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Bewar at eve * / of crayme of cowe & also of the In the evening

don't take cream, goote, þauz it be late,

(*.at eve' has a

red mark through of Strawberies & hurtilberyes, with the cold as if to cut it out]

strawberries, or Ioncate,

junket, For þese may marre many a man changynge his

astate, 84 but ziff he haue aftur, hard chese / wafurs, with unless you eat

hard cheese with wyne ypocrate. hard chese 3 hathe þis condicioun in his operacioun: Hard cheese

keeps your bowels
Furst he wille a stomak kepe in the botom open,
the helthe of


ys in his condicioun ; 88 yf he diete hyī thus dayly/he is a good conclusioun. buttir is an holsom mete / furst and eke last, 4

some in youth and For he wille a stomak kepe / & helpe poyson a-wey

old age, anti

to cast,
also he norishethe a man to be laske / and evy

and aperient. humerus to wast, 92 and with white bred/he wille kepe þy mouthe in tast. sugar or honey,” sugar could not be said “to be sometimes called” honey. See Dawson Turner in Howard Houeshold Books.

1 Ioncade : f. A certaine spoone-meat made of creame, Rosewater and Sugar. Cotgrave.

? See the recipe to make it, lines 121-76; and in Forme of Cury,

Butter is whole

P. 161.

3 Muffett held a very different opinion. 'Old and dry cheese hurteth dangerously : for it stayeth siege (stools], stoppeth the Liver, engendereth choler, melancholy, and the stone, lieth long in the stomack undigested, procureth thirst, maketh a stinking breath and a scurvy skin : Whereupon Galen and Isaac have well noted, That as we may feed liberally of ruin cheese, and more liberally of fresh Cheese, so we are not to taste any further of old and hard Cheese, then to close up the mouth of our stomacks after meat, p. 131.

* In youth and old age. Muffett says, p. 129-30, “according to the old Proverb, Butter is Gold in the morning, Silver at noon, and Lead at night. It is also best for children whilst they are growing, and for old men when they are declining; but very unwholesom betwixt those two ages, because through the heat of young stomacks, it is forthwith converted into choler (bile). The Dutchmen have a by-Verse amongst them to this effect

Eat Butter first, and eat it last,
And live till a hundred years be past.'


half an ounce.

Milk, Junket, Milke, crayme, and cruddes, and eke the Ioncate, Posset, &c., are binding.

þey close a mannes stomak / and so dothe pe possate; Eat hard cheese

þerfore ete hard chese aftir, yef ye sowpe late, after them.

96 and drynk romney modoun, for feere of chekmate.3 Beware of green

beware of saladis, grene metis, & of frutes rawe meat; it weakens your belly.

for þey make many a mañ haue a feble mawe.

þerfore, of suche fresch lustes set not an hawe,

100 For suche wantoun appetites ar not worth a strawe. For food that sets

alle maner metis þat þy tethe on egge doth sette, your teeth on edge, aut almonds take almondes perfore; & hard chese loke pou not and cheese,

for-gette. hit wille voide hit awey / but looke to moche þerof

not þou ete; but not more than 104 for be wight of half an vnce with-owt rompney is

gret. If drinks have Ziff dyuerse drynkes of theire fumosite haue be disgiven you indi. gestion, eat a raw

sesid, apple.

Ete an appulle rawe, & his fumosite wille be cesed;

mesure is a mery meene / whañ god is not disbest sometimes,

plesed ; abstinence.

108 abstynens is to prayse what body & sowle ar plesed. Look every night

Take good hede to be wynes / Red, white / & that your wines

swete, leak (the t of the

looke euery nyzt with a Candelle þat þey not

reboyle / nor lete; it);

euery nyzt with cold watur washe pe pipes hede, heads of the pipes

& hit not forgete, Always carry a gimlet, adze,

112 & alle-wey haue a gymlet, & a dise, with lynnen

Moderation is

at others

don't ferment or

MS, has a k over

and wash the

with cold water.

clowtes smalle or grete. i See note to l. 82. . See Rompney of Modoī,' among the swect wines, 1. 119.

3 Eschec f mat. Checke-mate at Chests; and (metaphorically) a remedilesse disaster, miserie, or misfortune. Cot.

4 ? ascia, a dyse, Vocab. in Reliq. Ant. v. 1, p. 8, col. 1; ascia, 1. an axe; (2. a mattock, a hoe; 3. an instrument for mixing mortar). Diessel, ofte Diechsel, A Carpenter-axe, or a Chip-axe. Hexham.

and linen cloths.



Ziff þe wyne reboyle / pow shalle know by hys If the wine boil

syngynge ; þerfore a pipe of coloure de rosel / pou kepe pat put to it the lees

was spend in drynkynge the reboyle to Rakke to be lies of pe rose / þat (Fol. 172 b.]

shalle be his amendynge. 116 Ziff swete wyne be seeke or pallid / put in a Romp- Romney will

ney for lesynge. 2

and that will cure it.

bring round sick sweet wine.

Sweet Wines.

Swete Waynes.
The namys of swete wynes y wold þat ye them are

knewe :
Vernage, vernagelle, wyne Cute, pyment, Raspise,

Muscadelle of grew,
Rompney of modoñ, Bastard, Tyre, Ozey, Torren-

tyne of Ebrew.
120 Greke, Malevesyn, Caprik, & Clarey whañ it is newe.


Lood soñ, to make ypocras, hit were gret Recipe for making

and for to take pe spice perto aftur þe propor- Take spices thus,

cionynge, Gynger, Synamome / Graynis, Sugur / Turnesole, Cinnamon, &c.,

for lordes 4 þat is good colourynge ;

(MS.) 124 For commyñ peple / Gynger, Canelle / longe long Pepper pepur / hony aftur claryfiynge.

fo[r]commynte 1? The name of the lees of some red wine. Phillips has Rosa Solis, a kind of Herb; also a pleasant Liquor made of Brandy, Sugar, Cinnamon, and other Ingredients agreeable to the Taste, and comfortable to the Heart. (So called, as being at first prepared wholly of the juice of the plant ros-solis (sun-dew) or drosera. Dict. of Arts and Sciences, 1767.)

2 See note, 1. 31. 3 See note on these wines at the end of the poem.

* In the Recipe for Jussel of Flessh (Household Ord., p. 462), one way of preparing the dish is for a Lorde,' another way for Commons. Other like passages also occur.

Have three basins

look ye haue of pewtur basons ooñ, two, & thre,
For to kepe in youre powdurs / also be licour

þerin to renne when þat nede be;
and three strain- to iij. basouns ye must haue iij bagges renners / so
ing-bags to them;

clepe ham we, hang 'em on a 128 & hange þem on a perche, & looke þat Sure they be. perch. Let your ginger Se þat youre gynger be welle y-pared / or hit to be well pared,

powder ye bete, hard, not worm- and þat hit be hard / with-owt worme / bytynge, eaten,

& good hete; (Colombyne is For good gynger colombyne / is best to drynke better

and ete; than Valadyne or 132 Gynger valadyne & maydelyn ar not so holsom Maydelyne);

in mete. your sticks of looke þat your stikkes of synamome be thyn, Cinnamon thin,

bretille, & fayre in colewre, hot and sweet;

and in youre mowthe, Fresche, hoot, & swete / pat

is best & sure,

For canelle is not so good in þis crafte & cure. good. Cinnamən is hot 136 Synamome is hoot & dry in his worchynge while and dry,

he wille dure. Cardamons are Graynes of paradise,' hoote & moyst þey be: hot and moist. Take sugar or

Sugre of .iij. cute? / white / hoot & moyst in his

propurte; sugar candy,

Sugre Candy is best of alle, as y telle the, red wine, 140 and red wyne is whote & drye to tast, fele, & see, graines,

Graynes' / gynger, longe pepur, & sugre / hoot & ginger, pepper,

moyst in worchynge ;3 1 Graines. Cardamomum, Graine de paradis. Baret. • Graines of Paradise; or, the spice which we call, Graines.' Cotgrave.

2 Cuite, a seething, baking. Cot.

3 Spices. Of those for the Percy Household, 1512, the yearly cost was £25 19s. 7d. for Piper, Rasyns of Corens, Prones, Gynger, Mace, Clovvez, Sugour, Cinamom, Allmonds, Daytts, Nuttmuggs, Granes, Tornesole, Saunders, Powder of Annes, Rice, Coumfetts, Galyngga, Longe Piper, Blaynshe Powder, and Safferon, p. 19, 20. Household Book, ed. Bp. Percy.

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Canel is not so


a pottle.

Synamome / Canelle' / red wyne / hoot & drye in cinnamon, spice,

þeire doynge ; Turnesole ? is good & holsom for red wyne colow- and turnesole, and

rynge : 144 alle pese ingredyentes, þey ar for ypocras makynge. Good son, youre powdurs so made, vche by þam put each powder

in a bladder by self in bleddur laid, hange sure youre perche & bagges þat þey from Hang your strain

ing-bags so that yow not brayd, & pat no bagge touche oper/do as y haue yow saide; they mayn't 148 þe furst bag a galoun / alle oper of a potelle, vchon together for at bong

by oper teied. Furst put in a basoun a galoun ij.or iij. wyne so red; Put the powders þen put in youre powdurs, yf ye wille be sped, gallons of red and aftyr in-to be rennere so lett hym be fed,

[Fol. 173.) 152 þañ in-to be second bagge so wold it be ledde.

the second bag loke pou

take in þyne hand euermore amonge, and assay it in þy mouthe if hit be any thynge stronge, (tasting and

trying it now and and if þow fele it welle bope with mouthe & tonge, then), 156 þañ put it in þe iij. vesselle / & tary not to longe. vessel.

And þañ ziff þou feele it be not made parfete, If it's not right, þat it cast to moche gynger, with synamome alay

þat hete; and if hit haue synamome to moche, with gynger add cinnamon,

of iij. cute; 160 þañ if to moche sigure per be / by discressioun ye

in two or three

wine; then into

the runner,

a pece

and the third

ginger, or sugar, as wanted.

*may wete.

Thus, son, shaltow make parfite ypocras, as y the say;

Canel, spyce. Cinamomum, amomum. Promt, Parv. Canelle, our moderne Cannell or Cinnamom. Cot. (Named from its tube stalk ?)

2 Tourne-soleil. Tornesole, Heliotropium. Cotgrave. Take bleue turnesole, and dip hit in wyne, that the wyne may catch the colour thereof, and colour the potage therwith. H. Ord., p. 465, and take red turnesole steped wel in wyne, and colour the potage with that wyne, ibid. And then with a little Turnsole make it of a high murrey (mulberry] colour.' Markham's Houswife, p. 70.

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