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One May I went to a forest,

As y rose owt of my bed, in a mery sesoun of may, to sporte me in a forest / where sightes were

fresche & gay,

and by the Forester's leave walked in the woodland,

where I saw three herds of deer

in the sunshine.

A young man with a bow was going to stalk them,

but I asked him to walk with me,

y met with be forster / y prayed hym to say me not

nay, 16 þat y mygh[t] walke in to his lawndel where þe

deere lay. as y wandered weldsomly? / in-to pe lawnd þat was

so grene, per lay iij. herdis of deere / a semely syght for to

sene; у behild on my right hand / Þe soñ þat shon so

shene; 20 y saw where walked / a semely yonge maī, pat

sklendur was & leene; his bowe he toke in hand toward þe deere to stalke; y prayed hym his shote to leue / & softely with me

to walke. þis yonge man was glad / & louyd with me to talke, 24 he prayed þat he myzt withe me goo / in to som

herne3 or halke“; þis yonge mañ y frayned 5 / with hoom þat he

wonned þan, “So god me socoure,” he said / “Sir, y serue my

self / & els nooñ oper man.” “ is þy gouernaunce good ?” y said, / "soñ? say me

ziff þow can." 28 “y wold y were owt of þis world” / seid he / y

ne rouzt how sone whan.” 1 The Lawnd in woodes. Saltus nemorum. Baret, 1580. Saltus, a launde. Glossary in Rel. Ant., v. 1, p. 7, col. 1 ; saltus, a forest-pasture, woodland-pasture, woodland ; a forest.

at will. A.S. wilsum, free willed. 3 A.S. hirne, corner.

Dan, hiörne. 4 Halke or hyrne. Angulus, latibulum ; A.S. hylca, sinus. Promptorium Parvulorum and note.

6 AS. fregnan, to ask; Goth., fraihnan ; Germ., fragen.

and inquired whom he served.

No one but myself,

and I wish I was out of this world.'

2

tell me what the matter is,

cause I know

“Sey nought so, good soñ, beware / me thynkethe wood son,

þow menyst amysse ; for god forbedithe wanhope, for þat a horrible synne despair is sin ;

ys, þerfore Soñ, open thyn hert / for peraveñture y cowd the lis;

When the pain is 32 “wheñ bale is hext / þañ bote is next” / good sone, is nearest!"

greatest the cure lerne welle pis."

"Sir, I've tried

everywhere for a “In certeyn, sir / y haue y-sought / Ferre & nere many a wilsom way

master; but beto gete mete' a mastir ; & for y cowd nouzt/euery man seid me nay,

nothing, no one y cowd no good, ne noon y shewde / where euer y

ede day by day 36 but wantoun & nyce, recheles & lewde / as Iangelynge as a Iay."

(Fol. 171 b.)

Will you learn if “N Now, Pow, son, ziff y the teche, wiltow any thynge

I'll teach you ? lere?

What do you wiltow be a seruaunde, plowzman, or a laborere, Courtyour or a clark / Marchaund / or masoun, or

an artificere, 40 Chamburlayn, or buttillere / pantere or karvere?"

will take me.'

Want to be ?'

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lain, and Carver. Trach me the

"The office of buttiler, sir, trewly / pantere or Panter, Chamber

chamburlayne, The connynge of a kervere, specially / of þat y wold duties of these."

lerne fayne alle þese connynges to haue / y say yow in certayñ, y shuld pray for youre sowle nevyr to come in

44

payne."

love God and be

"Son, y shalle teche be withe ryght a good wille, I will, if you'll So þat þow loue god & drede / for þat is ryght and

skylle, AS. lis remissio, lenitas; Dan. lise, Sw.lisa, relief. 2 for me to

true to your master.

A Panter or
Butler must have

three knives :

1 to chop loaves, 1 lo pare them,

1 to smooth the trenchers.

Give your Sovereign new bread,

others one-day-
old bread;
for the house,
three-day bread;
for trenchers
four-day bread;

and to þy mastir be trew / his goodes þat þow not

spille, 48 but hym loue & drede / and hys commaundement;

dew / fulfylle. The furst yere, my son, þow shalle be pantere or

buttilare, þow must haue iij. knyffes kene / in pantry, y sey

the, euermare : Oñ knyfe be loves to choppe, anothere them for to

pare, 52 the iij. sharpe & kene to smothe pe trenchurs and

square. alwey thy soueraynes bred thow choppe, & þat it be

newe & able; se alle oper bred a day old or Þou choppe to pe table;

alle howsold bred iij. dayes old / so it is profitable; 56 and trencher bred iiij. dayes is convenyent & agre

able. loke þy salte be sutille, whyte, fayre and drye, and þy planere for thy salte / shalle be made of

yverye / Þe brede perof ynches two / þen þe length, ynche

told thrye; 60 and þy salt sellere lydde / towche not thy salt bye. Good soñ, loke þat þy napery be soote / & also

feyre & clene, bordclothe, towelle & napkyñ, foldyn alle bydene. bryght y-pullished youre table knyve, semely in

syzt to sene; 64 and þy spones fayre y-wasche / ye wote welle what

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y meene.

spoons well

washed,

1 In Sir John Fastolfe's Bottre, 1455, are “ij. kerving knyves; iij. kneyves in a schethe, the haftys of every (ivory) withe naylys gilt ... j. trencher-knyfe.” Domestic Arch., v. 3, p. 157-8. Hec mensacula, a dressyng-knyfe, p. 256 ; trencher-knyves, mensaculos. Jn. de Garlande, Wright's Vocab. p. 123.

looke þow haue tarrers' two / a more & lasse for two wine-augers,

wyne ;
wyne canels? accordynge to be tarrers, of box fetice some box taps,

& fyne;
also a gymlet sharpe / to broche & perce / sone to a broaching

gimlet, turne & twyne, 68 with fawcet 3 & tampyne* redy / to stoppe when ye a pipe and bung.

se tyme. So when þow settyst a pipe abroche / good [sone,] To broach a pipe, do aftur

my iiij fyngur ouer / Þe nere chyne“ þow may percer or pierce it with an

auger or gimlet, bore;

four fingerswith tarrereorgymlet perce ye vpward pe pipe ashore, breadth over the 72 and so shalle ye not cawse be lies vp to ryse, y so that the dregs

warne yow euer more. Good sone, alle maner frute / bat longethe for sesoñ Serve Fruit ac

lore:

lower rim,

may not rise,

of þe yere,

cording to the season,

&c.

Fygges / reysons / almandes, dates / buttur, chese figs, dates,

nottus, apples, & pere, Compostes 7 & confites, chare de quynces / white & quince-mar

malade, ginger, grene gyngere; 1 An Augre, or wimble, wherewith holes are bored. Terebra & terebrum. Vng tarriere. Baret's Alvearie, 1580.

? A Cannell or gutter. Canalis. Baret. Tuyau, a pipe, quill, cane, reed, canell. Cotgrave. Canelle, the faucet (1.68] or quill of a wine vessel ; also, the cocke, or spout of a conduit. Cot.

3 A Faucet, or tappe, a flute, a whistle, a pipe as well to conueigh water, as an instrument of Musicke. Fistula . . Tubulus. Baret.

* Tampon, a bung or stopple. Cot. Tampyon for a gontampon. Palsg.

5 The projecting rim of a cask. Queen Elizabeth's 'yeoman drawer hath for his fees, all the lees of wine within fowre fingers of the chine, &c.' H. Ord. p. 295, (referred to by Halliwell).

6? This may be butter-cheese, milk- or cream-cheese, as contrasted with the 'hard chese' l. 84-5; but butter is treated of separately, 1. 89.

i Fruit preserves of some kind; not the stew of chickens, herbs, honey, ginger, &c., for which a recipe is given on p. 18 of Liber Cure Cocorum. Cotgrave has Composte : f. A condiment or compo

(Fol. 172.1 Before dinner, plums and grapes;

1

after, pears, nuts, and hard cheese.

76 and ffor aftur questyons, or þy lord sytte / of hym

þow know & enquere. Serve fastynge / plommys / damsons / cheries /

and grapis to plese ; aftur mete /peeres, nottys/strawberies, wũneberies,

and hardchese, also blawnderelles,' pepyns / careawey in comfyto /

Compostes 3 ar like to þese. 80 aftur sopper, rosted apples, peres, blaunche powder, *

your stomak for to ese.

After supper, roast apples, &c.

sition; a wet sucket (wherein sweet wine was vsed in stead of sugar), also, a pickled or winter Sallet of hearbes, fruits, or flowers, condited in vinegar, salt, sugar, or sweet wine, and so keeping all the yeare long; any hearbes, fruit, or flowers in pickle ; also pickle it selfe. Fr. compote, stewed fruit. The Recipe for Compost in the Forme of Cury, Recipe 100 (C), p. 49-50, is “Take rote of persel. pasternak of raseīs. scrape hem and waische hem clene. take rapis & cabochis ypared and icorne. take an erthen panne with clene water, & set it on the fire. cast all þise þerinne. whan þey buth boiled, cast þerto peeris, & parboile hem wel. take þise thyngis up, & lat it kele on a fair cloth, do perto salt whan it is colde in a vessel ; take vinegur, & powdour, & safroun, & do þerto, & lat alle þise þingis lye þerin al nyzt oper al day, take wyne greke and hony clarified togidur, lumbarde mustard, & raisouns corance al hool. & grynde powdour of canel, powdour douce, & aneys hole. & fenell seed. take alle þise þingis, & cast togydur in a pot of erthe. and take berof whan þou wilt, & serue forth.”

1. not A.S. winberie, a wine-berry, a grape, but our Whinberry. But · Wineberries, currants’, Craven Gloss.; Sw. vin-bär, a currant.

2 Blandureau, m. The white apple, called (in some part of England) a Blaundrell, Cotgrave. 3 See note to l. 75.

4 Pouldre blanche. A powder compounded of Ginger, Cinnamon, and Nutmegs; much in use among Cookes. Cotgrave. Is there any authority for the statement in Domestic Architecture, v. 1, p. 132 ; that sugar 'was sometimes called blanch powdre'? P.S. Probably the recollection of what Pegge says in the Preface to the Forme of Cury, "There is mention of blanch-powder or white sugar," 132 [p. 63). They, however, were not the same, for see No. 193, p. xxvi-xxvii. On turning to the Recipe 132, of “Peeris in confyt,” p. 62-3, we find “whan þei (the pears] buth ysode, take hem up, make a syrup

of

wyne greke. oper vernage with blaunche powdur, oper white sugur, and powdour gyngur, & do the peris þerin.” It is needless to say that if a modern recipe said take

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