Obrazy na stronie

THE CATHEDRAL OF RHEIMS. obtain a correct notion of the richness and magniReļms, or Rbeims, is a large and ancient city, in the ficence of this front. north-east of the kingdom of France, in the depart- Above the porches, and a little thrown back, rises ment of the Marne. It is situated on the right bank the remainder of this beautiful front. Above the of the little river Vesle, in the midst of a large plain, central one, is the great rose window, the workmanwhich is bounded at a distance by a chain of low ship of which is remarkably rich, and very carefully vine-covered hills.

executed. Over the right porch is a lofty opening The Cathedral, which is more particularly the for a window, but not filled with glass; and over the subject of our present notice, is a noble Gothic left door-way is a similar one. The space occupied edifice of the twelfth century, and one of the finest by these windows is broken into three divisions, by specimens of that kind of architecture in France. four projecting piers, ornamented each with a statue, It is saiờ to have been founded in 818 by the Arch- and terminating in small octagonal turrets. Higher bishop Ébon, afterwards Pope Eugenius the Fourth, still is the gallery of kings, an elegant colonnade, in the reign of Louis the First, surnamed Le Débon- decorated with forty-two statues of the kings of naire. The accounts which are given of the edifice France, from Clovis to Charles the Sixth; and this then erected, its paintings and sculptures, its is surmounted by two towers, which complete this marbles and mosaics, its tapestries, and splendid magnificent front. windows, seem to indicate that it was of great The interior of this Cathedral corresponds with importance. But doubts have been expressed, whe- its exterior. It is vast and noble; and its appearance ther the early structure thus spoken of was really has much that is imposing. The obscurity of the one occupying the site of the present Cathedral, and nave, contrasted with the light of the aisles, has a not the church of St. Remi. However, this building very curious effect; in the former, the coloured glass was burnt down in 1210, together with a portion of has been preserved, while in the latter it has very the city itself. But this disaster was soon repaired; little colour. The whole length of the building is for the age was one in which the people felt strongly 466 feet, and its breadth upwards of 90; the height the influence of religion, and contributed largely to of the nave is 121 feet, and that of the aisles about works which had for their object its support and 54. The plan of the edifice is a Latin cross. The diffusion. Accordingly, the piety of individuals, the choir occupies nearly one half of its length. liberality of princes, and the zeal of the clergy, soon The chancel, which is situated at the middle of the caused a sum to be amassed, sufficient to replace the cross-aisle, raised upon several steps, is remarkable ancient Cathedral of Rheims by a nobler and more for its beautiful mosaic pavement, which formerly splendid edifice; and the year after the destruction belonged to the church of the ancient Abbey of St. of the old building, the first stone of the new one Nicaise, and was removed to the Cathedral in 1791, was laid. The work proceeded with great rapidity; when that church was pulled down. The altar, the altar was dedicated on the 18th of October, 1213, which is of modern construction, is of variegated and twenty-seven years afterwards, the body of the marble, and ornamented with gilt bronze. It is a church was finished; the whole time occupied in the beautiful piece of workmanship, and was the gift of erection being only thirty years, and but one archi- a rich canon, who, by his economy, frugality, and tect being engaged throughout that period. It is to above all, his peculiar skill in the cultivation of this circumstance, probably, that we are to attribute vines, was enabled to amass a considerable fortune, that unity of style and design which in a great mea- which he devoted entirely to the embellishment of sure distinguish this Cathedral.

this Cathedral, to the relief of the poor, and to the “In the richness and magnificence of the external promotion of objects of a public nature. Unfortuarchitecture," says Mr. Woods, “Rheims is superior nately, the canon's liberality was scarcely equalled to every other Cathedral I have seen, and probably to by his good taste and discernment; the old altar, any which has ever been erected." The principal, or which had existed from the earliest years of the western front is the great object of attraction; it is church, was displaced in 1747, to make room for his frequently considered as the finest work of its kind new present, and the church was thus deprived of in existence, and, according to a common saying in an extremely rare and valuable specimen of the France, is one of the four parts, the union of which kind of monuments used as altars in the twelfth, is necessary to the composition of a perfect Cathe- thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries. dral; the other three being the spire of Chartres, Behind the choir, so called, is what the French the nave of Amiens, and the choir of Beauvais. denominate the arrière-cheur. It occupies the space The lower part of this front is divided into three usually devoted to the chancel, and does not seem to porches or doorways. This arrangement, which is to be ever used for any definite purpose. In former be seen in some of our Cathedrals, is very generally times, it was the depositary of the treasure of the observable in the larger religious edifices of France; Cathedral, of all the many rich and valuable gifts, and we are told that these three entrances corre- which kings, prelates, and pious individuals of sponded to three internal divisions, each of which was various classes and conditions, had offered as an reserved for a special use; the middle one being for earnest of their zeal and devotion. The immense the clergy, that on the right for the men, and that wealth which was brought together in this treasury, on the left for the women.

rendered it one of the richest in France. It con The central porch is divided into two parts by a tained avast number of works, executed in the precious pilaster, (a disposition very common in France,) metals, gold and silver vases, chalices, sets of all the which is adorned by an image of the Virgin, to various utensils employed in the service of the whom the Cathedral is consecrated. The sides of church, which were not less valuable for the richness the three porches are decorated with a row of colossal of their materials than for the beauty and finish of statues, thirty-five in number, representing patriarchs, the workmanship. Of nearly all these, however, the prophets, kings, bishops, virgins, and martyrs. The Cathedral was despoiled in 1791; they were confisarches above and the pediments which surmount cated by a decree of the National Assembly, and them, present an elaborate composition in sculpture, coined into money for the service of the State. The in which, according to a French writer, the artist has few that remained were destroyed during the revogiven full range to his genius. Our readers will lutionary frenzy of 1793.

THE VOLCANIC REGIONS OF ITALY. favoured region is watered by the rivers Simeto and

Alcantara, and by numerous streams which descend through Of all the countries of Europe, Italy is that in which hidden channels from the snowy summits of Etna. volcanoes have existed for the longest period, and have pro- The Simeto, now called the Giannetta, is the most duced the most important effects. Traces of very ancient important of the Sicilian rivers; after fertilizing a great volcanoes are still visible in Tuscany, Latium, and the Vene- part of the base of the mountain, it falls into the sea vian territory; the delightful coast of Posilippo, and the adja- about eight miles from Catania. Catania, or the city cent Phlegrean Fields, are volcanic productions, and Vesu- of Etna, is the most important town in the Cultivated rius still spreads desolation and horror over the smiling Region; it was founded by the ancient Sicani, and is plains of the Campagna Felice. If we extend our observa- situated on the banks of the river Amenano, which flows Lions to the southern extremity of the Peninsula, we find secretly through the recesses of Etna, and rises suddenly che straits by which Italy is separated from Sicily studded from the earth near the sea-shore. Thucydides, who with islands, almost all of volcanic origin; and in Sicily, records three very ancient eruptions of this volcano, speakMount Etna rises, the most important of all volcanoes, ing of the third, which took place in the eighty-eighth venerable for its antiquity, and wonderful for the effects of Olympiad, says, that it laid waste the lands of the Cataits eruptions, of which centuries have not been able to ex- nians; since that time, this city has been frequently denaust the fury. There is an opinion of some antiquity, stroyed by the fires of Etna, but, phenix-like, has as that Sicily was once joined to the opposite Continent: the often risen from its ashes. The present city, which convery narrow space which now separates them, the simi- tains about 40,000 inhabitants, was rebuilt in 1669, after larity of their soils, and the evident inclination of the extreme having been nearly annihilated by an eruption which took Apennines in Calabria towards Sicily, tend to strengthen place in that year. this opinion.

An immense forest, like a large belt, forms the Second Sicily, anciently called Triquetra, and Trinacria from Region ; its circumference is about seventy miles, and it its triangular form and its three Promontories, was for extends more than half-way up the sides of Etna. These many ages a flourishing state, and rivalled Greece (the inexhaustible forests furnished materials for the numerous most polished and the greatest of nations,) whence fleets which, in former times, ruled the seas, and proSicily derived civilization and the arts, and afterwards claimed the proud grandeur of the Syracusan tyrants, surpassed in magnificence and power. Syracuse was called Oaks and chesnuts grow in great abundance, and are the most powerful, and the most splendid, of the cities of often found of an extraordinary size; some kinds of Greece. The grandeur of this island has now passed fir, from which large quantities of resin are extracted, away, and time, which changes all things, has crushed and beech, juniper, broom, and many other trees, alsó the pride and pomp of this empress of the seas. Some abound. The “chesnut of a hundred horses," so called, scanty but beautiful remains of its former prosperity, its because a hundred men on horseback could be sheltered delightful climate, and the stupendous spectacle of Mount under its huge branches, has long been celebrated: nothing Etna, are now its principal attractions to the traveller. now remains of this ancient tree, except the immense

Mount Etna rises from the valley of Valdemone, not far hollow trunk, which time and the elements have at length from the Straits of Messina; it is not only the loftiest opened in several places. Its circumference is 204 feet, mountain in Sicily, but, with one or two exceptions, the and it will contain 300 sheep, and 27 men on horseback. most lofty in Europe. The name of the valley was Towards the extremity of this zone, the trees begin to derived from this volcano, which was, in ancient times, decrease in size and in number, vegetation languishes, and supposed to be the aborde of demons, and the seat of eternal the Third Region, called Naked, or Barren, commences. It fire; absurd ideas which are not yet entirely eradicated is composed of lava and of ice, and from its extremity rises from the minds of the people.

the great cone of the crater, formed by the accumulations Etna, according to some learned men, derives its name of sand, ashes, and other volcanic scoria, propelled to this from a Greek word, signifying to burn. When the Sara- immense height by the internal power of the volcano. cens had possession of Sicily, this mountain was called This cone is sometimes depressed, and sometimes even Gebel el Nar, (Mountain of Fire,) and from this was entirely disappears in the interior of the mountain, to be derived the name of Mongibello, which Etna still retains. reproduced afterwards by the same means; when it is thus It rises about 12,000 feet above the level of the sea; it is depressed and swallowed up, the mountain is no longer isolated from every chain of mountains; it differs from all visible from certain points, to mariners, to whom the sumothers in its form and nature, being entirely composed of mit usually serves as a beacon. The present cone was volcanic rocks; and its shape is that of a large cone, placed reproduced about the middle of the seventeenth century. upon an irregular base, about 180 miles in circumference. Its height is about 1800 feet, and the interior is like a It is bounded by the sea on the East and the South, funnel, about 600 feet in depth; the chief aperture is and on the West and North, by the rivers Simeto and about nine miles in circumference, and there is also a Alcantara,

smaller one. When the volcano is in a state of tranquillity, The great body of the mountain is divided into Three the descent to the bottom of the cone is practicable, but Regions, or Zones: the first, which commences at the difficult; the sides are then seen covered with beautiful foot of the mountain, is called the Cultivated Region; crystallizations of salt and sulphur, which temper in some the second is called the Woody Region; and the third is degree the horrors of this abyss. the Naked, or Desert Region. These three regions differ From the middle of November to the end of May, the so entirely from each other in climate and in productions, whole of the Desert Region and part of the Woody Region that they may be compared to the three great zones of the

are covered with snow, and Etna is almost inaccessible. earth: thus, the first may be compared to the Torrid zone

The average temperature of the summit, in July and the second to the Temperate zone, and the third to the August, is 37 degrees, whilst at Catania it is 84. From Arctic, or Frozen zone; so that this great father of moun- the south side of the island, Etna presents itself in tains may be considered as a compendium of our globe. majesty, rearing its proud front to the skies, and stretching

The Cultivated Region, which occupies the whole of the on one side into the depths of the sea, and on the other base, and extends about fourteen miles towards the sum- beyond the centre of the island. It is from this side that mit, is the most fruitful district in Sicily, and one of the the mountain is ascended, and the most favourable time most prolific and delightful spots in the world. Towns and for this undertaking is between the months of May and villas, peopled by 300,000 inhabitants, are dispersed over August

. it in every direction. The soil is entirely composed of Departing from Catania, at the foot of the mountain, volcanic products, covered by decomposition with a fertile the traveller usually arrives at the summit some hours earth, except where furrowed up by torrents of lava before sunrise. The distance is about 28 or 30 miles, and which still resist the action of time, and offer a striking the road, traversing the three zones, is nearly direct from and cruel contrast to the softness and smiling aspect of the foot to the summit of the mountain. The tract of land, the adjacent cultivation. The productions of this region which is crossed in the cultivated region, bears on every the most important of which is wine, are numerous and side the appearance of a smiling and variegated garden. abundant. The olive thrives in this volcanic soil, and At Necastagne, a little village, nine miles from Catania, may be found with the vine at the height of 3000 feet the traveller begins to enjoy a beautiful and extensive view above the level of the sea. Some kinds of grain are of the surrounding country; he then proceeds to Niccolosi, cultivated with success, as also almond, pistachio, and another beautiful village, four miles further, and more than mulberry, trees; the silk procured from the mulberry, 3000 feet above the level of the sea. A little further, at a forms an important branch of the trade of Catania. This place called s. Niccolo l'Arena, the traveller enters the

Woody Region; less smiling, it is true but not less beautiful accidents. One of these burning rivers, descending the and variegated than the first.

mountain, came in contact with a volcanic hill, covered In the depth of the night, he at last finds himself in the with trees and verdure, and, having torn it from its Desert Region, facing the great smoking cone of Etna, foundations, transported it, like a floating island, to another which he approaches with dread and wonder. In truth, part of the country, where it fell to pieces. The fate of the objects which present themselves to his view are Mal Passi, a delightful spot on the flank of Etna, not far wonderful: the stupendous mountain, upon which he finds from the ancient Hybla, is not less remarkable. An himself, is so isolated, that his bewildered imagination eruption overwhelmed it with lava, and entirely destroyed knows not how to prepare for a descent to the regions of its beauty, and it was then called Mal Passi ; soon afterthe earth; beneath him is an ocean of darkness, and above wards it was again fertilized by a shower of cinders; it him the immense vault of heaven, covered with millions tlourished for several years, and was called Bel Passi: of twinkling stars; a solemn silence pervades the universe, at last, in the eruption of 1669, it was again inundated by unbroken except by hollow sounds from the mountain ; lava, and then resumed the name of Mal Passi, which it and at his feet is a deep abyss, from which the eye and still retains. the mind alike recoil. At length he beholds the star of The hills which clothe the great body of Etna are proday, the first rays of which pierce the thick mantle of duced during the eruptions, when the earth opens, and night, and gradually unfold the splendid view, as it were, sends forth great quantities of cinders and of stones ; these of a new creation.

materials fall to the ground, accumulate, and gradually To the east, illuminated by the sun, rising from the

assume the form of cones. opposite mountains of Calabria, he beholds the coast of The nature of the different kinds of lava is very Italy stretching out into the sea, and finally vanishing into various, according to the materials which compose them; the air; the Straits of Messina at his feet, resembling a but all kinds act upon the magnetic-needle, in conbroad and majestic river, gradually expanding; to the south, sequence of the iron with which they are impregnated; an immense expanse of ocean, with the island of Malta they are almost all very hard, and decomposed with great dimly seen through the misty horizon; and to the west the difficulty. The soil with which they become covered by whole of Sicily spread out, like an immense map, obscured the process of decomposition is favourable, above all other by the huge shadow of Etna, through whichi

, however, soils, to vegetation; and it is, principally, on this account, every part is distinctly seen,-mountains, valleys, rivers that the lands of Etna are the most fertile in Sicily with their long serpentine courses, and the houses and perhaps, in the whole world. animals on their banks. To the north, the little group of The operations of time are sometimes aided by sudaler the Eolian Islands, the abode of the fabulous Eolus; and showers of ashes, which accelerate and favour the decomamongst them the flaming Stromboli,—which, at the moment position of the streams of lava; they become clothed, first of sunrise, seems starting from the waves,---and the vast tract with a variety of lichens, then with other little plants, of sea which separates Sicily from the Bay of Naples. At which, from their nature, adhere to the soil; and are thus length, the eye turns to the mountain itself, of which it soon covered with verdure. beholds at once the three great zones; its enormous Fifty-nine eruptions of this volcano are recorded in flanks, furrowed by deep valleys, and rendered harsh and history; of these eleven took place before the birth of our rough by immense rivers of lava, and by more than eighty Saviour. History records the name of Empedocles, who volcanic mounts or hillocks, the progeny of this great father first fixed his abode on the most elevated part of this volcano, of volcanoes.

and afterwards precipitated himself into its jaws, in order to According to some writers, the visible horizon of Etna make others believe that he had been carried up to heaven; embraces a circumference of more than 2000 miles; and but an eruption of the mountain threw out one of the some Sicilian authors affirm, that from its summit the bronze sandals of the philosopher, and thus manifested African and the Neapolitan coasts have sometimes been at once his vanity and his death. discerned; but the sense of sight is too feeble to comprehend the extreme limits of so vast a circle.

Such are the wonders which Etna, in repose, offers to the When we contemplate the wonderful works of Nature, contemplation of the traveller ; but far more wonderful, and walking about at leisure, gaze upon this ample theatre though very different, is the spectacle of Etna in activity. of the world, considering the stately beauty, constant order,

The first indication of an approaching eruption is a and sumptuous furniture thereof; the glorious splendour, thick smoke, which issues impetuously for several days and uniform motion of the heavens; the pleasant fertility. from the mouth of the crater, and ascends in a column of the earth; the curious figure and fragrant sweetness of to an immeasurable height, where it spreads and dilates plants; the exquisite frame of animals; and all other itself in the air in the form of a tree; when the wind amazing miracles of nature, wherein the glorious attributes, is high, the smoke sometimes extends over a tract of of God, especially his transcendant goodness, are more 100 miles. This column of smoke is succeeded by clouds conspicuously displayed: so that by them, not only large of ashes and sand, which the wind disperses on all sides, acknowledgments, but even gratulatory hymns, as it were, and drives to a great distance, sometimes to Malta, to Sar- of praise have been extorted from the mouths of Aristotle, dinia, to Corfu, and to many parts of Italy and the coast Pliny, Galen, and such like men, never suspected guilty of Africa; then the air becomes dark, and these ashes and of an excessive devotion: then should our hearts be affected the showers of sand cover every object, weigh down the with thankful sense, and our lips break forth in praise. roofs of houses, prevent respiration, and fill the hearts of BARROW. the inhabitants with terror. In the mean time, the interior of the volcano is agitated and convulsed ; the mountain RECREATION is intended to the mind as whetting is to the shakes from its very foundations ; horrible bellowings are scythe, to sharpen the edge of it, which otherwise would heard, with echoes, which, by degrees, are lost in the deep grow dull and blunt. He, therefore, that spends his whole recesses of the earth; enormous masses of burning lava time in recreation, is ever whetting, never mowing; his are shot upwards with terrific force, sometimes ascending grass may grow, and his steed starve: as contrarily, he to the height of 7000 feet. At length the sides of the that always toils and never recreates, is ever mowing, mountain are split, and torrents of smoke issue, followed never whetting ; labouring much to little purpose. As by streams of lava, which descend like rivers of red liquid good no scythe as no edge. Then only doth the work go iron, to inundate the adjacent country. Sometimes the forward, when the scythe is so seasonably and moderately burning streams flow towards the sea, into which they whetted, that it may cut, and so cuts, that it may have the fall with a horrible sound, and prescribe new limits to help of sharpening.–Bishop HALL. the adverse element; sometimes over elevated tracts of ice, and then rivers of water rush down with tremendous noise. Those who are themselves truly religious, who have felt Deep valleys on the ridge of the mountain have been the comfort, the happiness, which a just view of religion suddenly filled up by these floods of lava; and, in this inspires ; how much it heightens all our pleasures, and manner, in the eruption in 1381, the Port of Ulysses, softens all our pains; cannot fail to inspire their children mentioned by Virgil, now buried at a distance of three miles with a due love and reverence for those principles, of which from the sea, was filled up. Some of these streams have they have themselves felt the value. The best instruction extended to thirty miles in length, five or six miles in will, however, be of little use, if the example of the teacher breadth, and 300 feet in depth, and retain their internal is at variance with his precepts. Of all the lessons you heat for many years

can give your children, none will be of so great importance The eruptions of Etna are often accompanied by singular | as your own example,

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No. VII. The VictorY OF SALAMANCA. moving in parallel lines in full march, and frequently When the British army captured Badajoz, Marshal within half cannon-shot of each other, each waiting Soult was moving up quickly to its support, and had for some favourable moment, in which the antagonist already arrived within two marches, when he learnt might be found at fault." Nor was it long before it that it had been taken only two days before. The came. Marshal was much chagrined at the news, but he Early on the morning of the 22nd of July, the contented himself, as report says, with breaking all British army was posted, with its left resting on the plates and dishes in his immediate reach, and the river Tormes, and its right, near two remarkably lost no time in returning to Seville. Marmont too, bold rocky heights, called the Dos Arapiles; the who had invested Ciudad Rodrigo, in order to make enemy being immediately in front, and covered by a a diversion in favour of Badajoz, retreated the day thick wood. About eight o'clock, a column of after its capture, and fell back to Salamanca. French soldiers issued from the wood, and advancing

Lord Wellington's first object was to interrupt the rapidly, seized the outer and most extensive of those communication between the two French generals, strong points; the other was instantly occupied by by destroying their works and bridge of boats across the British. Marshal Marmont collected behind the the Tagus, at Almaraz, an operation gailantly and Arapiles a large force, and having great reliance on ably performed by Sir Rowland Hill, (at present his skill as a tactician, commenced manquvreing on Lord Hill, and Commander in Chief.) He then a range of easy heights, about a thousand yards in advanced towards Salamanca in the middle of June, front of his opponents. In this manner the early and the French withdrew beyond the river Tormes, part of the day was spent; but about two o'clock in on whose right bank it stands; the British entered the afternoon, the marshal with much show, and the city, and having reduced several strong forts amidst great noise caused by the firing of his artillery, which the enemy had there constructed, pursued and the muskets of a cloud of skirmishers thrown Marmont and his army to the Douro. But the out from his front and flank, rapidly extended his marshal being strongly reinforced, soon advanced left, and moved forward his troops," apparently,'" again, and caused the British general in his turn to said Lord Wellington in his despatch, "with an retire. And now began a brilliant contest of skill, intention to embrace, by the position of his troops, between the two commanders, in which each dis. and by his fire, our post on that of the two Arapiles played all the resources of his art, and wielded them which we possessed, and from thence to attack and with consummate ability. Marmont's object, was break our line; or at all events, to render difficult evidently to cut off the allies from their commu. any movement of ours to our right." This manæunication with Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo, and vre of Marmont's, offered the British general an not to fight a battle, unless at such advantage as opportunity of attack, for which he had been anxmight seem to render his success certain; to frustrate iously looking. He was at dinner, when informed of this design was of course the purpose of Lord it; but at once perceiving his advantage, he rose Wellington. The manœuvres of the French marshal in such haste as to overturn the table, exclaiming

were met by corresponding movements on the part “ Marmont's good genius has forsaken him ;” in . of the British general, and thus rendered of no avail; an instant he was on horseback, issuing those orders

and for six days did this game of skill continue. “It which won the battle of Salamanca. was an awful sight,” says Mr. Southey, “ to behold The French had dangerously weakened their left two great armies in an open and level country, by too greatly extending it. It rested originally, as

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we have observed, upon one of two remarkable rocky The loss in this battle was severe on both sides,
points, called the Dos Arapiles, on the other of and particularly on that of the French. Besides the
which was posted the British right; but it was now dead and wounded, they left 7000 prisoners on the
prolonged on the heights beyond that point. The field; and eleven pieces of cannon, with several
British General resolved on three simultaneous ammunition-waggons, two eagles, and six colours,
attacks upon this part of Marmont's army: one were taken from them. Of the allies, nearly 5000
upon its front; a second to support the first by were killed and wounded; among the latter were
assailing the Arapiles Hill which the enemy held; Generals Cole and Leith, and Marshal Beresford;
and the other to turn their left upon the heights. and among the former was General Le Marchant,
The divisions of Generals Leith and Cole, with whose loss, the Earl of Wellington regretted as that
Bradford's brigade, and Sir Stapleton Cotton's cavalry of “a most noble officer.” On the French side,
were charged with the first; General Pack's, and two Marmont himself was disabled early in the action;
Portuguese regiments, with the second ; and the his second also was wounded, and three generals were
third division under Pakenham, with D'Urban's killed.
cavalry, and two squadrons of dragoons under The victory thus gained at Salamanca, was the
Colonel Hervey were directed upon the third. most memorable and decisive which had hitherto

Pakenham's force moved briskly over the inter-crowned the British arms in the peninsula. vening valley, and passing beyond the enemy's extended left, almost before they were aware of his

A VOYAGE TO ENGLAND, intention, formed across their flank, drove them back

BY AN AMERICAN. in disorder, and overthrew every thing that presented to an American visiting Europe, the long voyage he has itself. The cavalry charged, and breaking in gal- to make is an excellent preparative. From the moment lantly among the confused masses of infantry, put you lose sight of the land you have left, all is vacancy numbers to the sword. The attack in front was until you step upon the opposite shore, and are launched equally successful; the British troops had been lying at once into the bustle and novelties of another world. stretched on the ground,' to avoid the effects of the

I have said that at sea all is vacancy. I should correct heavy cannonade to which they were exposed for fond of losing himself in reveries, a sea-voyage is full of

the expression. To one given up to day-dreaming, and about an hour, when the welcome orders came, subjects for meditation ; but then they are the wonders of which bade them advance against the enemy. “The the deep, and of the air, and rather tend to abstract the distance," says Mr. Southey, was more than a mile, mind from worldly themes. I delighted to loll over the up a steep height crowned by twenty pieces of quarter-railing, or to climb to the main-top on a calm day, cannon, and their left had to pass through the and to muse for hours together on the tranquil bosom of a village, which formed a considerable obstruction; summer's sea ; or to gaze upon the piles of golden clouds they advanced in perfect order, not firing a shot till realms, and people them with a creation of my own, or to

just peering above the horizon, fancy them some fairy they had gained the summit, from whence the guns watch the gentle undulating billows rolling their silver which had annoyed them were hastily withdrawn, volumes, as if to die away on those happy shores. nor till they had received the fire of the enemy who There was a delicious sensation of mingled security and were formed into squares to resist them. When they awe, with which I looked down from my giddy height on were within some thirty yards, the word was given of porpoises tumbling about the bow of the ship; the

the monsters of the deep at their uncouth gambols. Shoals to fire and charge; this instantly threw the squares grampus slowly heaving his huge form above the surface, into disorder; the heavy cavalry coming up on the or the ravenous shark, darting like a spectre through the right increased their confusion; they fled then, and blue waters. My imagination would conjure up all that I in their flight, fell in with the remains of their extreme had heard or read of the watery world beneath me, of the left, flying before Major-General Pakenham's division.” | finny herds that roam its fathomless valleys; of the shapeThe French were driven successively from one height to less monsters that lurk among the very foundations of the another; and a large number of them made prisoners. earth; and those wild phantasms which swell the tales of

fishermen and sailors. But the British soon experienced a check, in Sometimes a distant sail gliding along the edge of the consequence of the failure of Pack's attack upon the

ocean would be another theme for idle speculation. How Arapiles, enabling the enemy to throw some troops interesting this fragment of a world hastening to rejoin upon the left of the force which had attacked their the great mass of existence! What a glorious monument front. Cole's division was obliged to give way, after of human invention, that has thus triumphed over the a severe contest, in which their general was wounded. communion, has established an interchange of blessings,

wind and wave; has brought the ends of the earth to But the promptitude of Marshal Beresford, and the pouring into the steril regions of the north all the luxuries opportune aid afforded by a fresh division which had of the south; diffused the light of knowledge and the been kept in reserve, and which Lord Wellington charities of cultivated life; and has thus bound together now ordered up, soon restored the success of the those scattered portions of the human race, between which British. The enemy's right, however, reinforced by nature seemed to have thrown an insurmountable barrier ! the troops which had fled from his left, and by those

We one day descried some shapeless object drifting at a which had now retired from the Arapiles, still con

distance. At sea every thing that breaks the monotony

of the surrounding expanse attracts the attention. It tinued to resist; they re-formed and took up their proved to be the mast of a ship that must have been comground with great quickness and skill, almost at pletely wrecked; for there were the remains of handker right angles to their original front, the infantry along chiefs by which some of the crew had fastened themselves the crest of the hill in line, supported by heavy close

to this spar to prevent their being washed off by the waves. columns in reserve, the cavalry in masses on their There was no trace by which the name of the ship could flanks, and the artillery posted at the advanced many months; clusters of shell-fish had fástened about it,

be ascertained. The wreck had evidently drifted about knolls, so as to sweep the whole face of the height. and long sea-weeds tlaunted at its sides. But where, But all their resistance was vain; they were driven thought 1, is the crew? Their struggle has long been back, and soon fied through the woods towards the over;—they have gone down amidst the roar of the Tormes, cavalry, infantry, and baggage, all mixed tempest ;--their bones lie whitening in the caverns of the together. They were briskly pursued; but the deep. Silence-oblivion, like the waves have closed over darkness of the night was highly advantageous to

them, and no one can tell the story of their end.

What sighs have been wafted after that ship! what them, and under its cover many escaped, who must prayers offered up at the deserted fire-side of home! How otherwise have fallen into the hands of the victors. often has the mother, the sister, and the wife, pored over

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