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welcome sound across the wide water of four hundred years, I unhesitatingly assert. That it has interested me, let the time its notes have taken on this, a fresh subject to me, testify. If any should object to the extent of them', or to any words in them that may offend his ear, let him excuse them for the sake of what he thinks rightly present. There are still many subjects and words insufficiently illustrated in the comments, and for the names venprides (1. 820); sprotis, (Isprats, as in Sloane 1315), and torrentille (1. 548); almond iardyne (1. 744); ginger colombyne, valadyne, and maydelyne (1. 132-3); leche dugard, &c., I have not been able to find meanings. Explanations and helps I shall gladly receive, in the hope that they may appear in another volume of like kind for which I trust soon to find more MSS. Of other MSS. of like kind I also ask for notice.

The reason for reprinting Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Keruynge, which I had not at first thought of, was because its identity of phrase and word with many parts of Russell,-a thing which came on me with a curious feeling of surprise as I turned over the leaves,-made it certain that de Worde either abstracted in prose Russell's MS., chopping off his lines' tails,-adding also bits here?, leaving out others there,—or else that both writers copied a common original. The most cursory perusal will show this to be the case. It was not alone by happy chance that when Russell had said O Fruture viant / Fruter sawge byñ good / bettur is Frutur powche; Appulle fruture is good hoot / but be cold ye not towche (1. 501-2) Wynkyn de Worde delivered himself of “Fruyter vaunte, fruyter say be good ; better is fruyter pouche; apple fruyters ben good good hote / and all colde fruters, touche not,"

· The extracts from Bulleyn, Borde, Vaughan, and Ilarington are in the nature of notes, but their length gave one the excuse of printing them in bigger type as parts of a Test. In the same way I should have treated the many extracts from Laurens Andrewe, had I not wanted them intermixed with the other notes, and been also afraid of swelling this book to an unwieldy size.

The Termes of a Kerver so common in MSS. are added, and the subsequent arrangement of the modes of carving the birds under these Termes, p. 15-17. The Easter-Day feast (p 14) is also new, the bit why the heads of pheasants

, partridges, &c., are unwholesome for they ete in theyr degrees foule thynges, as wormes, todes, and other suche' -and several other pieces.

altering not's place to save the rhyme ; or that when Russell had said of the Crane

The Crane is a fowle / that stronge is with to fare ;
Þe whynges ye areyse / fulle large evyñ thare ;

of hyre trompe in þe brest / loke þat ye beware
Wynkyn de Worle directed his Carver thus : “A crane, reyse

the wynges fyrst, & beware of the trumpe in his brest." Let any one compare the second and third pages of Wynkyn de Worde's text with lines 48-137 of Russell, and he will make up his mind that the old printer was either one of the most barefaced plagiarists that ever lived, or that the same original was before him and Russell too. May Mr Davenport's hayloft, or some learned antiquarian, soon decide the alternative for us ! The question was too interesting a “Curiosity of Literature not to be laid before our Members, and therefore The Boke of Keruynge was reprinted—from the British Museum copy of the second edition of 1513— with added side-notes and stops, and the colophon as part of the title.

Then came the necessary comparison of Russell's Boke with the Boke of Curtasye, edited by Mr Halliwell from the Sloane MS. 1986 for the Percy Society. Contrasts had to be made with it, in parts, many times in a page; the tract was out of print and probably in few Members' hands; it needed a few corrections?, and was worthy of a thousand times wider circulation than it had had ; therefore a new edition from the MS. was added to this volume. Relying on Members reading it for themselves, I have not in the notes indicatel all the points of coincidence and difference between this Boke and Russell's. It is of wider scope than Russell's, takes in the duties of outdoor officers and servants as well as indoor, and maybe those of a larger household; it has also a fyrst Boke on general manners, and a Seronel Book on what to learn at school, how to behave at church, &c., but it does not go into the great detail as to Meals and Dress which is the special value of Russell's Boke, nor is it associated with a writer who tells us something of himself, or a noble who in all our English Middle Age has so bright a name on which we can look back

I do the, 1. 115, is clothe in the MS. ; grayne, 1. 576 (see too ll. 589, 597.) is grayne, Scotch greire, AS. gerefa, a kind of bailiff ; resceyne, 11. 547, 575, is rescayne, receive ; &c.

Mr Bond says.

as “good Duke Humphrey.” This personality adds an interest to work that anonymity and its writings of equal value can never have ; so that we may be well content to let the Curtasye be used in illustration of the Nurture. The MS. of the Curtasye is about 1460 A.D.,

I have dated it wrongly on the half-title. The Booke of Demeanor was 66 such a little one” that I was tempted to add it to mark the general introduction of handkerchiefs. Having printed it, arose the question, · Where did it come from?' No Weste's Schoole of Vertue could I find in catalogues, or by inquiring of the Duke of Devonshire, Mr W. C. Hazlitt, at the Bodleian, &c. Seager's Schoole of Vertue was the only book that turned up, and this I accordingly reprinted, as Weste's Booke of Demeanor seemed to be little more than an abstract of the first four Chapters of Seager cut down and rewritten. We must remember that books of this kind, which we look on as sources of amusement, as more or less of a joke, were taken seriously by the people they were written for. That The Schoole of Vertue, for instance—whether Seager's or Weste's

-was used as a regular school-book for boys, let Io. Brinsley witness. In his Grammar Schoole of 1612, pp. 17, 18, he enumerates the “ Bookes to bee first learned of children":-1. their Abcie, and Primer. 2. The Psalms in metre, hecause children wil learne that booke with most readinesse and delight through the running of the metre, as it is found by experience. 3. Then the Testament.' 4. "If any require any other little booke meet to enter children ; the Schoole of Vertue is one of the principall, and easiest for the first enterers, being full of precepts of ciuilitie, and such as children will soone learne and take a delight in, thorow the roundnesse of the metre, as was sayde before of the singing Psalmes : And after it the Schoole of good manners', called, the new Schoole of Vertue, leading the childe as by the hand, in the way of all good manners.” I make no apology for including reprints of these little-known books in an Early English Text. Qui s'excuse s'accuse; and if these Tracts do not justify to any reader their own appearance here, I believe the fault is not theirs. A poem on minding what you say, which Mr Aldis

* This is doubtless a different book from Hugh Rhodes's Booke of Nurture fSchoole of Good Manners, p. 71, below.

Wright has kindly sent me, some Maxims on Behaviour, &c., which all end in -ly, and Roger Ascham's Advice to his brother-in-law on entering a nobleman's service, finish Part I.

The woodcuts Messrs Virtue have allowed me to have copies of for a small royalty, and they will help the reader to realize parts of the text better than any verbal description. The cuts are not of course equal to the beautiful early illuminations they are taken from, but they are near enough for the present purpose. The dates of those from British Museum MSS. are given on the authority of trustworthy officers of the Manuscript Department. The dates of the non-Museum MSS. are copied from Mr Wright's text. The line of description under the cuts is also from Mr Wright's text, except in one instance where he had missed the fact of the cut representing the Marriage Feast at Cana of Galilee, with its six water-pots.

The MS. of Russell is on thick folio paper, is written in a closeand seemingly unprofessional—hand, fond of making elaborate capitals to the initials of its titles, and thus occasionally squeezing up into a corner the chief word of the title, because the T of The preceding has required so much room.' The MS. has been read through by a corrector with a red pen, pencil, or brush, who has underlined all the important words, touched up the capitals, and evidently believed in the text. Perhaps the corrector, if not writer, was Russell himself. I hope it was, for the old man must have enjoyed emphasizing his precepts with those red scores ; but then he would hardly have allowed a space to remain blank in line 204, and have left his Panter-pupil in doubt as to whether he should lay his “white payne" on the left or right of his knives. Every butler, drillserjeant, and vestment-cleric, must feel the thing to be impossible. The corrector was not John Russell.

To all those gentlemen who have helped me in the explanations of words, &c.,—Mr Gillett, Dr Günther, Mr Atkinson, Mr Skeat, Mr Cockayne, Mr Gibbs, Mr Way, the Hon. G. P. Marsh-and to Mr E. Brock, the most careful copier of the MS., my best thanks are due, and are hereby tendered. Would that thanks of any of us now profiting by their labours could reach the ears of that prince of

The MS. has no title. The one printed I have made up from bits of

text.

Dictionary-makers, Cotgrave, of Frater Galfridus, Palsgrave, Hexham, Philipps, and the rest of the lexicographers who enable us to understand the records of the past! Would too that an adequate expression of gratitude could reach the ears of the lost Nicolas, and of Sir Frederic Madden, for their carefully indexed Household Books,—to be contrasted with the unwieldy mass and clueless mazes of the Antiquaries' Household Ordinances, the two volumes of the Roxburghe Howard Household Books, and Percy's Northumberland Household Book ! !—They will be spared the pains of the special place of torment reserved for editors who turn out their books without glossary or index. May that be their sufficient reward !

3, St George's Square, N.W.

16 Dec., 1866.

1 Still one is truly thankful for the material in these unindexed books.

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