Gravê, Brasyle," in H. Ord. p. 467-8.

3 Wynkyn de Worde has 'a salte purpos or sele turrentyne.' If this is right, torrentille must apply to zele, and be a species of seal if not, it must be allied to the Trout or Torrentyne, 1. 835.

Congur in Pyole, H. Ord. p. 469. 'I must needs agree with Diocles, who being asked, whether were the better fish, a Pike or a Conger That (said he) sodden, and this broild; shewing us thereby, that all flaggy, slimy and moist fish (as Eeles, Congers, Lampreys, Oisters, Cockles, Mustles, and Scallopes) are best broild, rosted or bakt; but all other fish of a firm substance and drier constitution is rather to be sodden.' Muffett, p. 145.

5 So MS., but grone may mean green, see 1. 851 and note to it. If not for Fr. gronan, a gurnard. The Scotch crowner is a species of gurnard.

Lynge, fysshe, Colin, Palsgrave; but Colin, a Sea-cob, or Gull. Cotgrave. See Promptorium, p. 296.

7 Fr. Merlus ou Merluz, A Mellwell, or Keeling, a kind of small Cod whereof Stockfish is made. Cotgrave. And see Prompt. Parv. p. 348, note 4. “Cod-fish is a great Sea-whiting, called also a Kceling or Melwel." Bennett's Muffett on Food, p. 148.

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Saltfysche, stokfische' / merlynge2 / makerelle, but- but for Mackarel,

&c., butter

tur ye may

Hackney.(?)

with swete buttur of Claynos 3 or els of hakenay, of Claynes or 560 þe boonus, skynnes / & fynnes, furst y-fette a-way,

þen sett youre dische pere as youre souereyn may
tast & assay.

Pike, to youre souereyn y wold þat it be layd,
þe wombe is best, as y haue herd it saide,

564 Fysche & skyn to-gedir be hit convaied

with pike sawce y-noughe per-to / & hit shalle not with plenty of

sauce.

be denayd.

assigne;

pañ pike owt pe boonus nyze pe bak spyne,

The salt lamprey, gobeñ hit a slout 5 .vij. pecis y Salt Lampreys,

cut in seven
gobbets,
pick out the back-
bones,

1 Cogan says of stockfish, "Concerning which fish I will say no more than Erasmus hath written in his Colloquio. There is a kind of fishe, which is called in English Stockfish: it nourisheth no more than a stock. Yet I haue eaten of a pie made onely with Stockefishe, whiche hath been verie good, but the goodnesse was not so much in the fishe as in the cookerie, which may make that sauorie, which of it selfe is vnsavourie . . it is sayd a good Cooke can make you good meate of a whetstone. Therfore a good Cooke is a good iewell, and to be much made of." "Stockfish whilst it is unbeaten is called Buckhorne, because it is so tough; when it is beaten upon the stock, it is termed stockfish." Muffett. Lord Percy (A.D. 1512) was to have "cxl Stok fisch for the expensys of my house for an hole Yere, after ij.d. obol. the pece," p. 7, and Dccccxlij Salt fisch.. after iiij the pece," besides 9 barrels of white and 10 cades of red herring, 5 cades of Sprats (sprootis), 400 score salt salmon, 3 firkins of salt sturgeon and 5 cags of salt eels.

66

6

2 Fr. Merlan, a Whiting, a Merling. Cot. The best Whitings are taken in Tweede, called Merlings, of like shape and vertue with ours, but far bigger.' Muffett, p. 174.

3 MS. may be Cleynes. ? what place can it be; Clayness, Claynose? Claybury is near Woodford in Essex.

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Of Pike, the belly is best,

4 A recipe for Pykes in Brasey is in H. Ord. p. 451. The head of a Carp, the tail of a Pike, and the Belly of a Bream are most esteemed for their tenderness, shortness, and well rellishing. Muffett, p. 177.

5 Cut it in gobets or lumps a-slope. "Aslet or a-slowte (asloppe, a slope), Oblique." P. Parv. But slout may be slot, bolt of a door, and so aslout = in long strips.

serve with onions and galentine.

Plaice: cut off the

fins, cross it with a knife,

sauce with wine, &c.

Gurnard, Chub,

Roach, Dace, Cod,
&c., split up and
spread on the
dish.

[Fol. 179 b.]

568 and ley hit on your lordes trenchere wheper he sowpe or dyne,

1

& pat ye haue ssoddyn ynons to meddille with galantyne.2

Off playce,3 looke ye put a-way pe watur clend, afftur þat þe fynnes also, þat þey be not sene; 572 Crosse hym þeñ with your knyffe þat is so kene ; wyne or ale powder per-to, youre souerayñ welle to queme.

Gurnard/roche/ breme / chevyñ/base/melet/ in her kervynge,

Perche/rooche/ darce / Makerelle, & whitynge, 576 Codde/ haddok / by pe bak / splat pem in þe

dische liynge,

pike owt pe boonus, clense pe refett 7 in þe bely bydynge;

9

Soolus/ Carpe / Breme de mere, & trowt,

(

1 Onions make a man stink and wink. Berthelson, 1754. The Onion, though it be the Countrey mans meat, is better to vse than to tast: for he that eateth euerie day tender Onions with Honey to his breakfast, shall liue the more healthfull, so that they be not too new.' Maison Rustique, p. 178, ed. 1616.

2 Recipes for this sauce are in Liber C. p. 30, and H. Ord. p. 441: powdered crusts, galingale, ginger, and salt, steeped in vinegar and strained. See note to 1. 634 below.

3 See " Plays in Cene," that is, Ceue, chives, or eschalots.- H. Ord. p. 452.

4 Of all sea-fish Rochets and Gurnards are to be preferred; for their flesh is firm, and their substance purest of all other. Next unto them Plaise and Soles are to be numbered, being eaten in time; for if either of them be once stale, there is no flesh more carrion-like, nor more troublesome to the belly of man. Mouffet, p. 164.

5 Roches or Loches in Egurdouce, H. Ord. p. 469.
6 Or dacce.

Rivet, roe of a fish. Halliwell. Dan. ravn, rogn (rowne of Pr. Parv.) under which Molbech refers to AS. hræfe (raven, Bosworth) as meaning roe or spawn. G. P. Marsh.

8 See "Soles in Cyne," that is, Cyue, H. Ord. p. 452.

9 Black Sea Bream, or Old Wife. Cantharus griseus. Atkinson. "Abramides Marinæ. Breams of the Sea be a white and solid

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