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surplusage, as some may deem it, of references, citations, and illustrations will prove of value not only to teachers and students of literature, but to the beginner when he returns to the most interesting and important part of his task-the review. For the Odes are to be assimilated, not merely read through.
The young student in haste to construe will of course not look up references to other authors. But they will not harm him any more than the critical and grammatical discussions found in all school editions which he always skips. Crossreferences to Horace have been designedly multiplied. No intelligent study of an author is possible without them. It would not have been difficult to add indefinitely to the quotations from English poetry, and the task of selection was not easy. Some commonplace quotations have been admitted merely for the information they contain; others as illustrations of the taste of the age that produced them. I should be sorry to be thought to recommend 'parallel passages' as a short cut to 'culture.' But Horace especially invites this treatment, and in no other way can the right atmosphere for the enjoyment of the Odes be so easily created. No judicious teacher will impose such work as a task, and when it is voluntarily undertaken the student should be taught to distinguish carefully conscious imitation, interesting coincidences, and the mere commonplaces of poetical rhetoric and imagery.
The text of the Odes is for practical purposes settled. This edition was set up from the Teubner text of Müller with marginal corrections. I fear that I have not attained perfect consistency in some minor matters. All various readings or disputed interpretations that concern the undergraduate or the
literary student are briefly discussed in the notes. I have been more careful to indicate the reasons for each of two differing views than to insist strenuously on my own preference. Those who wish to consult critical editions or use the Odes for exercises in text criticism will be put on the track of a sufficient preliminary bibliography by the article Horatius, in Harper's Classical Dictionary.
In the preparation of the notes I have freely used Hirschfelder-Orelli, Kiessling, and Nauck, and have consulted Wickham, Smith, Page, and others.
Spenser's Fairy Queen is cited as F. Q.; Herrick, by the numbers of Saintsbury's (Aldine Poets) edition. Harper's Latin Lexicon. Otto Otto's Sprichwörter der
In conclusion I wish to thank Professor Pease, and Professor Arthur T. Walker of the University of Kansas, who have read a large part of the proof and made helpful suggestions.
Mr. George Norlin, Mr. T. C. Burgess, and Mr. H. M. Burchard, fellows in Greek in the University of Chicago, kindly offered to verify in the proof the references to Greek and Latin authors. To them is mainly due such accuracy as I may have attained in this matter.
UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO,
NOTE.-A. G. Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar; B. = Bennett; G. L. = Gildersleeve-Lodge; H. = Harkness.
THERE are many excellent lives of Horace in print, and much good criticism is easily accessible.1 In order to keep the present volume within bounds this introduction will be limited to a brief résumé of the chief facts known about the poet's life, and a few practical suggestions on (1) syntax, (2) style, (3) meters.
The student should by all means review the history of Rome for the period of Horace's life and familiarize himself with the topography of Rome and the Campagna, the biographies of Augustus and Maecenas, and the events of the years B.C. 44-20.2
The sources for the life of Horace are the allusions in his own writings, and the brief biography attributed to Suetonius.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus 5 was born on the 8th of December, B.C. 65,7 at Venusia, a Roman colony on the confines of
1 Milman; Martin, in Blackwood's Ancient Classics for English Readers; Sellar, Horace and the Elegiac Poets; Lang, Letters to Dead Authors; the Histories of Latin literature, Crutwell, Simcox, and especially Mackail; articles in Encycl. Brit.; the Classical Dictionaries, and the Library of the World's Best Literature; Quarterly Review, 180. 111 sqq.; 104. 325 sqq.
2 Merivale's Roman Triumvirates, and Cape's Early Empire, in Epochs of History Series; Hare's Days near Rome; Burns' Rome and the Campagna.
3 Sat. 2. 6. 37.
4 Odes 4. 6. 44; Epp. 1. 14. 5.
5 Sat. 2. 1. 18; Epode 15. 12.
6 Suet., sexto idus Decembris.
7 Odes 3. 21. 1; Epode 13. 6; Epp. 1. 20. 26-28.
8 Sat. 2. 1. 35; Odes 3. 30. 10, 4. 6. 27, 4. 9. 2.
Apulia and Lucania. His father was a libertinus, or freedman,1 by whom emancipated is not known. Horace was technically ingenuus, having been born after his father's emancipation.2 His mother he never mentions. In the exercise of his profession of coactor,3 collector of taxes, or perhaps rather of the proceeds of public sales, the father acquired a small estate near Venusia, and a competence that enabled him to give his son the best education that Rome afforded. To this and to his father's personal supervision and shrewd, homely vein of moral admonition the poet refers with affectionate gratitude.5 At Rome Horace pursued the usual courses in grammar and rhetoric, reading the older Latin poets under the famous teacher L. Orbilius Pupillus, whom he has immortalized by the epithet plagosus. He also read Homer at this time, and apparently pushed his Greek studies so far as to compose Greek verses, which he wisely destroyed, though he retained throughout life his devotion to Greek models as the one source of literary salvation. About the age of twenty he went to study at Athens, at this time virtually a university town and a finishing school for young Romans of the better class. He probably attended the lectures of Cratippus the Peripatetic, and Theomnestus the Academician, the chief figures in the schools at that time, and acquired a superficial knowledge of their doctrines. In later years, after the publication of the first three books of the Odes, the Greek moral philosophers became his favorite reading.
He was naturally an Epicurean, but the lofty morality and ingenious dialectic of the Stoics attracted him as they did other
1 Sat. 1. 6. 6 and 45; Odes 2. 20. 6.
2 Sat. 1. 6. 8.
3 Sat. 1. 6. 86; Suet., coactor exactionum.
4 Sat. 1. 6. 71 sqq.; Epp. 2. 2. 42.
5 Sat. 1. 4. 105, 1. 6. 71.
6 Epp. 2. 1. 70.
7 Epp. 2. 2. 42; Sat. 1. 10. 31 sqq.
8 A. P. 268.
9 Epp. 2. 2. 43; cf. Harper's Class. Dict. s.v. Education (3), and Cape's University Life in Ancient Athens.