Obrazy na stronie

TRADE is a fluctuating thing; it passed from Tyre to Alexandria, from Alexandria to Venice, from Venice to Antwerp, from Antwerp to Amsterdam and London, the English rivalling the Dutch, as the French are now rivalling both. All nations almost, are wisely applying themselves to trade, and it behoves those who are in possession of it, to take the greatest care that they do not lose it. It is a plant of tender growth, it requires sun and soil and fine seasons to make it thrive and flourish. It will not grow like the palm-tree, which, with the more weight and pressure, rises the more. Liberty is a friend to that, as that is a friend to liberty. But the greatest enemy to both, is licentiousness, which tramples upon all law and lawful authority, encourages riots and tumults, promotes drunkenness and debauchery, sticks at nothing to support its extravagance, practises every art of illicit gain, ruins credit, ruins trade, and will in the end ruin liberty itself. Neither kingdoms nor commonwealths, neither public companies nor private persons, can long carry on a beneficial and flourishing trade without virtue, and what virtue teacheth-sobriety, industry, frugality, modesty, honesty, punctuality, humanity, charity, the love of our country, and the fear of GOD.BISHOP NEWTON.

As the mind must govern the hands, so in every society the man of intelligence must direct the man of labour.DR. JOHNSON.

FOR all the blessings which Almighty God in his mercy bestows upon us, he expects and requires to be thanked. He bestows them for the promotion of his glory, and he would have us give glory to him. In the volume of his book, are noted, both the mercies which we receive, and the manner in which we receive them. Let us receive all his mercies, especially let us receive his greatest, his spiritual mercies, with thankful and obedient hearts: lest, notwithstanding the promise of the forgiveness of sins, our iniquities be at last visited upon our heads; and that be realized upon us, which was pronounced in righteous judgment upon the family of the aged Eli, "Wherefore the Lord God of Israel saith, I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me for ever: but now the Lord saith, Be it far from me: for them that honour me I will honour, and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed."-BISHOP MANT.

RELIGION, whether, natural or revealed, has always the same beneficial influence on the mind. In youth, in health, and prosperity, it awakens feelings of gratitude, and sublime love, and purifies at the same time that which it exalts: but it is in misfortune, in sickness, in age, that its effects are most truly, and beneficially felt: when submi in faith, and humble trust in the divine will, from duties become pleasures, undecaying sources of consolation; then it creates powers, which were believed to be extinct, and gives a freshness to the mind which was supposed to have passed away for ever, but which is now renovated as an immortal hope. Its influence outlives all earthly enjoyments, and becomes stronger, as the organs decay, and the frame dissolves; it appears, as that evening star of light, in the horizon of life, which we are sure is to become, in another season, a morning star, and it throws its radiance through the gloom, and shadow of death.SIR HUMPHRY DAVY.


WHEN I look into my garden, there I see first a small spire look out of the earth, which in some months' time, grows into a stalk; then after many days' expectation, branches forth into some leaves; at last appears the hope of a flower, which, ripened with many suns and showers, arises to its perfection, and at last puts forth its seed for a succeeding


If I look into my orchard, I see the well-grafted scions vield at first a tender bud; itself after many years is bodied to a solid stock, and under patience of many hard winters, spreads forth large arms; at last being grown to a meet age of vegetation: it begins to grace the spring with some fair blossoms, which falling off kindly, give way to a weak embryo of fruit; every day now adds something to the growth, till it attains in autumn its full maturit. The Great God of Heaven who can do all things in an instant, hath thought good to produce all the effects of natural agency, not without a due succession of time.-BISHOP HALI

KENT is an interesting county. In richness, fertility, and natural beauty, it may in many parts dispute the claim of South Devon, to be considered the "Garden of England;" whilst to the lover of history and antiquities it presents a field, certainly unrivalled

in this island. Here was the chief theatre of the Roman power in Britain; though of their magnificence nothing now remains but a few scattered and mouldering ruins. Here the beams of Christianity first illuminated the darkness of paganism in the north; and here was the principal and almost only seat of our maritime greatness and foreign trade. There is, indeed, scarcely a town on its coast, that was not once celebrated in our naval annals; and in our military history the bowmen of Kent were preeminently distinguished. Its antiquarian treasures are almost unnumbered. The princely fortress at Dover was long regarded as "the key and barrier of the whole kingdom." The keep of Rochester castle is the finest specimen of Norman architecture yet remaining; and there is not a district in the county which does not possess either a castellated structure or ecclesiastical relic of another age. The ponderous Cromlech, called "Kits-Cotty House," is one of the most perfect remains of Druidical times existing, either in England or Wales. Canterbury and its antiquities are of other celebrity.

We have been led into this train of thought by contemplating the subject of our engraving-the aged and mouldering church which stands near the Roman Pharos, or watch-tower, on the upper part of the hill, within Dover Castle. From many concurring circumstances, we are almost disposed to assign this structure to a more remote period than the church of St. Martin, near Canterbury, which is generally considered to have been the earliest place of Christian worship in Great Britain. Referring the reader to our account of Dover*, we may remark that little doubt can exist that the site of Dover Castle was a British hill-fortress long previously to the invasion of Cæsar, and the subsequent conquest of this island It is certain that it was one by the Roman arms. of the first places fortified by that people, of which the watch-tower previously mentioned presents an existing evidence.

Many antiquaries are of opinion that the church in Dover Castle was founded by Lucius, a British prince, who possessed the eastern parts of Kent, under the Romans, in the second century. It is impossible to do more than guess at the correctness of this fact, though, as in St. Martin's church, at Canterbury, Roman tiles have been used in constructing the walls, especially the tower. It is, however, not impossible, that Lucius, who is said to have been converted to Christianity about A. D. 172, might have erected this structure in honour of his new religion. But for some centuries afterwards, the blessings of the Christian religion were not fully extended to Britain; which may partly be accounted for by the conquest of the country by the Saxons, after its abandonment by the Romans, in the fifth century. It was not until the close of the following century, when St. Augustine landed in Kent (A.D. 596), that Christianity may be said to have taken firm root in our island. St. Augustine, full of holy zeal, soon converted the Saxon king, Ethelbert, to the true faith; and, moved by his representations, that prince immediately assigned the church within Dover Castle, which, from the security

* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 154.

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of its situation, was then admirably adapted for such a | of its erection, till our mind becomes fixed on the purpose, to himself and his followers, for the celebra- great Author of our blessed Religion; and whilst tion of the offices of religion. Divine service having we have outward demonstration before us of the been previously performed within its walls, the church truth of the preacher's saying, "That one generation was re-consecrated, and dedicated by St. Augustine passeth away, and another generation cometh, but to the Virgin Mary. The mission of Augustine seems all is vanity" in this lower world, we are the more for some time to have proceeded slowly: Eadbald, forcibly struck with the importance of securing that the son of Ethelbert, on succeeding to the throne, better world which is promised to the faithful. relapsed into Paganism. He was, however, soon. re-converted, when, as some atonement for his errors, he founded a college for twenty-four priests within the castle, as an appendage to the Church. But these ecclesiastics did not long retain possession; for in 690, Withred, King of Kent, removed the foundation to a new structure, which he had erected for the purpose in the adjacent town; considering that religious pursuits jarred with the din and confusion of military life. It is probable that the college in the castle was demolished at the same period, as no trace of its existence remains, nor has ever been alluded to in any of the subsequent accounts of the place. Three chaplains, who wore the prebendal costume, in virtue of the rank and antiquity of the establishment, continued, however, to be attached to the church, and officiated until the period of the Reformation, when their number was reduced to one. Since 1690, principally in consequence of the dilapidated state of the structure, religious service has been wholly discontinued there.

Of the existing state of the church, our engraving furnishes an accurate illustration. Its design was cruciform; the tower, which was originally higher than at present, is supported by four arches, of lofty proportion; the pilasters on their north and south sides consist of squared stone, with a bead embracing the front of an elliptic arch. The latter is of a much more recent date than the other arches, which, including their pilasters, are composed of tiles, in the method practised by the Romans. The roof of the building, which extends to a length of about sixty feet, is entirely destroyed. The tower is quadrangula each side measuring about twenty-eight feet.

The most cursory observer of this structure must remark that it has undergone, at various periods, extensive changes. The original roof appears to have been flat; on its removal, the windows of the church were greatly enlarged and elevated, the roof being rendered loftier. Subsequently, a still more ele vated roof, although more horizontal in its plan than the preceding, was raised, which remained until the last century. Various marks may be traced on the south-west side of the turret, which denote these changes, and it has been observed by an accurate topographer, that the triple columns in the angles of the tower, and the voussures extending from their capitals, also prove that part of the alterations were effected subsequently to the introduction of Gothic architecture into this country.

It is impossible to behold the aged and time-worn ruins of this little Christian temple, surrounded as it is with all the "pomp and circumstance" of military power and defence, without feelings at once forcible and affecting. Whilst contemplating its shattered wall and crumbling tower, fast falling to decay, under the influence of the great destroyer, Time, we are led back to reflect on the circumstances


my dear mistress, by a vile astrologer." She then
related what she had seen and heard.




IN the city of Isfahan lived Ahmed, the cobbler, an honest and industrious man, whose wish was to pass through life quietly: but he had married a handsome wife, who was far from being contented with his humble sphere. Sittara, such was her name, was ever forming foolish schemes of riches and grandeur; and though Ahmed never encouraged them, she continued to persuade herself that she was certainly destined to great fortune.

One evening, while in this temper of mind, she went to the Hemmâm, where she saw a lady retiring dressed in a magnificent robe, covered with jewels, On making inquiry, she and surrounded by slaves. learned it was the wife of the chief astrologer to the king. With this information she returned home. Her husband met her at the door, but was received with a frown; nor could all his caresses for several hours obtain a smile or a word: at length, she said; "Cease your caresses, unless you are ready to give ¿ can you me a proof that you really love me." poor Ahmed, "What proof," exclaimed "Give over cobbling," desire, which I will not give?" said she, "turn astrologer; your fortune will be made, and I shall be happy."


Astrologer," cried Ahmed; "have you forgotten who I am, that you want me to engage in a profession which requires so much skill and knowledge?"

"I neither think nor care about your qualifications," said the wife: "all I know is, that if you do not turn astrologer, I will be divorced from you."

The cobbler remonstrated, but in vain. The figure of the astrologer's wife had taken possession of Sittara's imagination. She dreamt of nothing else. He was dotingly fond What could poor Ahmed do? of his wife; so he sold his little stock, and bought an astrolabe, an almanack, and a table of the signs of He then went to the market-place, the zodiac. crying, "I am an astrologer; I know the sun, the moon, the stars; I can calculate nativities; I can What, foretell every thing that is to happen." A crowd soon gathered round him. "have you worked till friend Ahmed," said one, "Are you tired of looking your head is turned ?" down at your last," cried another, " that you are now looking up at the planets?" and a thousand other jokes assailed his ears.


The king's jeweller, having lost the richest ruby
belonging to the crown, looked forward to death as
In this state he reached the crowd, and
"Ahmed, the cobbler,"
asked what was the matter.
said one," is become an astrologer." The jeweller no
sooner heard this, than he went up to Ahmed, and
said, "If you understand your art, you must be
able to discover the king's ruby. Do so, and I will
But if you
give you two hundred pieces of gold.
fail, I will take measures to have you put to death as
an impostor."

The jeweller's wife went in search of the astrologer, and throwing herself at his feet, cried, " Spare my honour and my life, and I will confess all."


What can you have to confess to me?" exclaimed
Ahmed, in amazement.

"Oh! nothing with which you are not already
acquainted. I stole the ruby to punish my husband,
who uses me cruelly, and I thought to obtain riches
for myself, and to have him put to death. I beg
Ahmed assumed much solemnity, and said, “Wo-
only for mercy, and will do whatever you command."
to confess and to beg for mercy. Return to thy
man, it is fortunate for thee that thou hast come
house, put the ruby under thy husband's pillow, and
The jeweller
thy guilt shall never be suspected." Ahmed followed
her home, and told the jeweller that the ruby was
lying under the pillow of his couch.
thought Ahmed must be crazy, but he ran to his
came back to Ahmed, called him the preserver of
couch and found the ruby in the place described. He
his life, and gave him the two hundred pieces of gold,
declaring he was the first astrologer of the age.

These praises conveyed no joy to the poor cobbler,
who returned home more thankful for his pre-
"There," said Ahmed
servation, than elated by his good fortune.
astrologer! what success?"
wife ran up to him, and exclaimed, "Well, my dear
very gravely," are two hundred pieces of gold! I
hope you will be satisfied now, and not ask me again
to hazard my life." Sittâra, however, saw nothing
Courage, my dear husband,"
but the gold which would enable her to vie with the
chief astrologer's wife. "
she said, "this is only your first labour in your noble
profession. Go on, and we shall become rich and
happy." In vain Ahmed remonstrated. She accused
him of not loving her, and ended with her usual
threat of leaving him. Ahmed's heart melted, and
he agreed to make another trial. Accordingly, next
crowd again gathered round him, but it was now
morning, he sallied forth, exclaiming, as before. A
with wonder, not ridicule; for the voice of fame had
converted the poor cobbler into the most learned
astrologer of Isfahan.

While every body was gazing at him, a lady passed necklace and ear-rings. She was in great alarm, but by veiled, having just lost at the Hemmâm a valuable went up to Ahmed, saying, "Find my jewels, and I being told the story of the famous astrologer, she will give you fifty pieces of gold." The poor cobbler was confounded, and looked down, thinking only how to escape a public exposure of his ignorance. The lady had, in the crowd, torn the lower part of her veil. He noticed this, and wishing to inform her of it in a delicate manner, he whispered, "Lady, look down at the rent." Ahmed's speech brought at once to her mind how her loss could have occurred, Stay here, thou and she exclaimed with delight, reward thou so well deservest." She did so, carrying great astrologer, I will return immediately with the "There is gold for thee," she said, "thou wonderful in one hand the jewels, and in the other a purse. man, to whom all the secrets of nature are revealed. lected the rent near the bottom of the wall in the When thou desiredst me to look at the rent, I recolbath-room, where I had hid them. I can now go home in peace, and it is all owing to thee."


Ahmed returned to his home, again thankful to Providence for his preservation, and fully resolved never again to tempt it; but his handsome wife renewed her entreaties and threats, to make her fond husband continue his career as an astrologer.

Poor Ahmed was thunderstruck. He stood long
without being able to move, grieving that the wife
whom he so loved, had, by her envy and selfishness,
brought him to such a fearful alternative; at length
"Oh woman, woman, thou art
he exclaimed aloud,
more baneful to the happiness of man than the
poisonous dragon of the desert."

The ruby had been secreted by the jeweller's wife,
who, disquieted by those alarms which ever attend
guilt, had sent one of her female slaves to watch
her husband. This slave, when she heard Ahmed
dragon, was
compare a woman to a poisonous
satisfied that he must know every thing.
ran to her mistress, and cried, "you are discovered,

About this time the king's treasury was robbed of forty chests of gold and jewels. The officers of state used all diligence to find the thieves, but in vain. The king sent for his astrologer, and declared that if the robbers were not detected by a stated time, he, as well as the principal ministers, should be put to death. Only one day remained. All their search had proved fruitless, when the astrologer was advised to send for the cobbler, who had become so famous for his discoveries. "You see the effects of your ambition," said Ahmed to his wife; "the king's astrologer has heard of my presumption, and will have me executed as an impostor."

On entering the palace, he was surprised to see the chief astrologer come forward to receive him, and not less so to hear himself thus addressed: "The ways of heaven, most learned Ahmed, are unsearchable; the high are often cast down, and the low are lifted up; it is my turn now to be depressed by fate, it is thine to be exalted by fortune." This speech was interrupted by a messenger from the king, who desired the attendance of Ahmed. When he came into the king's presence, he bent his body to the ground, and wished his majesty long life and prosperity. "Tell me, Ahmed," said the king, "who has stolen my treasure?" "There were forty thieves concerned," answered Ahmed. "Who were they," said the king, "and what have they done with my gold and jewels?" "These questions," said Ahmed, "I cannot now answer; but I hope to satisfy your majesty, if you will grant me forty days to make my calculations." "I do so," said the king, "but when they are past, if my treasure is not found, your life shall pay the forfeit."

but it was determined to send two men the next
night, at the same hour. They reached the house
just as Ahmed received the second date, and heard
him exclaim, "To-night there are two of them."
The astonished thieves fled, and told their still in-
credulous comrades what they had heard. Three
men were consequently sent the third night, four the
fourth, and so on. On the last they all went; and
Ahmed exclaimed aloud, "The number is complete!
To-night the whole forty are here."
All doubts were now removed. Even the captain
yielded, and declared that it was hopeless to elude
a man thus gifted. He therefore advised that they
should make a friend of the cobbler, by bribing him
with a share of the booty. His advice was approved
of; and an hour before dawn, they knocked at
Ahmed's door. The poor man jumped out of bed,
and supposing the soldiers were come to lead him to
execution, cried out, "I know what you are come
for. It is an unjust and wicked deed."

Ahmed returned to his house well pleased, for he resolved to fly from a city where his fame was likely to be his ruin. On imparting this resolution to his wife, she said to him with scorn, "Hear me, Ahmed! I am determined thou shalt not escape; and shouldst thou attempt to run away, I will inform the king's officers, and have thee put to death, even before the forty days are expired. Thou knowest me too well to doubt my keeping my word. So take courage, and endeavour to make thy fortune." The poor cobbler was dismayed at this speech. "Well," said he, "your will shall be obeyed. You know I am no scholar, and have little skill in reckoning; so there are forty dates: give me one of them every night after I have said my prayers, that I may put them in a jar, and by counting them, may always see how many are gone of the few days which I have to live."

"Most wonderful man!" said the captain, "we are convinced that thou knowest why we are come. Here are two thousand pieces of gold, which we will give thee, provided thou wilt say nothing more about the matter." "Say nothing about it!" said Ahmed. "Do you think it possible I can suffer such gross wrong and injustice, without making it known to all the world?" "Have mercy on us! exclaimed the thieves, only spare our lives, and we will restore the royal treasure."


The cobbler started, rubbed his eyes, and being satisfied that he was awake, and that the thieves were really before him, he said in a solemn tone, "Guilty men! ye are persuaded ye cannot escape from my penetration, which knows the position of every star in the heavens. Your repentance has saved you. But ye must restore all that ye have stolen. Go straightway, carry the forty chests exactly as ye found them, and bury them a foot deep, under the southern wall of the old ruined Hemmâm. If ye do this punctually, your lives are spared: if ye fail, destruction will fall upon you and your families."

The thieves promised obedience and departed.
About two hours after, the royal guard came, and
desired Ahmed to follow them. Without imparting to
his wife what had occurred, he bade her farewell affec-
tionately, and she exhorted him to be of good cheer.

A reward suited to their merits awaited Ahmed
and his wife. The good man stood with a cheerful
countenance before the king, who, on his arrival,
immediately said, "Ahmed, thy looks are promising;
hast thou discovered my treasure?"
"Does your
majesty require the thieves, or the treasure? The
stars will only grant one or the other," said Ahmed;
"I can deliver up either, not both." "I should be
sorry not to punish the thieves," answered the king:
but if it must be so, I choose the treasure."
you give the thieves a full and free pardon?" “I
do, provided I find my treasure untouched." "Then,"
said Ahmed, "if your majesty will follow me, the
treasure shall be restored."

The king and all his nobles followed the cobbler
to the ruins of the old Hemmâm. There, casting
his eyes toward Heaven, Ahmed muttered some
sounds, which were supposed by the spectators to be
magical conjurations, but which were, in reality, the
prayers and thanksgivings of a sincere and pious
heart for a wonderful deliverance. He then pointed
to the wall, and requested his majesty would order
his attendants to dig there. The work was hardly
begun, when the forty chests were found with the
treasurer's seal still unbroken,

Meanwhile, the thieves had received accurate information of every measure taken to discover them. One of them was among the crowd when the king sent for Ahmed, and hearing that he had declared their exact number, he ran to his comrades and exclaimed, “We are all found out! Ahmed has told the king that there are forty of us." "There needed" no astrologer to tell that," said the captain. "Forty chests having been stolen, he naturally guessed that there must be forty thieves: that is all: still it is prudent to watch him. One of us must go to-night to the terrace of his house, and listen to his conversation with his wife: he will, no doubt, tell her what success he has had in his endeavours to detect us." Soon after nightfall, one of the thieves repaired to the terrace, just as the cobbler had finished his prayers, and his wife was giving him the first date. "Ah!" said Ahmed, as he took it, "there is one of the forty." The thief, hearing these words, hastened to the gang and told them, that the moment he took his post, Ahmed said to his wife, that one of them was there. The spy's tale was not believed,

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In the mean time the good cobbler had been nominated vizier; and the same virtue which had obtained him respect in the humblest sphere of life, caused him to be loved and esteemed in the high station to which he was elevated.

The king's joy knew no bounds: he immediately chief astrologer's wife at the Hemmâm; thereby appointed Ahmed his chief astrologer, assigned to affording a salutary lesson to those who admit envy him an apartment in the palace, and declared that into their bosoms, and endeavour to obtain their ends he should marry his only daughter. The young by unreasonable and unjustifiable means. princess was not dissatisfied with her father's choice; for her mind was stored with virtue, and she had learnt to value the talents which she believed Ahmed to possess. The royal will was carried into execution as soon as formed, and the change did not alter the character of Ahmed. As he had been meek and humble in adversity, he was modest and gentle in prosperity. Conscious of his own ignorance, he continued to ascribe his good fortune solely to the favour of Providence. He became daily more attached to the beautiful and virtuous princess whom he had married; and he could not help contrasting her character with that of his former wife, whom he had ceased to love, and of whose unreasonable and unfeeling vanity he was now fully sensible.

[Abridged from Sketches of Persia.]

HAPPY were it for us all, if we bore prosperity as well and wisely as we endure an adverse fortune. The reason wherefore it is not so, I suppose to be, that the same dispo sition which in the one state ferments into pride, in the other is refined into fortitude; and that the cares, which eat the heart, are less injurious to our spiritual nature, than vanities that inflate it and corrupt it.-SOUTHEY.

EVERY sensual pleasure, and every day of idleness and useless living, lops off a branch from our short life.JEREMY TAYLOR.

Sittâra saw with despair that her wishes for his advancement had been more than accomplished, but that all her own desires had been entirely frustrated. Her husband was chief astrologer; he was rich enough to enable his wife to surpass all the ladies of Isfahan, whenever she went to the Hemmâm: but he had married a princess; and his former cruel and unprincipled wife was, according to the custom of the country, banished from his house, and condemned to live on whatever pittance she might receive from a man whose love and esteem she had forfeited. These thoughts distracted her, and she now became anxious only for his destruction. An opportunity of attempting to indulge her revengeful feelings was not long wanting. Her designs, how-to ever, were discovered, but her guilt was pardoned. She was left with a mere subsistence, a prey to disappointment; for she continued to the last to sigh for that splendour she had seen displayed by the

THE cares, and toils, and necessities, the refreshments and
delights, of common life, are the great teachers of common
sense: nor can there be any effective school of sober reason,
where these are excluded. Whoever, either by elevation
of rank, or peculiarity of habits, lives far removed from this
kind of tuition, rarely makes much proficiency in that
excellent quality of the intellect. A man who has little or
nothing to do with other men, on terms of open and free
equality, needs the native sense of five, to behave himself
with only a fair average of propriety.-History of

Ir hath been observed by wise and considering men, that wealth hath seldom been the portion, and never the mark discover good people; but that Almighty Gon, who denied it (He only knows why) to many, whose minds he disposeth all things wisely, hath of his abundant goodness hath enriched with the greater blessings of knowledge and virtue, as the fairer testimonies of his love to mankind.IZAAK WALTON.



LONDON Published by JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND; and sold by all Booksellers.

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