Obrazy na stronie

dishes may make a state.


252 þat þe sewere may make a state / & plese his mastir so that the Sewer

(arranger of welle. whan pe state hath wasche, pe surnap drawne When your lord

has washed, playne, þeñ must ye bere forbe pe surnape before youre take up the Sur

nape with your souerayne, and so must ye take it vppe


youre armes two arms, twayne,

and carry it back 256 and to be Ewery bere hit youre


to the Ewery. a-bowt youre nekke a towelle ye bere, so to serue Carry a towel

round your neck. youre lorde, þañ to hym make eurtesie, for so it wille accorde. vnkeuer youre brede, & by þe salt sette hit euyn Uncover

bread; on pe borde; 260 looke þere be knyfe & spone , & napkyñ with- see that all diners outy[n] any worde.

and napkin. Euer whañ ye departe from youre soueraigne, looke Bow when you


leave your lord.
ye bowe your knees ;
to be port-payne forthe ye passe, & þere viij. Take eight loaves


Set at eiþur end of þe table .iiij. loofes at a mese,

and put four at 264 þañ looke þat ye haue napky & spone euery

persone to plese. wayte welle to be Sewere how many potages Lay for as many

persons as the keuered he; keuer ye so many personis for youre honeste. .

potages for, þañ serve forthe youre table / vche persone to his

degre, 268 and þat þer lak no bred / trenchoure, ale, & wyne / and have plenty

euermore ye se.

have knife, spoon,

from the bread

each end,

Sewer has set


make is repeated in the MS.

?“A Portpayne for the said Pantre, an elne longe and a yerd brode.” The Percy, or Northumberland Household Book, 1512, (ed. 1827), p. 16, under Lynnon Clothe. 'A porte paine, to beare breade fro the Pantree to the table with, lintheum panarium.'


Be lively and soft-spoken, clean and well dressed.

be glad of chere / Curteise of kne / & soft of speche, Fayre handes, clene nayles / honest arrayed, y the



Don't spit or put your fingers into cups.

Stop all blaming

and backbiting, and prevent complaints.

Coughe* not, ner spitte, nor to lowd ye reche, 272 ne put youre fyngurs in the cuppe / mootes for to

seche, yet to alle pe lordes haue ye a sight / for grog

gynge & atwytynge 1 of fellows þat be at pe mete, for þeire bakbytynge; Se þey be serued of bred, ale, & wyne, for com

playnynge, 276 and so shalle ye haue of alle men / good loue &


Symple condicions.

General Directions for Behaviour.

Symple Condicyons of a persone þat is not taught,

nose, or let it

is y wille ye eschew, for euermore þey be nowght. Don't claw your

youre hed ne bak ye claw / a fleigh as paughe ye back, as if after a flea;

sought, or your head, as if 280 ne youre heere ye stryke, ne pyke / to pralle? for a

flesche mought.3 See that your eyes Glowtynge 4 ne twynkelynge with youre yze / ne to are not blinking

heuy of chere, and watery.

watery/wynkynge/ne droppynge / but of sight clere. Don't pick your

pike not youre nose / ne þat hit be droppynge drop,

with no peerlis clere,

284 Snyff nor snitynge 5 hyt to lowd / lest youre loud,

souerayne hit here. * Mark over h. 1 A.S. ætwitan, twit; odwitan, blame.

prowl, proll, to seek for prey, from Fr. proie by the addition of a formative l, as kneel from knee.' Wedgwood.

3 Louse is in English in 1530 · Louse, a beest-pov. Palsgrave. And see the note, p. 19, Book of Quinte Essence.

4 To look sullen (?). Glouting round her rock, to fish she falls. Chapman, in Todd's Johnson. Horrour and glouting admiration. Milton. Glouting with sullen spight. Garth.

5 Snytyn a nese or a candyl. Emungo, mungo. Prompt. Parv. Emungo, to make cleane the nose. Emunctio, snuffyng or wypynge

or blow it too


. or twist your heck.


wrye not youre nek a doyle' as hit were a dawe;
put not youre handes in youre hosen youre codware? Don't claw your
fer to clawe,

nor pikynge, nor trifelynge / ne shrukkynge as

þauz ye wold sawe ; 288 your hondes frote ne rub / brydelynge with brest rub your hands,

vppon your crawe; with

youre eris pike not / ner be ye slow of herynge; pick your ears, areche / ne spitt to ferre / ne haue lowd laughynge ; retch, or spit too Speke not lowd / be war of mowynge 3 &

scornynge ; 292 be no lier with youre mouthe / ne lykorous, ne Don't tell lies,

dryvelynge. with youre mouthe ye vse nowþer to squyrt, nor or squirt with

your mouth, spowt; be not gapynge nor ganynge, ne with þy mouth gape, pout, or

to powt; lik not with þy tonge in a disch, a mote to haue owt. put your tongue

ir a dislı to pick 296 Be not rasche ne recheles, it is not worth a clowt. dust out.

[Fol. 175.) with youre brest sighe, nor cowghe/nor brethe, Don't cough,

youre souerayne before ; be yoxinge, 4 ne bolkynge / ne gronynge, neuer þe hiccup, or belch,

more ; of the nose. Cooper. Snuyt uw neus, Blow your nose. Sewel, 1740; but snuyven, ofte snuffen, To Snuffe out the Snot or Filth out of ones Nose. Hexham, 1660. A learned friend, who in his bachelor days investigated some of the curiosities of London Life, informs me that the modern Cockney term is sling. In the dresscircle of the Bower Saloon, Stangate, admission 3d., he saw stuck up, four years ago, the notice, Gentlemen are requested not to sling,” and being philologically disposed, he asked the attendant the meaning of the word.

1 askew. Doyle, squint. Gloucestershire. Halliwell.

Codde, of mannys pryuyte (preuy membris). Piga, mentula. Promptorium Parvulorum.

3 Mowe or skorne, Vangia vel valgia. Catholicon, in P. P.

* 3yxyū Singulcio. 3yxynge singultus. P. P. To yexe, sobbe, or haue the hicket. Singultio. Baret. To yexe or sobbc, Hicken, To Hick, or to have the Hick-hock. Hexham.

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straddle your legs,

with youre feet trampelynge, ne settynge youre

leggis a shore';
300 with youre body be not shrubbynge ? ; Iettynge 3 is

no loore.

or scrub your body.

Don't pick your teeth,

cast stinking breath on your lord,

fire your stern guns, or expose

your codware

Good soñ, þy tethe be not pikynge, grisynge,* ne

ne stynkynge of brethe on youre souerayne

castynge ;
with puffynge ne blowynge, nowþer fulle ne

304 and alle wey be ware of þy hyndur part from

gunnes blastynge.
These Cuttid galauntes with theire codware; þat

is añ vngoodly gise ;-
Other tacches 7 as towchynge / y spare not to

myspraue aftur myne avise, -
1? shorewise, as shores. 'Schore, undur settynge of a þynge þat
wolde falle.' P. Parv. Du. Schooren, To Under-prop. Aller eschays,
To shale, stradle, goe crooked, or wide betweene the feet, or legs.

2 Dutch Schrobben, To Rubb, to Scrape, to Scratch. Hexham.

3 Iettyn verno. P. Parv. Mr Way quotes from Palsgrave, I iette, I make a countenaunce with my legges, ie me iamboye,&c.; and from Cotgrave, “ Iamloyer, to iet, or wantonly to go in and out with the legs," &c.

4 grinding.
gnastyn (gnachyn) Fremo, strideo. Catholicon. Gnastyng of
the tethe-stridevr, grincement. Palsg. Du. gnisteren, To Gnash,
or Creake with the teeth. Hexham.

6 Short coats and tight trousers were a great offence to old
writers accustomed to long nightgown clothes. Compare Chaucer's
complaint in the Canterbury Tales, The Parsones Tale, De Superbiâ,
p. 193, col. 2, ed. Wright. “Upon that other syde, to speke of the
horrible disordinat scantnes of clothing, as ben these cuttid sloppis
or anslets, that thurgh her schortnes ne covereth not the schamful
membre of man, to wickid entent. Alas! som men of hem schewen
the schap and the boce of the horrible swollen membres, that semeth
like to the maladies of hirnia, in the wrapping of here hose, and
eek the buttokes of hem, that faren as it were the hinder part of a
sche ape in the fulle of the moone." The continuation of the

"Youre schort gownys thriftlesse”
also noted in the song in Harl. MS. 372. See Weste, Booke of
Demeanour, l. 141, below.

Fr. tache, spot, staine, blemish, reproach. C.


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very curious.




will avoid.'

when he shalle serue his mastir, before hym oñ before your

þe table hit lyes ;
308 Euery souereyne of sadnes i alle suche sort shalle

Many moo condicions a mañ myght fynde / þañ Many other

now ar named here,
þerfore Euery honest seruand / avoyd alle thoo, & a good servant

worshippe lat hym leere. Panter, yoman of þe Cellere, butlere, & Ewere, 312 y wille þat ye obeye to be marshalle, Sewere, &

kervere, 2 » “Good syr, y yow pray þe connynge 3 of kervynge teache

ye wille me teche, and pe fayre handlynge of a knyfe, y yow beseche, handle a knife,

and cut up birds, and alle wey where y shalle alle maner fowles /

breke, vnlace, or seche,4 316 and with Fysche or flesche, how shalle y demene fish, and flesh.'

me with eche.”
“Soñ, thy knyfe must be bryght, fayre, & clene,
and þyne handes faire wasche, it wold be welle besene.
hold alwey thy knyfe sure, þy self not to tene,

"Hold your knife 320 and passe not ij. fyngurs & a thombe on thy knyfe fingers and a so kene;

thumb, In mydde wey of thyne hande set the ende of þe in your midpalm.

haft Sure, Vnlasynge & mynsynge .ij. fyngurs with þe thombe / Do your carving,

þat may ye endure. kervynge / of bred leiynge / voydynge of cromes lay your bread,

& trenchewre, 324 with ij.fyngurs and a thombe / loke ye haue be Cure. two fingers and

and take of trenchers, with


sobriety, gravity.

2 Edward IV. had “Bannerettes IIII, or Bacheler Knights, to be kervers and cupberers in this courte? H. Ord., p. 32.

3 MS. comynge.

* See the Termes of a Keruer in Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Keruynge below.

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