Obrazy na stronie

conspiring to the execution of the same plan; but hair ; those of the preceding year have reddish hair, that which in men would be the effect of reason, cor and the scales less brown, rather inclining to black; respondence, or co-operation, is in the Bees but the their wings are also often torn and fringed at the effect of that instinct which is implanted in them by ends, by their former flights. On the breast, and on the great Creator.

the wings of the body, are observed small orifices or We are acquainted in England but with one sort pores, in the shape of a mouth, by which the Bee of Bees, although the foreign naturalists mention respires; these are the lungs, and they are technithree, and some even four; but this latter kind is cally called stygmates ; this part, which is of a very rare, and has not yet been naturalized.

wonderful construction, is common to them, as to all It is to this small, but wonderful insect, that we other insects. are indested for all the honey and wax which form a The interior of the belly consists of four parts,part of our domestic and commercial relations. the intestines, the honey-bag, the venom-vessel, and When we consider that the former is amassed from the sting. The intestines serve for the digestion of those small, and to us almost imperceptible, globules their food. The honey-bag, when it is filled, is as which are found either in the chalice of the flowers, large as a small pea, transparent as crystal, and conor exude from the trees, we cannot be sufficiently tains the honey which the Bees have collected impressed with admiration at the perseverance and from the flowers, and which is disgorged into the labour of the Bee. It appears to labour less for the cells to nourish the hive during the winter. That preservation of its own existence, than for that of its which is destined for their own nourishment never species, and the prosperity of its populous state! The enters into it, but passes through the viscera destined days on which the honey abounds in the flowers, and to the purpose of digestion. The vessel which conon the leaves of certain trees, the Bee is observed to tains the venom is at the root of the sting, along be uncommonly industrious, entering and leaving the which the Bee ejects some globules, as along a tube, hive with wonderful rapidity. The office of collect in order to spread into the wound. The sting is situing the farina from the plants is not, however, neg. ated at the extremity of the belly of the Bee; it is lected; and it is very easy to discriminate between about two lines in length, and enters with great the Bee which has been collecting honey, and that rapidity, by means of certain muscles which are which has been collecting only farina. The shape of placed very near the sting, and which are very perthe former is cylindrical, that of the latter oval. ceptible on squeezing the hinder part of the Bee;

In regard to the physical description of the Bee, its extremity is barbed, the teeth of which are turned the most remarkable parts of it are the head, the in the direction of an arrow, which enter with facibreast, and the belly. On the former are observed lity, and cannot be extracted without causing a two rete mirabile eyes placed in the side, two antenna, laceration. The wound which the Bee makes is two hard teeth or jaws, which play, on opening or almost always fatal to it; when it wishes to withdraw shutting, from the left to the right. These teeth its sting, it remains in the wound, and with it the enable it to collect the wax, to knead it, to construct | Bee loses the vessel of venom, which is at the root the cells, and to remove from the hive every ob- of the sting, and the ligaments to which it is attached. noxious thing.

The Bee thus wounded cannot live a long time; it Below these two teeth we observe a proboscis, perishes, after having made war, in the manner of which has the appearance of a thick fleshy substance, the savages, with poisoned arrows. of a very shining and chesnut colour. This sub These details can only produce, in every rational stance is divided into two parts, very supple at the man, a more distinct and extensive knowledge of that end, and it is only seen at its full length when the infinite intelligence, which has arranged the creatures Bee is employed in collecting honey, or sipping of this earth, presided at their organization, and water. This proboscis is a most wonderful machine. regulated their existence and configuration. There To the simple view, it appears enveloped with four is nothing in nature which can so forcibly demonkinds of scales, which form together a channel by strate to us an equally wise and powerful Author. which the honey is conveyed. The proboscis, which The insects the most vile are, perhaps, more admiis in this channel, is a muscular body, which, by rable in their construction than the sun and the means of its muscular motions, makes the honey most brilliant stars. What proportion! what harascend into the gullet. If the teeth be separated, mony! what correspondence, in every part of the we observe, at the orifice of the proboscis, an open- Bee ! How many combinations, arrangements, ing, which is the mouth, and above it a fleshy sub-causes, effects, and principles, which tend to the stance, which is the tongue, The breast is attached same end, and concur in the same design! What to the head by a very short neck; it carries four exactness, what symmetry in its little body, appawings on it, the two last of which are longer than rently contemptible, and so little admired by ignorant the other. It has six feet, on the two hinder of and inattentive persons ! As in the greater number which are two triangular cavities, in which the Bec, of animals, so we observe in the Bee, vessels without by degrees, collects the particles of farina from the number, liquids, motions often united in an imperplants. At the extremity of the six feet are two ceptible point,-all the organs of life, the instruments sorts of fangs, with which the Bees attach them- of labour, the means of escaping from their enemies, selves to the sides of the hive, and to each other. weapons to command victory, and a thousand beauFrom the middle of these fangs, on the four hinder ties which adorn its exterior form! legs, project four bushy substances, the use of which Every thing in these insects announces that suis to collect the dust of the flowers attached to the preme wisdom which presided at the formation of a hair of their body. These brushes have the same work, so perfect, so industrious, so superior to every use as hands.

thing which art could ever produce. Every thing The body, properly so called, or the belly, is united here is for our use and benefit. The Bees, in fact, to the breast by a species of thread, and is composed of make use of their wondrous qualities only for our six scaly rings. The whole body of the Bee appears, good. It is for us that they work; and it is towards even to the naked eye, to be well clothed. Age Him, therefore, who has given to them these inclimakes a little difference in them, in point of colour ; nations, that we ought to express our love and those of the present year are brown, and have greyish | gratitude.-Huish on Bees,


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THERE are few events recorded in the history of Henry, eldest son of King James the First, and England, which the generality of readers, the young Queen Anne of Denmark, was born in Scotland, especially, peruse with so much interest as the early early in 1594. After remaining under the care of death of illustrious and promising characters. The the Earl of Mar, he was placed, at five years of age, pen of the impartial historian dwells with delight on with an excellent tutor, by whose instructions he those traits of disposition, which gave rise to the made a great and rapid progress in learning; the fairest hopes; and imparts to the reader emotions of energies of the body keeping pace with those of the sorrow and regret, at the premature close of a life, mind. At the age of nine he began to acquire a dear to thousands. It is not in a political point of fondness for riding, dancing, shooting, and tossing view, however, that a great national loss is thus felt. the lance, exercises in which he afterwards greatly Honour, love, and esteem for the individual cha- excelled; and before he reached the age of ten, he racter, must be the spring of such affections - was installed at Windsor, a knight of the garter. pensive indeed, yet mingled with pleasure, that so 'On the 4th of June, 1610, he was created Prince sweet a plant was removed to a kindlier soil, before of Wales, at Westminster, with solemn and magthe rude breath of the world had disturbed or nificent ceremonies, the eyes of the people being corrupted it; and that one of lofty station left a fixed upon him as their future sovereign. pattern, which in its leading points, all, however It was now that he became most popular among all lowly in their walk of life, may follow, and be happy: classes. In the government of his affairs, he set a

Deep and universal was the grief which pervaded noble example of mingled liberality and economy; the nation, on the decease of the young prince, providing plentifully, but knowing and watching whose likeness appears at the head of this paper. his expenses; and though with a retinue of little Born to high expectations, and surrounded by busy less than five hundred persons, many of them fatterers, HENRY, PRINCE OF WALES, had esta- young gentlemen of high expectations, he left his blished a name for piety, temperance, prudence, and revenue increased some thousands a year. An many manly virtues, when he was snatched away in original manuscript, containing orders made by the very spring-time of existence! Yet he had the this young prince, respecting his household, as given happiness to die in the height of favour with men, as at Richmond in 1610, was communicated some years well as, we hope, with God, and without experi- ago to the Royal Society. The first order is; “That encing the miseries which awaited the royal family. when I am at divine service in my private closet, my Of his high qualities and exemplary behaviour, several gentlemen in ordinary be warned to attend me, and authentic documents exist; and the scattered intel- be present at times of prayer; and to do the like ligence concerning him, appears well worthy of when I go to my public chapel to service and sermons: collection for our Magazine,

wherein I will dispense with no man; holding him

He was

unfit to serve me, that with me will forbear to go to An opinion prevailed at the time, that he hear the word of God; which example of liberty was carried off by poison; a presumption not to shall never be tolerated in my court, nor made a be wondered at, nor indeed, perhaps, groundless, reason to encourage others in like disobedience and when we consider his honest and avowed dislike to contempt towards religion.”

the wretched court-minion Car, Lord Rochester, After a series of general regulations concerning afterwards Earl of Somerset, as well as to the his own and his household's living, he concludes, Howards, with an infamous branch of which family As I began with the due divine service unto Al- | Car had united himself by marriage. mighty God, without which nothing can prosper nor "HENRY,” says Birch, in his Lives of Illustrious yield comfort, either in this world or in the world Persons, “ was about five feet eight inches tall; of a tv come; so do I conclude, that amongst other my strong and handsome frame, an amiable countenance, ordinances, it be strictly looked unto and observed his hair auburn, and his eyes fine and piercing. Пle that, four times in the year, namely, at Christmas, was sober, chaste, temperate, religious. Easter, Midsummer, and Michaelmas, all my ordinary never heard to swear, though the example of his servants, without exception, do receive the Commu- father, and of the whole court, was but too apt to nion at my public chapel; and that before the corrupt him in that respect. He

He took great delight receiving of the communion, one of my chaplains, in the conversation of men of honour; and those who or some other good preacher, do make a sermon, or were not reckoned such, were treated with no attention read a lecture, tending to instruct men to the at his court. He was naturally gentle and affable; reverent and worthy receiving of that holy and though he had a noble stateliness without affectation, blessed Sacrament. And of such as shall either wil which commanded esteem and respect. Ile showed fully refuse so to do, or cautiously absent themselves a warlike taste in his passionate fondness for martial of purpose, I desire that myself be informed, to give exercises. A French ambassador coming to take such further order therein, as may stand for an leave of him, found him tossing a pike; and asked eminent example and chastisement to such ungodly him whether he had any commands to France: “Tell and unchristian-like disposition: for the which kind your master,' said the prince, how you left me of people, my court shall be no shelter, nor my service engaged. He was eighteen years old when he died: any protection."

and no historian has cast the least stain upon his He had an esteem for the brave and unfortunate character." Sir Walter Raleigh, during whose sad imprisonment, Sir Charles Cornwallis, treasurer of Henry's housethe prince used to say, Sure no king but my father hold, thus concludes an account of him; “God seeing would keep such a bird in a cage! In an interesting it good to bestow another Crown upon him, excelling letter of advice to the prince, from Sir Walter, dated all that on earth was to be had or hoped: after some August, 1611, among other excellent passages we five days' sickness, endured with patience, and as find these : “ Consider the inexpressible advantage often recognition of his faith, his hopes, and his which will ever attend your Highness, while you appeals to God's mercy, as his infirmity, which make the power of rendering men happy, the measure affected him altogether in his head, would possibly of your actions. While this is your impulse, how permit; he yielded up the ghost at St. James's, next easily will that power be extended! The glance of Westminster, and was interred at Westminster, where your eye will give gladness, and your very sentence his body now resteth.”

M. have a force of bounty.” And his royal father, who, it is asserted, sometimes felt himself outdone by the As rivers, when they overtlow, drown those grounds, and splendour of the prince's reputation, addressed to ruin those husbandmen, which, whilst they flowed calmly him the following powerful lines.

betwixt their banks, they fertilized and enriched; so our

passions, when they grow exorbitant and unruly, destroy FROM KING JAMES TO PRINCE HENRY.

ihose virtues, to which they may be very serviceable whilst God gives not kings the style of Gods in vain,

they keep within their bounds. --BOYLE.
For on His throne his sceptre do they sway:
And as their subjects ought them to obey

It is useful to observe, in our progress through life, the

chain of duties, trials, and blessings, which imperceptibly So kings should fear and serve their God again.

conduct us from one period to another; and how successive If then ye would enjoy a happy reign,

comforts and blessings spring from previous duties. Thus Observe the statutes of our heavenly King:

the diligence, sobriety, and virtuous habits of youth, will, And from his law make all your laws to spring; in middle age, ensure to us, through God's blessing, the Since his lieutenant bere should ye remain.

respect of the world, and success in our pursuits, and the

active and useful employments of that period, added to Reward the just; be stedfast, true and plain;

early and continued piety and benevolence, will produce an Repress the proud, maintaining aye the right; old age of comfort and consolation. Thus proceeding in Walk always so, as ever in His sight,

the way we should go, we reap, from the same source, our Who guards the godly, plaguing the profane.

reward for the past, and our encouragement for the future

---Mrs. King. In 1612, a marriage was proposed for him with a daughter of Henry the Fourth of France. But, In this world we are children standing on the bank of a though not at once rejecting, he never appeared mighty river. Casting our eyes upword and downwartl, desirous to encourage this union, on account of the along the channel, we discern various windings of its princess's creed, she being a Roman Catholic: and current; and perceive that it is now visible, now obscure, it is stated that "in his sickness afterwards, he and now entirely hidden from our view. But being far applied this chastisement for a deserved punishment

removed from the fountain whence it springs, and from the

ocean into which it is emptied, we are unable to form any upon him, for having ever opened his cars to admit conceptions of the beauty, usefulness, or grandeur of its treaty of a popish match.” In October, the same

progress. Lost in perplexity and ignorance, we gaze, year, he was seized with an illness, the nature of wonder, and despond. In this situation, a messenger from which was not thoroughly understood ; and he died, heaven comes to our relief, with authentic information of deeply lamented, on the 6th of November, 1612*.

its nature, its course, and its enl; conducts us backward

to the fountain, and leads us forward to the ocean. This Princess Charlotte, was snatched away in the same month, and celestial messenger: 'and Heaven is the ocean in which all

It is remarkable, that another rising Hope of England, the river is the earthly system of providence: the Bible is the on the same day of the month. She died November 6, 1817. , preceding dispensations find their end. --Dwight,


much. Its excess, or its deficiency, would be equally THRICE welcome, little English Flower!

fatal to vegetable and animal existence. In one case, My mnother-country's white and red,

the earth would become a parched desert, in the In rose or lily, till this hour,

other, an ice-bound plain. Never to me such beauty spread:

It is important that we should distinguish between Transplanted from thine island-bed,

heat itself, and the sensation of heat. The first is a A treasure in a grain of earth, Strange as a spirit from the dend,

cause, the second its effect. With a view to prevent Thine embryo sprang to birth.

mistakes, by the frequent interchange of terms,

meaning sometimes one thing, and at other times Thrice welcome, little English Flower! Whose tribes beneath our natal skies

another, the term caloric is now extensively employed Shut close their leaves while vapours lower;

by scientific writers, to denote that condition of But, when the Sun's gay beams arise,

bodies, by which the sensation of heat is produced, With unabash'd but modest eyes

or, in other words, to define the cause of heat, as Follow his motion to the west,

distinct from its effects. Wishing to refrain, as Nor cease to gaze till daylight dies,

much as possible, from scientific phraseology, we Then fold themselves to rest.

shall restrict ourselves to the ordinary term (heat), Thrice welcome, little English Flower!

requesting our readers to remember that, unless the To this resplendent hemisphere.

contrary is distinctly stated, it always means heat, as Where Flora's giant-offspring tower

an element, residing in, or operating upon, matter, In gorgeous liveries all the year: Thou, only Thou, are little here,

without any regard to our feelings. Like worth unfriended or unknown,

By the continual use of the terms heat and cold, in Yet to my British heart more dear

the affairs of common life, we sometimes employ the Than all the torrid zone.

latter term, as if it was descriptive of an element, or Thrice welcome, little English Flower!

agent, equally energetic in its efects as any other Of early scenes beloved by me,

with which we are acquainted, but whose properties While happy in my father's bower,

are directly the opposite of those possessed by heat. Thou shalt the blithe memorial be; The fairy sports of infancy,

Cold is only the absence of heat. It is easier, and, Youth's golden age, and manhood's prime,

because we are accustomed to it, more natural to say, Home, country, kindred, friends with thee

“ It is cold,” than it is to describe that condition by Are mine in this fair clime.

saying, “There is a deficiency of heat." The latter, Thrice welcome, little English Flower!

however, is a correct definition. We know by expeI'll rear thee with a trembling hand :

rience, that the gradual abstraction of heat from a O! for the April sun and shower,

body, which at first may possess so much of it as to The sweet May-dews of that fair land,

be unapproachable, induces the sensation we denomiWhere Daisies, thick as starlight, stand

nate cold. But cold is only a relative term. We In every walk!-that here might shoot

know nothing of matter where heat is not present. Thy scions, and thy buds expand, An hundred from one root!

There is less heat in one substance than in another;

but of absolute cold we have no conception. Thrice welcome, little English Flower! To me the pledge of Hope unseen;

Temperature is a term that will very often occur When sorrow would my soul o'erpower

whilst treating of the properties of heat. We think For joys that were, or might have been,

it right at once to explain its signification. The I'll call to mind, how-fresh and green,

temperature of a body means its sensible heat, that is, I saw thee rising from the dust,

the heat of which some estimate may be formed by Then turn to heaven with brow serene,

a thermometer*, a useful instrument, that we shall And place in God my trust.

describe particularly hereafter. In comparing two

different substances, or two distinct parts of the FAMILIAR ILLUSTRATIONS OF EXPERI. same substance, if we find the first communicates to MENTAL SCIENCE.

the thermometer more heat than the second, we say No. IV. HEAT. TEMPERATURE. RADIATION.

the temperature of the former is higher than that of

the latter, or, that the temperature of the latter is CONDUCTION.

lower than that of the former. Higher and lower, In the present state of our knowledge, it is impossible as applied to temperature, are terms that evidently to determine whether heat should be regarded as a owe their origin to the operation of the thermometer; substance, endowed with extraordinary powers, by since the smaller the quantity of sensible heat which it penetrates and diffuses itself among the present in any substance with which the bulb of a particles of every other element; or as a quality, thermometer is placed in contact, the lower will the inseparable from matter, and dependent on certain column of mercury, or other fluid within the tube, conditions for those unceasing fluctuations which descend; the greater the quantity of sensible heat, constitute its most remarkable phenomena.

the higher will it rise. The sensible, or as it is com The resistless energies of this omnipotent and monly termed, free heat, thus discoverable in any all-pervading agent are in constant operation. There particular substance by the aid of a thermometer, is not an instant of time that heat is not performing must be viewed, as entirely independent of the heat some important duty in fulfilment of the Divine which permanently resides in that substance, or purposes. Among all the works of God, we know which may be temporarily combined with it in a of none on which the evidences of design are more latent, that is, a concealed state. We may satisfy conspicuously inscribed.

ourselves, that a vast quantity of heat has entered Whatever may be the nature of heat, be it a into some particular substance, but we can neither peculiar substance, or a peculiar property, we know detect the presence, nor estimate the quantity, of that that it exists. To its influence we are indebted for which is latent, by our ordinary perceptions, nor the due performance of all the functions of life, for through the agency of a thermometer. all that cheers the eye, delights the ear, and gratifies Heat is communicable from one substance to the taste. Nor is it to heat only, but to its being

* The thermometer obtains its name from two Greek words, supplied to us in its due proportions, that we owe so therme, heat, and metron, a measure.

another by radiation and by conduction. Radiation and among whose particles it is transmitted rapidly, takes place between bodies whose temperatures are are called good conductors. Those, on the contrary, unequal, at sensible distances. Contact is a condition which offer considerable resistance to the progress of essential to conduction.

heat among their particles, are termed bad conductors, If a piece of heated metal be fixed in the centre The latter are frequently denominated non-conductors, a of a room, midway between the ceiling and the floor, description not philosophically correct; since every subheat will be disengaged from it equally in all direc- stance with which we are acquainted will conduct heat, tions, upwards, downwards, horizontally, and ob- although in some its transmission is exceedingly slow. liquely, which may be proved by the melting of a Among good conductors the metals are the best: small quantity of tallow placed at certain distances of these gold, platinum, silver, and copper, are nearly around the metal. This is an instance of radiation. equal. The next in order are iron and zinc, then When the bowl of a metal spoon is left, for a few tin, and the slowest conductor of them all is lead. minutes, in a cup of hot tea, the handle of the spoon Wood, stone, and bricks, are among the bad conacquires the same temperature as that of the tea. ductors: of this class the most perfect are wool, Here we have an instance of conduction. In one hair, cotton, the fur of animals, the feathers of birds, case, the heat separated from the metal will affect and especially the down of the swan. Liquids and the tallow at some distance, passing readily through, aëriform bodies, when there is no motion among their or among, the particles of the intervening air. In particles, are bad conductors of heat. If freedom of the other case, the heat first communicating with motion be established, they become good conductors. that part of the spoon in contact with the tea, it is, In our next paper, we will endeavour to illustrate if we may employ the expression, pushed forward more fully the operation of Heat as respects conducfrom particle to particle of the metal, along the handle, tion and radiation. We rather desire that our until it reaches its extremity.

readers may complain of the brevity of our remarks, As radiation and conduction commonly operate than that they should feel fatigued by our becoming together, they may be considered as different parts, tedious.

R. R. or rather, different forms, of the same process; both equally dependent on that property peculiar to heat, The energy of every function is regulated in a great by which it tends to diffuse itself in every direction,

measure by the quantity of blood which the organs cxer and among the particles of every species of matter, cising that function receive. The muscles employed in whatever may be its form, size, colour, or quality. the most vigorous actions, are always found to receive the Thus, if any number of vessels, some constructed largest quantity of blood. It is commonly observed that of metal, others of wood, others of stone, and others the right fore-leg of quadrupeds, as well as the right arm of glass, each vessel containing a liquid of a different in man, is stronger than the left; much of this superior kind and at a different temperature, be placed in the strength is

, no doubt, the result of education, the right

arm being more habitually used than the left. But still same room, the liquids and the vessels containing the different mode in which the arteries are distributed to them will, in a few hours, all arrive at the same the two arms, constitutes a natural source of inequality. temperature, which will be that of the air in the The artery supplying the right arm with blood, first arises

The same would, of course, be the result, from the aorta, and it proceeds in a more direct course with solid or aëriform bodies, as with liquids.

from the heart than the artery of the left arm, which has its Radiation and conduction may be further explained Hence it has been inferred, that the right arm is originally

origin in common with the artery of that side of the head. by considering the foriner as operating at the surfaces better supplied with nourishment than the left. It may be of bodies, whilst the latter goes on throughout their alleged in confirmation of this view, that in birds, where interior parts. The rate at which heat is radiated any irregularity in the action of the two wings would have and conducted by any substance, depends very much disturbed the regularity of flight, the aorta, when it has on the nature of the materials of which that substance arrived at the centre of the chest, divides with perfect is composed. Radiation is also influenced in a

equality into two branches, so that both wings receive remarkable degree by the colours and other conditions being thus equally nourished, preserve that equality of

precisely the same quantity of blood, and the muscles, of the surfaces of bodies.

strength, which their function rigidly demande.- DR. Those bodies into which heat enters with facility, Roger's Bridgewater Treatise.


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