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Dean, and chosen one of the numbyr of the seyd felyshypp of chapell. And he to drawe these chyldren, as well in the schoole of facet', as in songe, Grganes, or suche other vertuous thinges.” But there seems to be little chance of squeezing our author in between William Crane, who we know was Henry the Eighth's Master of the Children up to A.D. 15412 (and, no doubt, beyond), and Richard Bowyer, who was their Master in 1548.3 We may, however, glean something of the position in society, the pay and food, of both the Gentlemen and Children of the Chapel in Rodes's time, and this I proceed to do.
Unluckily there is no full account of the members or duties of Henry the Eighth's "Chapell,' in the Ordinances made at Eltham, A.D. 1526; but in the table of Wages and Fees, p. 169-70, the members are mentioned thus :
1 Fr. Facet, A Primmer, or Grammer for a yong scholler. Cotgrave.
2 In the Arundel MS. No. 67, Plut. clxiii F, the book of Henry VIII.'s Household Expenses for the 29-33 years of his reign, Crane is still Master. Payments for the Children occur at fol. 144, 1. 37; fol. 159 b, fol. 164 6, 1. 20; fol. 175, 1. 1 (“ in Febr., Anno xxxijo (A.D. 1541] Item for the children of the chapelle, bourdwages, xxvj s. viij d."); and at fol. 164 b, l. 22, is an entry of a New Year's gratuity to Crane of £6. 138. 4d. “Rewardes geven on Saterday, New-yeres day at Hamptoncourte, Anno xxxijo, ” (A.D. 1541.] “ Item, for Wm. Crane for playinge before the King with the children of the Chappelle, in rewarde, vi.li. viiij s. iiij d.” Compare Lord Percy's like payments, p. xxi, below. Among these “Newyeres Rewardes” is one that the future editor of our Alexander Romances should notice, “ Item to Anthony Tote servaunt that brought the king a table of the storye of kinge Alexander vj s. viijd." The Christmas and New Year presents to the King, mentioned in this MS. and the one that Nicolas printed, are curious. 3 To Dr Rimbault's kindness I owe the following list of Masters of the Children of the Royal Chapel. A.D.
A.D. Henry Abingdon 1467 Richard Bowyer
1548 Gilbert Banastre 1482 Richard Edwards
1561 William Cornish 1492 William Hunnis
1567 Clement Adams 1516 John Hunnis
1572 William Crane
1598 Sir H. Nicholas, in his Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York, p. 85, col. 2, says, In the act of Resumption, 13 Edw. IV, Henry Abingdon was protected in the enjoyment of 40 marks per annum, which had been granted him in May, 5 Edw. IV, "for the fyndyng instruction and governaunce of the Children of the Chapell of oure Housholde.”-Rot. Parl. v. 594 ; vi. 86. In the act of Resumption, of the 22 Edw. IV, Gilbert Banestre was protected in the enjoyment of the samo salary for “their exhibition, instruction and governaunce." - Ibid. vi. 200.
Chappell and Vestry.
Gentlemen of the Chapell.
1. S. đ. Master of the Children, for his wages and board-wages 30 0 0 Gospeller, for wages
13 6 8 Epistoller
13 6 8 Verger
20 0 0
10 0 0 Yeomen of the Vestry
10 0 0 Children of the Chappell, ten.
56 13 4 The Chaplains were not, I assume, boarded in the Court, or at the King's cost, and are therefore not mentioned in the list. Besides their wages, the Gentlemen of the Chappell, no doubt, had regularly a New Yeres Rewarde, like the other of the Royal servants. In the Arundel MS., No. 67, above cited, we find at fol. 164, back, this gift to them in 1541, “ Item to ye gentilmen of the chappelle for yeir peynes takinge, xiiijl. vj s. viij d.” And in July, 1531, in Henry's Household Expenses (ed. Nicolas) is an entry, “ Item the same [xxvj] daye paied to the dean of the Chapell for the kinges rewarde to the Chapell men xl 8.” Besides this they would share in the annual Chapel Feast, for which these payments appear in Nicolas's Hd. Expenses of Hen. VIII. “ Item the vj daye [of Aug. 1530) paied to the dean of the Chapell for the chapelle feaste xl 8. Item the xj daye [of Aug. 1532) paied to maister dean of the kinges Chapell the olde ordinary rewarde for the Chapell feaste xl s." The allowances of the Gentlemen of the Chappell for board-wages are stated in H. Ord., p. 212, in the Increase of Charges in the Household, given in the “ Additions to the Ordinances made at Eltham.”
"ITEM, that the Kings Majesties pleasure was declared the 28th day of Aprill, in the 36th. yeare of his most gracious Reigne (A.D. 1544) at St. James's
, by the mouth of the Lord Great Master and Mr Comptroller, that the Gentlemen of the Chappell, Gospeller, Episteller
, and Serjeant of the vestry, shall have from the last day of March forward, for their board-wages, everie of them 12 per
diem : and the Yeomen and Groomes of the Vestry, everie of them 64 per diem ; and twelve children of the chappell, everie of them 28. by the weeke.”
And in a prior page (H. Ord. p. 208) we are informed that a daily mess of meat was subsequently given to them :
“ITEM, the King's pleasure was declared by the mouth of the Lord Great Master at Greenwitch, the 14th. day of June, in the 36th. yeare of his Graces reigne, after the accompt of his household, that James Hill and his fellows, Gentlemen Singers, shall have dayly from the kitchen, one messe of grosse meate, and from all other Officers like Bouche of Court among them as the Physicions; and att every removeing, allowance of a Cart for the carriage of their stuff.”
Now the Physicions in 1526 were Doctor Chamber and Doctor Butts, and in the list of “The Ordinary of the King's Chamber which have Bouche of Court, and also their Dietts within the Court” (H. Ord. p. 166), these Physicians are put above the Apothecary, and The three Chirurgions, every of them, and Edmond Harmond, and Phillip,' who had the care of the children'; whence we may infer the social rank of our Gentlemen Singers or Gentlemen of the Chappell,—that ancient and honourable estate of the realm, 2above the Surgeons, Apothecaries, and Barbers, but below the Physicians. This assumes that the above
mentioned grant of a Bouche of Court equal to that of the Physicians, raised the Gentlemen of the Chappell nearly to the Physicians' level. As to their dinner, I assume from the way in which 'messe of meate' is used in the Ordinances, p. 185, that the 'one messe of grosse meate' allowed to the Gentlemen of the Chappell, meant nearly the same as the 'Diett for the Phisitions and Chirurgions' given at p. 178 of Household Ordinances, which cost by the yeare, everie messe, £66. 7s. 5ļd. for the Kings Highnesse and his side (p. 192), or £66. 7s. 6 d. for the Queenes Grace and her side (p. 193). Here it is:
1 See H. Ord., p. 192. Edmond Harman was one of the “Barbours” at £20 a year (H. Ord., p. 166 and p. 169). I suppose he had the general household charge of the Children ; Crane, the education of them. (The present Children live in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, with the Rev. Mr Helmore.) The charge of their Dietts yearly was at first, in 1526, Edmond Harmond, Phillip, and the children, 670. 108. 04d., H. Ord., p. 192; but in 1539 their allowance was increased :—"Item, The charge of one messe of meate served to Edmond Harmon, Phillip and the children, by the commandment of Mr Comptroller at Hampton Court, 20th. day of June, Anno 31, £35. 5s. 04d.;" and again in 1542 “the King's pleasure is declared by the mouth of Mr Phillip Hobby (? Sir Phillip Hobby, Gentleman Usher of the Privy Chamber, p. 169) unto the Lord Great Master, the 17th day of January, in the 334 yeare of his reigne at Westminster, that the children that be in the keeping of Philip and Edmond Harmon to be served with one messe of meate, like unto the other messe they had before.” H. Ord., p. 208.
2 Mr Thoms mentions among its members, Richard Farrant, Thomas Bird (father of the celebrated William Bird), Thomas Tallis, William Hynnes, Henry Lawes (who composed the Coronation Anthem, and was the friend of Milton), Thomas Purcell, the uncle of the great composer, &c.— Book of the Court (from Hawkins).
Sonday, Tuesday, Thursday, Monday, and Wednesday.
đ đ Bread, Cheate)
Bread, Cheat ) 4 2 2 4 2
2 4 2 and Manchet
& Manchett) Ale, 2 gal.'3 2 gal 3 Ale
2 gall 3 2 gall' 3 qrt 13 qrt 1} Wyne
1} art' li Beef, 1 mess 6 1 mess 6 Mutton,
2 1 2 1 2 boyled
messes 6 Veale, 1 3 1 3 and rost Pigg, Goose, 1 2 1 2 Henne, Lambe 1 2 1 2 Baked Meate, 1
Doulcetts 1 3 Lambe, Chick, 1 3 1 3 Chickens or
1 2 1 3 Fruite, 1 2 1 2 Pegions
1 Fruite 1 2 1 2
The Queen's Phisition and Apothecary, one messe of the like Fare."
The only distinction between the Phisition and Chirurgion here is, . that the former got five penny-worth of Baked Meate or Pie at dinner,
and three pen'orth of Doulcetts (see "Russell's Boke of Nurture, p. 146) at supper, more than the Chirurgion. If then the Gentlemen of the Chappell came between the two, how would the Clerk to the Kychyn mark the difference, I wonder? Give them Conies, 1 mess, 2}d. (H. Ord., p. 181), or Egges, 2 d. (p. 178), for their voices at the one; or an extra quart of wine or gallon of Ale, 114. (ib. p. 191) at the other, to cheer them up before going to bed ? Who shall say?
The Gentlemen-of-the-Chappell's · Bouche of Court as the Physicians' from the officers other than those of the Kitchen, is stated at p. 163-4 of Household Ordinances :
“GENTLEMEN USHERS OF THE Privy CHAMBER, AND GENTLEMEN USHERS DAYLY WAYTERS ; FOR THE KING AND THE QUEENES PuisiCIONS, AND CLERKES OF THE SPICERY.
• Every of them being lodged within the court, after supper, one chet loafe, one gallon of ale, one quart of wyne; and from the last day of October unto the first day of Aprill, by the weeke two lynckes, by the day one sise, four white lights, four talshides, four faggotts, and ... and from the last day of March unto the first day of November, to have the moyety of the said waxe, white lights, wood and coales ; which amounteth to the sume of viiil. v s. ob. q.'
This Bouche of Court, the reader will perceive, was a daily allowance of lights and fuel, and also of bread, ale, and wine, for a nightcap before going to bed, and perhaps for breakfast next morning. That some extra food was wanted will be acknowledged when the times for dinner and supper are stated. H. Ord., p. 151,
DYNNER AND SUPPER IN THE HALL TO BE KEPT AT HOWRES CERTAINE.
Cap. 44 .. it is ordeyned that the household, when the hall is kept, shall observe times certeyne for dynner and souper, as followeth ; that is to say, the first dynner in eating dayes to begin at tenn of the
1 At p. 210 of Household Ordinances, seemingly in the year 1544, the cost of the Surgeons' Bouche is entered, “ Item, the Bouch of Court served for two Surgeons, everie of them at £6 13s. 034 d. by the yeare, per mandatum Domini Thesaurarii, 21° die Martis £13 6s. ld.” This would give a Gentleman of the Chappell about £1. 12s. a year more than a Surgeon. The Apothecary's Bouche in 1526 was only iil. xii s. id. ob. q. (H. Ord., p. 163).