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and mince them small in the
Larger roast birds,
as the Osprey, &c.,
raise up [? cut off]
the legs, then the wings,
lay the body in the middle,
with the wings and legs round its
take off the wings and legs;
pour on ale or
in the same dish. 408 & ley þem betwene pe legges, & pe whynges in þe same platere.
Give your lord the left wing,
& pat same with pe fore parte of þe knyfe be ye vp
400 Mynse hem smalle in pe siruppe: of fumosite algate be ye feerynge.
and if he want it,
Good son, of alle fowles rosted y telle yow as y Cañ,
the right one too.
reyse vp po leggis of alle pese furst, y sey the thañ, 404 afftur þat, pe whynges large & rownd / þañ dare blame þe no man ;
Lay the body in myddes of pe dische /or in a-nodur chargere,
of vche of pese with whynges in myddes, pe legges so aftir there.
of alle pese in .vj. lees/ if þat ye2 wille, ye may
mince them into 412 & mynse þem þañ in to pe sawce with powdurs
kene of myght.
Capoñ, & hen of hawt grees 3, pus wold þey he dight:
Furst, vn-lace pe whynges, pe legges pan in sight, Cast ale or wyne oñ þem, as per-to belongeth of ryght,
Take capoun or heñ so enlased, & devide;
take pe lift whynge; in þe sawce mynce hit eucñ beside,
and yf youre souerayne ete sauerly / & haue perto appetide,
416 þañ mynce þat opur whynge per-to to satisfye hym pat tyde.
1 slices, strips.
2 MS. may be yo.
3 De haute graisse, Full, plumpe, goodlie, fat, well-fed, in good liking.' Cotgrave.
Feysaunt, partriche, plouer, & lapewynk, y yoW Pheasants, &c. :
areyse be whynges furst/ do as y yow pray;
In be dische forthe-withe, bope pat ye ham lay, 420 þañ aftur þat / pe leggus / without lengur delay.
wodcok / Betowre2 / Egret3 / Snyte1 / and Curlew, Woodcocks, heyrounsew5/resteratiff þey ar/ & so is the brewe; Heronshaws, þese .vij. fowles / must be vnlaced, y telle yow
take off the wings,
put them in the
424 breke pe pynons / nek, & beek, pus ye must þem break the pinions,
neck, and beak.
1 Fr. arracher. To root vp.. pull away by violence. Cotgrave.
2 The Bittern or Bittour, Ardea Stellaris.
þañ þe whynges in pe dische / ye may not þem then the wings,
3 Egrette, as Aigrette; A foule that resembles a Heron. Aigrette (A foule verie like a Heron, but white); a criell Heron, or dwarfe Heron. Cot. Ardea alba, A crielle or dwarfe heron. Cooper.
4 Snype, or snyte, byrde, Ibex. P.P. A snipe or snite a bird lesse than a woodcocke. Gallinago minor, &c. Baret.
5 A small Heron or kind of Heron; Shakspere's editors' handsaw. The spelling heronshaw misled Cotgrave, &c.; he has Haironniere. A herons neast, or ayrie; a herne-shaw, or shaw of wood, wherein herons breed. 'An Hearne. Ardea. A hearnsew, Ardeola Baret, 1580. Fr. heronceau, a young heron, gives E. heronshaw,' Wedgwood. I cannot find heronceau, only heronneau. A yong herensew is lyghter dygestyon than a crane. A. Borde. Regyment, fol. F i, ed. 1567. 'In actual application a heronshaw, hernshaw or hernsew, is simply a Common Heron (Ardea Vulgaris) with no distinction as to age, &c.' Atkinson.
6 The Brewe is mentioned three times, and each time in connection with the Curlew. I believe it to be the Whimbrel (Numenius Phæopus) or Half Curlew. I have a recollection (or what seems like it) of having seen the name with a French form like Whimbreau. [Pennant's British Zoology, ii. 347, gives Le petit Courly, ou le Courlieu, as the French synonym of the Whimbrel.] Morris (Orpen) says the numbers of the Whimbrel are lessening from their being sought as food. Atkinson.
lay the body between them.
428 pe body pañ in pe middes laid / like as y yow
Crane: take off the wings, but not
the trompe in his breast.
carve like you do the Crane,
keeping their feet on.
Quails, larks, pigeons :
give your lord the legs first.
Fawn serve the kidney first,
then a rib. Pick the fyxfax out of the neck.
Pig: 1. shoulder, 2. rib.
The Crane is a fowle / pat stronge is with to fare; be whynges ye areyse / fulle large evyñ thare; of hyre trompe in þe brest / loke þat ye beware. 432 towche not hir trompe / euermore þat ye spare.
Pecok/Stork / Bustarde / & Shovellewre,
ye must vnlace þem in pe plite 2 / of pe crane prest & pure,
so þat vche of þem haue peyre feete aftur my cure, 436 and euer of a sharpe knyff wayte þat ye be sure. Of quayle/ sparow / larke / & litelle / mertinet, pygeoun/swalow / thrusche / osulle / ye not for
pe legges to ley to your souereyne ye ne lett, 440 and afturward þe whyngus if his lust be to ete.
Off Fowen / kid / lambe, / pe kydney furst it lay, ban lifft vp the shuldur, do as y yow say, 3iff he wille perof ete / a rybbe to hym convay; 444 but in þe nek pe fyxfax3 pat pow do away.
venesoun rost in pe dische if youre souerayne hit chese,
þe shuldir of a pigge furst / þañ a rybbe, yf hit wille hym plese;
"The singular structure of the windpipe and its convolutions lodged between the two plates of bone forming the sides of the keel of the sternum of this bird (the Crane) have long been known. The trachea or windpipe, quitting the neck of the bird, passes downwards and backwards between the branches of the merrythought towards the inferior edge of the keel, which is hollowed out to receive it. Into this groove the trachea passes, . . . and after making three turns passes again forwards and upwards and ultimately backwards to be attached to the two lobes of the lungs." Yarrell, Brit. Birds ii. 441. Atkinson.
2 Way, manner. Plyte or state (plight, P.). Status. P. Parv. 3 A sort of gristle, the tendon of the neck. Germ. flachse, Brockett. And see Wheatley's Dict. of Reduplicated Words.
pe cony, ley hym on pe bak in pe disch, if he haue Rabbit: lay him
on his back;
448 while ye par awey þe skyň oñ vche side / & þañ pare off his skin; breke hym or y[e] sece
betwene pe hyndur leggis breke pe canelle booñ,
so lay your cony wombelonge vche side to pe
452 betwene pe bulke, chyne, pe sides to-gedure lat pem
The .ij. sides departe from pe chyne, pus is my separate the sides loore,
from the chine,
pen ley bulke, chyne, & sides, to-gedire / as þey put them together
break his haunch
bone, cut him
down each side of
the back, lay him on his belly,
Furst kit owte pe nape in þe nek / pe shuldurs cutting out the
nape of the neck;
456 with pe sides serve youre souerayne / hit state to give your lord
Rabettes sowkers,2 pe furper parte from pe hyndur, Sucking rabbits: ye devide;
cut in two, then
þañ þe hyndur part at tweyn ye kut þat tyde, pare þe skyñ away / & let it not pere abide, 460 þañ serue youre souerayne of þe same / pe deynteist of pe side.
afftur my symplenes y haue shewed, as y suppose :
1 The canelle boon' between the hind legs must be the pelvis, or pelvic arch, or else the ilium or haunch-bone: and in cutting up the rabbit many good carvers customarily disjoint the haunch-bones before helping any one to the rump. Atkinson.
[Fol. 177 b.]
The maner & forme of kervynge of metes pat byñ Such is the way
of carving gross meats.
2 Rabet, yonge conye, Cunicellus. P. Parv. The Conie beareth her Rabettes xxx dayes, and then kindeleth, and then she must be bucked againe, for els she will eate vp hir Rabets. 1575. Geo. Turbervile, The Booke of Venerie, p. 178, ch. 63.-H. H. Gibbs.
the hind part
in two; pare the skin off,
serve the daintiest bit from the side.
Cut each piece
into four slices (?)
for your master to dip in his sauce.
Of large birds' wings,
put only three
bits at once in the sauce.
Of small birds' wings,
scrape the flesh to the end of the
and put it on your lord's trencher.
How to carve
Open hot ones at the top of the crust,
464 as ye se/ and by vse of youre self / ye may gete yow loos.
But furpermore enforme yow y must in metis kervynge;
Mynse ye must iiij lees' / to oon morselle hangynge, þat youre mastir may take with .ij. fyngurs in his sawce dippynge,
468 and so no napkyň / brest, ne borclothe2, in any wise enbrowynge.
Of gret fowle / in to pe sawce mynse be whynge this wise;
pas not .iij. morcelles in pe sawce at onis, as y yow avise;
To youre souerayne pe gret fowles legge ley, as is þe
472 and pus mowe ye neuer mysse of alle connynge
Of alle maner smale bryddis, pe whyngis on þe trencher leyinge,
with pe poynt of youre knyfe / pe flesche to pe booñ end ye brynge,
and so conveye hit on pe trenchere, þat wise your souerayne plesynge,
476 and with faire salt & trenchoure / hym also oft
Almanere bakemetes pat byñ good and hoot,
1 slices, or rather strips.
2 board-cloth, table-cloth.
3 Part IV. of Liber Cure Cocorum, p. 38-42, is of bakun mete.' On Dishes and Courses generally, see Randle Holme, Bk. III. Chap. III. p. 77-86.
4 rere a cofyn of flowre so fre. L. C. C., p. 38, l. 8. The crust of a raised pie.