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NOTE ON THE 1508 EDITION OF
The Boke of Keruynge,
BY THE REV. WALTER SKEAT, M.A.
The title-page of the older edition, of 1508, merely contains the words, " Here begynneth the boke of Keruynge ;” and beneath them is-as in the second edition of 1513 – a picture of two ladies and two gentlemen at dinner, with an attendant bringing a dish, two servants at a side table, and a jester. The colophon tells us that it was “Enprynted by wynkyn de worde at London in Flete strete at the sygne of the sonne.
of our lorde M.CCCCC.VIII ;” beneath which is Wynkyn de Worde's device, as in the second edition.
The two editions resemble each other very closely, running page for page throughout, and every folio in the one begins at the same place as in the other. Thus the word “moche” is divided into mo-che in both editions, the "-che” beginning Fol. A ii. b. Neither is altogether free from misprints, but these are not very numerous nor of much importance. It may be observed that marks of contraction are hardly ever used in the older edition, the word ye” being written “the” at length, and instead of "hāged” we find
hanged.” On the whole, the first edition would seem to be the more carefully printed, but the nature of the variations between them will be best understood by an exact collation of the first two folios (pp. 265-7 of the present edition), where the readings of the first edition are denoted by the letter A. The only variations are these :P. 265. lyft that swanne] lyfte that swanne A (a misprint). frusshe that chekyn] fruche that chekyn A. thye all maner of small byrdes] A omits of. fynne that cheuen] syne that cheuen A. transsene that ele] trassene that ele A. Here hendeth, &c.] Here endeth, &c. A.
Butler] Butteler A.
1. 12. hanged] hanged A.
P. 267. ye] the A (several times).
1. 5. wyll] wyl A. 1. 9. rede] reed A. reboyle] reboyle not A. 1. 12. the reboyle) they reboyle A. l. 17. lessynge] lesynge A. 1. 20. campolet] campolet A. 1. 21. tyer] tyerre A. 1. 22. ypocras] Ipocras A (und in the next line, and I. 26). 1. 24. gynger] gynger A. 1. 27. ren] hange A. 1. 29. your] youre A. In l. 33, A hus paradico, as in the second edition.
It will be readily seen that these variations are chiefly in the spelling, and of a trivial character. The only ones of any importance are, on p. 5, lyste (which is a misprint) for lyft, and trassene for transsene (cp. Fr. transon, a truncheon, peece of, Cot.); on p. 6, goot for good is well worth notice (if any meaning can be assigued to goot), as the direction to beware of good strawberries is not obvious; on p. 7, we should note lesynge for lessynge, and hange for ren, the latter being an improvement, though ren makes sense, as basins hung by cords on a perch may, like curtains hung on a rod, be said to run on it. The word ren was probably caught up from the line above it in reprinting.
The following corrections are also worth making, and are made on the authority of the first edition :P. 269, 1. 10, For treachour read trenchour.
1. 23. For so read se.
1. 24. For se' read se. P. 270, 1. 1. ony] on A.'
1. 7. For it read is.
1. 29. For bo read be. P. 271, 1. 25. For wich read with. P. 272, 1. 3. For fumosytces read fumosytees. 1. 7. For pygous read pynyons (whence it appears that the pinion-bones,
not pigeon's-bones, are meant). 1. 25. The word “reyse” is quite plain. P. 274, 11. 18, &c. There is some variation here; the first edition has, after the word souerayne, the following :-"laye trenchours before hym / yf he be a grete estate, lay fyue trenchours / & he be of a lower degre, foure trenchours / & of an other degre, thre trenchours,” &c. This is better ; the second edition is clearly wrong about the five trenchers. This seemis another error made in reprinting, the words lower degre being wrongly repeated.
P. 275, 1. 6. It may be proper to note the first edition also has broche.
P. 279, 1. 27. the[y]; in A they is printed in full.
1. 14. shall] shake A.
1. 23. blanked] blanket A. Nearly all the above corrections have already been made in the side-notes. Only two of them are of any importance, viz. the substitution of pynyons on p. 12, and the variation of reading on p. 14; in the latter case perhaps neither edition seems quite right, though the first edition is quite intelligible.
In our Cambridge edition (see p. 24, 1. 5) this line about the pope is care. fully struck out, and the grim side-note put “ lower down", with tags to show to what estate he and the cardinal and bishops ought to be degraded !
NOTE TO P. XXIV. L. 10, “OUR WOMEN," AND THEIR KNOWLEDGE
OF LANGUAGES, P. XXV-VI.
The Ladies & Men of Qucen Elizabeth's Court,
“I might here (if I would, or had sufficient disposition of matter conceiued of the same) make a large discourse of such honorable ports, of such graue councellors, and noble personages, as giue their dailie attendance vpon the quéenes maiestie there. I could in like sort set foorth a singular commendation of the vertuous beautie, or beautifull vertues of such ladies and gentlewomen as wait vpon hir person, betweene whose amiable countenances and costlinesse of attire, there seemeth to be such a dailie conflict and contention, as that it is verie difficult for me to gesse, whether of the twaine shall beare awaie the preheminence. This further is not to be omitted, to the singular commend
English courtiers ation of both sorts and sexes of our courtiers here in the
learned England, that there are verie few of them, which haue liuers,
& the worst
not the vse and skill of sundrie speaches, beside an excellent veine of writing before time not regarded. Would to God the rest of their liues and conuersations were correspondent to these gifts ! for as our common courtiers (for the most part) are the best lerned and indued with excellent gifts, so are manie of them the worst men when they come abroad, that anie man shall either heare or read of. Trulie it is a rare thing with
vs now, to heare of a courtier which hath but his owne (Ladies learned
language. And to saie how many gentlewomen and in languages.)
ladies there are, that beside sound knowledge of the Gréeke and Latine toongs, are thereto no lesse skilfull in the Spanish, Italian, and French, or in some one them, it resteth not in me: sith I am persuaded, that as the noble men and gentlemen doo surmount in this behalfe, so these come verie little or nothing at all behind them for their parts; which industrie God con tinue, and accomplish that which otherwise is want
ing! (Ancient ladies' Beside these things I could in like sort set downe employments.)
the waies and meanes, wherby our ancient ladies of the court doo shun and auoid idlenesse, some of them exercising their fingers with the needle, other in caulworke, diuerse in spinning of silke, some in continuall reading either of the holie scriptures, or histories of our owne or forren nations about vs, and diuerse in writing
volumes of their owne, or translating of other mens into [Young ladies'
our English and Latine toong, whilest the yoongest recreations.)
sort in the meane time applie their lutes, citharnes, prickesong, and all kind of musike, which they vse onelie for recreation sake, when they haue leisure, and
are frée from attendance vpon the quéenes maiestie, or [Old ladies' skill such as they belong vnto. How manie of the eldest in surgery, &c.)
sort also are skilfull in surgerie and distillation of waters, beside sundrie other artificiall practises perteining to the ornature and commendations of their bodies,
I might (if I listed to deale further in this behalfe) easilie declare, but I passe ouer such maner of dealing, least I should séeme to glauer, and currie fauour with some of them. Neuerthelesse this I will generallie saie of them all, that as ech of them are cuning in somthing (All are cunning wherby they keepe themselues occupied in the court, so there is in maner none of them, but when they be at home, can helpe to supplie the ordinarie want of the kitchen with a number of delicat dishes of their owne deuising, wherein the Portingall is their chéefe coun- in cookery, helped sellor, as some of them are most commonlie with the Portuguese.] clearke of the kitchen, who vseth (by a tricke taken vp of late) to giue in a bréefe rehearsall of such and so [Introduction of
of the Carte, manie dishes as are to come in at euerie course throughout the whole seruice in the dinner or supper while : which bill some doo call a memoriall, other a billet, Memorial, but some a fillet, bicause such are commonlie hanged Fillet.) on the file, and kept by the ladie or gentlewoman ynto some other purpose. But whither am I digressed ?" 1577, W. HARRISON, in Holinshed's Chronicles, vol. I. p. 196, ed. 1586.