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One May I went to a forest,
As y rose owt of my bed, in a mery sesoun of may, to sporte me in a forest / where sightes were
fresche & gay,
and by the Forester's leave walked in the woodland,
where I saw three herds of deer
in the sunshine.
A young man with a bow was going to stalk them,
but I asked him to walk with me,
y met with be forster / y prayed hym to say me not
nay, 16 þat y mygh[t] walke in to his lawndel where þe
deere lay. as y wandered weldsomly? / in-to pe lawnd þat was
so grene, per lay iij. herdis of deere / a semely syght for to
sene; у behild on my right hand / Þe soñ þat shon so
shene; 20 y saw where walked / a semely yonge maī, pat
sklendur was & leene; his bowe he toke in hand toward þe deere to stalke; y prayed hym his shote to leue / & softely with me
to walke. þis yonge man was glad / & louyd with me to talke, 24 he prayed þat he myzt withe me goo / in to som
herne3 or halke“; þis yonge mañ y frayned 5 / with hoom þat he
wonned þan, “So god me socoure,” he said / “Sir, y serue my
self / & els nooñ oper man.” “ is þy gouernaunce good ?” y said, / "soñ? say me
ziff þow can." 28 “y wold y were owt of þis world” / seid he / “y
ne rouzt how sone whan.” 1 The Lawnd in woodes. Saltus nemorum. Baret, 1580. Saltus, a launde. Glossary in Rel. Ant., v. 1, p. 7, col. 1 ; saltus, a forest-pasture, woodland-pasture, woodland ; a forest.
at will. A.S. wilsum, free willed. 3 A.S. hirne, corner.
Dan, hiörne. 4 Halke or hyrne. Angulus, latibulum ; A.S. hylca, sinus. Promptorium Parvulorum and note.
6 AS. fregnan, to ask; Goth., fraihnan ; Germ., fragen.
and inquired whom he served.
No one but myself,
and I wish I was out of this world.'
tell me what the matter is,
cause I know
“Sey nought so, good soñ, beware / me thynkethe wood son,
þow menyst amysse ; for god forbedithe wanhope, for þat a horrible synne despair is sin ;
ys, þerfore Soñ, open thyn hert / for peraveñture y cowd the lis;
When the pain is 32 “wheñ bale is hext / þañ bote is next” / good sone, is nearest!"
greatest the cure lerne welle pis."
"Sir, I've tried
everywhere for a “In certeyn, sir / y haue y-sought / Ferre & nere many a wilsom way
master; but beto gete mete' a mastir ; & for y cowd nouzt/euery man seid me nay,
nothing, no one y cowd no good, ne noon y shewde / where euer y
ede day by day 36 but wantoun & nyce, recheles & lewde / as Iangelynge as a Iay."
(Fol. 171 b.)
Will you learn if “N Now, Pow, son, ziff y the teche, wiltow any thynge
I'll teach you ? lere?
What do you wiltow be a seruaunde, plowzman, or a laborere, Courtyour or a clark / Marchaund / or masoun, or
an artificere, 40 Chamburlayn, or buttillere / pantere or karvere?"
will take me.'
Want to be ?'
lain, and Carver. Trach me the
"The office of buttiler, sir, trewly / pantere or Panter, Chamber
chamburlayne, The connynge of a kervere, specially / of þat y wold duties of these."
lerne fayne alle þese connynges to haue / y say yow in certayñ, y shuld pray for youre sowle nevyr to come in
love God and be
"Son, y shalle teche be withe ryght a good wille, I will, if you'll So þat þow loue god & drede / for þat is ryght and
skylle, AS. lis remissio, lenitas; Dan. lise, Sw.lisa, relief. 2 for me to
true to your master.
A Panter or
three knives :
1 to chop loaves, 1 lo pare them,
1 to smooth the trenchers.
Give your Sovereign new bread,
and to þy mastir be trew / his goodes þat þow not
spille, 48 but hym loue & drede / and hys commaundement;
dew / fulfylle. The furst yere, my son, þow shalle be pantere or
buttilare, þow must haue iij. knyffes kene / in pantry, y sey
the, euermare : Oñ knyfe be loves to choppe, anothere them for to
pare, 52 the iij. sharpe & kene to smothe pe trenchurs and
square. alwey thy soueraynes bred thow choppe, & þat it be
newe & able; se alle oper bred a day old or Þou choppe to pe table;
alle howsold bred iij. dayes old / so it is profitable; 56 and trencher bred iiij. dayes is convenyent & agre
able. loke þy salte be sutille, whyte, fayre and drye, and þy planere for thy salte / shalle be made of
yverye / Þe brede perof ynches two / þen þe length, ynche
told thrye; 60 and þy salt sellere lydde / towche not thy salt bye. Good soñ, loke þat þy napery be soote / & also
feyre & clene, bordclothe, towelle & napkyñ, foldyn alle bydene. bryght y-pullished youre table knyve, semely in
syzt to sene; 64 and þy spones fayre y-wasche / ye wote welle what
1 In Sir John Fastolfe's Bottre, 1455, are “ij. kerving knyves; iij. kneyves in a schethe, the haftys of every (ivory) withe naylys gilt ... j. trencher-knyfe.” Domestic Arch., v. 3, p. 157-8. Hec mensacula, a dressyng-knyfe, p. 256 ; trencher-knyves, mensaculos. Jn. de Garlande, Wright's Vocab. p. 123.
looke þow haue tarrers' two / a more & lasse for two wine-augers,
gimlet, turne & twyne, 68 with fawcet 3 & tampyne* redy / to stoppe when ye a pipe and bung.
se tyme. So when þow settyst a pipe abroche / good [sone,] To broach a pipe, do aftur
my iiij fyngur ouer / Þe nere chyne“ þow may percer or pierce it with an
auger or gimlet, bore;
four fingerswith tarrereorgymlet perce ye vpward pe pipe ashore, breadth over the 72 and so shalle ye not cawse be lies vp to ryse, y so that the dregs
warne yow euer more. Good sone, alle maner frute / bat longethe for sesoñ Serve Fruit ac
may not rise,
of þe yere,
cording to the season,
Fygges / reysons / almandes, dates / buttur, chese figs, dates,
nottus, apples, & pere, Compostes 7 & confites, chare de quynces / white & quince-mar
malade, ginger, grene gyngere; 1 An Augre, or wimble, wherewith holes are bored. Terebra & terebrum. Vng tarriere. Baret's Alvearie, 1580.
? A Cannell or gutter. Canalis. Baret. Tuyau, a pipe, quill, cane, reed, canell. Cotgrave. Canelle, the faucet (1.68] or quill of a wine vessel ; also, the cocke, or spout of a conduit. Cot.
3 A Faucet, or tappe, a flute, a whistle, a pipe as well to conueigh water, as an instrument of Musicke. Fistula . . Tubulus. Baret.
* Tampon, a bung or stopple. Cot. Tampyon for a gontampon. Palsg.
5 The projecting rim of a cask. Queen Elizabeth's 'yeoman drawer hath for his fees, all the lees of wine within fowre fingers of the chine, &c.' H. Ord. p. 295, (referred to by Halliwell).
6? This may be butter-cheese, milk- or cream-cheese, as contrasted with the 'hard chese' l. 84-5; but butter is treated of separately, 1. 89.
i Fruit preserves of some kind; not the stew of chickens, herbs, honey, ginger, &c., for which a recipe is given on p. 18 of Liber Cure Cocorum. Cotgrave has Composte : f. A condiment or compo
(Fol. 172.1 Before dinner, plums and grapes;
after, pears, nuts, and hard cheese.
76 and ffor aftur questyons, or þy lord sytte / of hym
þow know & enquere. Serve fastynge / plommys / damsons / cheries /
and grapis to plese ; aftur mete /peeres, nottys/strawberies, wũneberies,
and hardchese, also blawnderelles,' pepyns / careawey in comfyto /
Compostes 3 ar like to þese. 80 aftur sopper, rosted apples, peres, blaunche powder, *
your stomak for to ese.
After supper, roast apples, &c.
sition; a wet sucket (wherein sweet wine was vsed in stead of sugar), also, a pickled or winter Sallet of hearbes, fruits, or flowers, condited in vinegar, salt, sugar, or sweet wine, and so keeping all the yeare long; any hearbes, fruit, or flowers in pickle ; also pickle it selfe. Fr. compote, stewed fruit. The Recipe for Compost in the Forme of Cury, Recipe 100 (C), p. 49-50, is “Take rote of persel. pasternak of raseīs. scrape hem and waische hem clene. take rapis & cabochis ypared and icorne. take an erthen panne with clene water, & set it on the fire. cast all þise þerinne. whan þey buth boiled, cast þerto peeris, & parboile hem wel. take þise thyngis up, & lat it kele on a fair cloth, do perto salt whan it is colde in a vessel ; take vinegur, & powdour, & safroun, & do þerto, & lat alle þise þingis lye þerin al nyzt oper al day, take wyne greke and hony clarified togidur, lumbarde mustard, & raisouns corance al hool. & grynde powdour of canel, powdour douce, & aneys hole. & fenell seed. take alle þise þingis, & cast togydur in a pot of erthe. and take berof whan þou wilt, & serue forth.”
1. not A.S. winberie, a wine-berry, a grape, but our Whinberry. But · Wineberries, currants’, Craven Gloss.; Sw. vin-bär, a currant.
2 Blandureau, m. The white apple, called (in some part of England) a Blaundrell, Cotgrave. 3 See note to l. 75.
4 Pouldre blanche. A powder compounded of Ginger, Cinnamon, and Nutmegs; much in use among Cookes. Cotgrave. Is there any authority for the statement in Domestic Architecture, v. 1, p. 132 ; that sugar 'was sometimes called blanch powdre'? P.S. Probably the recollection of what Pegge says in the Preface to the Forme of Cury, "There is mention of blanch-powder or white sugar," 132 [p. 63). They, however, were not the same, for see No. 193, p. xxvi-xxvii. On turning to the Recipe 132, of “Peeris in confyt,” p. 62-3, we find “whan þei (the pears] buth ysode, take hem up, make a syrup
wyne greke. oper vernage with blaunche powdur, oper white sugur, and powdour gyngur, & do the peris þerin.” It is needless to say that if a modern recipe said take