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"Her lilies and roses were just in her prime,
"They tell me my love would in time have been cloy'd, "And that beauty's insipid when once 'tis enjoy'd; "But in wine I both time and enjoyment defy, "For the longer I drink, the more thirsty am I.
"Let murders, and battles, and history prove "The mischiefs that wait upon rivals in love: "But in drinking, thank heaven, no rival contends, "For the more we love liquor, the more we are friends.
"She too might have poison'd the joy of my life, "With nurses, and babies, and squalling and strife, "But my wine neither nurses nor babies can bring, "And a big-belly'd bottle's a mighty good thing.
"We shorten our days when with love we engage; "It brings on diseases, and hastens old age: "But wine from grim death can its votaries save, "And keep t'other leg out when there's one in the grave.
"Perhaps, like her sex, ever false to their word,
"Then let my dear Chloe no longer complain;
"When Orpheus went down to the regions below" is also full of wit, but it is almost a translation from Quevedo. "Celia altogether," by Whitehead, is sprightly and pleasing. "Love and folly" is either a pretty song or a pretty epigram. It may be proper to notice here that though all epigrammatic points are judiciously proscribed in the serious lyric, they are yet very admissible in the lighter kinds. Lord Chesterfields little song beginning "Mistaken fair," &c. has much wit; and there is a vein of odd humour in a song
EPISTLES....TALES AND FABLES.
not very new....." Vain are the charms of white and red," &c. Of modern song-writers George Alexander Stephens, Mr. Sheridan, and Captain Morris have excelled most of their contemporaries in the facetious and witty.
As in prose, so the epistolary form will apply to any subject, and almost to any style of poetical composition. It suits best, however. with the moral, the familiar and the gay. Mr. Prior's Epistle to Fleetwood Shepherd is a happy specimen of the familiar epistle in verse. Mr. Pope's Epistle to Mr. Addison, occasioned by his Dialogues on Medals, is excellent in its kind; and Mr. Addison's Letter from Italy contains some fine description, and some good poetry, though the style of his heroic verse is never equal to that of Mr. Pope.
Tales and fables may also be adopted into almost any species of poetry. An heroic poem is indeed only an extended tale; and Dryden's Alexander's Feast is a kind of story. Tales and fables are often happily introduced as illustrations in moral poetry. There are some very lively and interesting in the satires and epistles of Horace; and I have already remarked the excellence of Pope's Sir Balaam.
For nature, interest, and useful tendency, the best tale in our language is that of my friend Mr. M'Neil, "Scotland's Scaith." Of a different description, but extremely beautiful, is Parnel's Hermit. Dr. Goldsmith's beautiful tale of "Edwin and Angelina" has seemingly furnished the hint for the story of Dr. Percy's "Friar of Orders Gray," in which the author has ingeniously contrived to weave several detached fragments of ancient composition. Both are beautiful, but they want the moral of the two former pieces.
Phædrus was the first who composed fables in verse; but he is little more than a mere translator of Esop, and has lost much of the simplicity and beauty of the original. The best poetical fables in any language are those of Mr. Gay.
MY DEAR JOHN,
I SHALL proceed in this letter to a very brief consideration of dramatic poetry, a branch of literature of which your favourites the ancients had very faint ideas indeed; and whoever draws his opinions from them, will never conceive properly of what we denominate, in plain English, (I cannot find a better word) a play. A play has this advantage above every other work of imagination, that it is a perfect representation of life: not only the ear and the understanding are interested, but the eye itself: it sees the whole action, and if the representation is a good one, the deception is almost complete, and we might mistake it for a reality.
"Segnius irritant animos demissa per aures,
"Quam quæ sunt oculis commissa fidelibus et quæ
"What we hear
De Art Poet. v. 180.
"With weaker passion will affect the heart,
The word drama is universally allowed to be derived from the Greek verb paw, to do, and it might be literally explained an action. Our word play perhaps is still better, as it implies an amusing representation or entertainment; yet it is perhaps more applicable to representations of the gay or sportive kind than to those of tragedy.
Both terms, however, imply an action, or story, or plot as it is sometimes called, and this constitutes the difference between plays and dialogues. Some of the pastorals of Theocritus and Virgil might be termed little dramas, because they have something of plot or story; but the majority of eclogues are mere dialogues. According to the nature of the subject, dramatic pieces class under two divisions, tragedy or comedy; though many modern performances will not strictly all under either of these characters; and the mixture of both (the tragi-comedy) has been practised by some of our first writers, Shakspeare, Otway, Dryden, and Southern; and is defended by some of our first critics, I think by Dr. Johnson, as a more perfect representation of real life.
The same rules in general apply to comedy as to tragedy. Aristotle has advanced. precepts for their composition, all deduced from the practice of the Greek writers, and which have been most absurdly adopted by the French critics, and dramatic writers. But before we inquire into the reasonableness of these dictates of Aristotle, it will be proper to take a cursory view of the origin and progress of the Greek drama.
There is scarcely any circumstance in which the gradual progress of human invention is more exemplified, than in the origin and improvement of dramatic composition among the Greeks.
The Greek drama was originally nothing more than a rude song, exhibited by one or more clownish minstrels or ballad-singers, who disfigured themselves to excite attention. Thespis, who lived 564 years before Christ, collected a company of them together, and transported them from village to village in a kind of waggon; and something like this state of the drama we see in the rude exhibitions of mummers, and morrice-dancers, in the inland parts of this kingdom. Thespis added to the singers an interlocutor, who served to explain the matter of the songs; and in this state the drama continued, till an accident brought it to greater perfection. In the representation of a tragedy, in which
the furies were exhibited, the barbarous dresses of the chorus (which consisted of fifty persons) frighted the pregnant women into fits. Hence Eschylus was induced to retrench the number of the chorus, and to compensate for the deficiency, added to the actors or interlocutors. He erected a stage, and ornamented it with machinery; and equipped the actors with the robe, the buskin, and the mask.* The two latter of which were accommodations to the large theatres; and if our managers proceed as they have lately done in enlarging our play-houses, our actors must be mounted in buskins, disfigured in masks, and must vociferate through speaking trumpets.
From this statement you will see how very imperfect the Greek drama was, and how very absurd those critics are who would confine us to a servile imitation of it. You will also see the reason of what are called the unities. The Greeks had but one scene, and as the actual performance was an ode, the chorus (or company of singers), which was originally the main object, never left the stage. The representation therefore admitted of no change of place, and only of the time which was employed in the recitation. For the unity of action more is to be said; since in every composition of hu
* "The drama owes its rise to days of festivity. For in ancient times it was usual for men, when they had collected in the fruits of the earth, to meet together, that they might sacrifice to the deity, and unbend their minds from the fatigues of the harvest. Hence arose two sorts of poetry; the one graver, in praise of the gods; the other jocose, full of lampoon against one another. Under the former head we may reckon the Dithyrambics of Bacchus, hymns to the gods, and panegyrics upon heroes. Under the second, Iambics and Phallic verses. The first essays were rough, and unpolished; but, by degrees, the great actions of gods and heroes grew more numerous, and increased into set fables: so, in like manner, the jocose compositions began to come under proper regulations. Thus from the former kind arose tragedy; from the latter, satire, comedy, and mimic.".... Vossius, Lib. II. c. 2.