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designate it an honourable ambition, a laudable this argument, shews that he is uninfluenced by it, desire to excel others and to better themselves; in and thus that his belief in the particular provia word, that struggle for distinction, or wealth, or dence of God, though a mentally acknowledged power, which every one, it is thought, is justified truth, has no hold upon his heart and life. in entering upon. Such would be the account Again, holy Scripture assures us that the love given of the unsettled and restless state of things of the world is at enmity with God, and from the around us, by many who would be shocked to find | world Christians are exhorted to come out, and all any thing like discontentedness connected there its pomp and vanities they have at their baptism with. And yet when we consider the matter more forsworn. Now, is it to be believed that a person closely, and examine, by the unerring standard of who had a becoming sense of the sacredness of God's word, the motives by which such men are God's conimand and of his own baptismal vow, and really actuated, we shall find that the spirit of con. really understood the danger of associating with tentedness, in whatever situation we are placed by the business and pleasures of the world, would yet Providence, would very much abate the excitement | zealously and engrossingly enter into them? Would of the times, and teach many to be quiet and mind he not rather shun them as a temptation and snare, their own business only, who are now restless, cu- || and withdraw himself as far as he consistently could rious, and meddlesome. For instance, suppose a from their influence? When men, however, do not man looked upon the Divine command of being act thus, but devote themselves, body, soul, and content with such things as we have, as something spirit, to worldly pursuits, making haste to be rich, real, and not, as the conduct of many Christians | labouring for the meat that perisheth, lusting after lead us to suppose they consider it, a mere figure earthly honours and human distinctions, what can of speech; would not tbis abate and render unne be reasonably concluded, but that they have a very cessary a great deal of that restless activity after so imperfect sense of the distinction between the kingmuch beyond food and raiment which is so general ? doms of Satan and of God, and know not that one The necessaries of life would then satisfy us. But is essentially opposed to the other? It is, then, a it is not so now. Generally speaking, there must || fair conclusion, that the spirit of the age, in this be comforts, luxuries; a pretty plain proof that, respect, is totally opposed to the spirit of the Gosnotwithstanding all the high names by which men pel; and that they, however unconsciously, who are may dignify their conduct, it is really based on dis- | under the influence of it, have no real sense of the content. Now if this be so—if the real source of | requirements of the Gospel, but are the votaries of much, if not all, the bustle, hurry, contention, com the world. How anxiously, then, should we seek petition, and rivalry around us, lies here, it cer- || after a spirit of contentment; which, while affordtainly is a most imperative duty for Christians || ing every scope for diligence in business, and the seriously to consider of what the spirit of the age doing of our duty in that state of life to which it in this respect is compounded, what are its ele- || has pleased God to call us, excludes all over. anximents, and whither it is tending; in other words, ous care or intemperate endeavours, and every thing what discontentedness implies. And, in the first approaching to rivalry, ambition, or covetousness. place, a practical disbelief of the particular provi And this is a distinction not to be forgotten. It is dence of God is implied; for if a man really be. not all exertion, it is not all intercourse with the lieved that an Almighty Being ruled over the armies world, it is not every pleasure, that is to be shunned of heaven and the inhabitants of earth, putting down by the Christian. Diligence in business is as much one and setting up another according to his will, a part of our duty as fervency of spirit. Our duty and that to this almightiness the sovereign Ruler towards our neighbour, in those several relation. added infinite love-love displayed in our creation, ships in which we stand towards him, is as indispreservation, and all the blessings of this life,-he pensable as our duty towards God. For a man, would surely rest satisfied with the condition in under ordinary circumstances, to withdraw himself which he is placed, nor would he dare, were it pos- || from the world on the plea of serving God alone, is sible, to exchange his condition with that of an very imperfect evidence of self-denial; real selfother. But if to these proofs of the power and love denial consisting in the enduring or overcoming, of the supreme Being, not unappreciated even by and not in retreating from, the temptations which the heathen, those are added which result from the lie in our way. Generally speaking, it is a far sepeculiar truths of Christianity--the divine power|| verer trial, and, we may add, surer test, of our virtue; and love manifested in man’s redemption by the pre to preserve it intact amid the impure associations cious bloodshedding of a divine Saviour-then the || of every-day life, than amid scenes which comparaargument for trustfulness in such a God, resigna | tively are free from such associations. In saying tion to his will, and contentedness with whatever | this, it is not meant to deny the necessity, or at lot he in bis inscrutable wisdom may assign, be least the desirableness, of, under some circumcomes irresistible. Whoever, therefore, acts against |stances, withdrawing from the world altogether; and thereby seeking that retirement which holy || for if a man considers his neighbour as his rival, men of former ages sought and persevered in. But || as he must do who is constantly aiming at a higher such cases are exceptions, not rules; and whatever | station than that which he at present occupies, his may be the dignity of a cloistered life, that dignity | philanthropy soon freezes into selfishness. His inis not unequalled by him who is faithful found amid || terest, he thinks, is to keep others back and to adthe faithless, and amid the ensnaring influence of || vance himself; nay, to make their backwardness a the world keeps himself pure and unspotted. This stepping-stone to his own promotion. Hence such seems like overcoming, that fearing difficulties. an one soon becomes envious and indisposed to St. Paul seems an example of the one, Demas of assist others. Let a man, however, be content with the other. The Christian citizen, though not of such things as he has, and his conduct is very difthe world, is still in it. It is the scene of his pro- | ferent. Having all he desires himself, he has no bation, and it is this very mixed character which | inducement to envy others; but he is rather desirconstitutes the real difficulty of his life.
ous of assisting them. “ We need not bid, for cloister'd cell,
“ His heart lay open: and by Nature tuned
And constant disposition of his thoughts
To sympathy with man, he was alive
To all that was enjoyed where'er he went,
And all that was endured ; for as himself,
Happy and quiet in his cheerfulness,
He had no painful pressure from without
That made him turn aside from wretchedness
With coward fears, he could afford to suffer Now a spirit of contentment greatly tends to the
With those whom he saw suffer.” acknowledgment of this truth. The contented man | But there is another, though inferior motive for has no inducement to sigh after a sphere in which |cherishing a contented spirit, which may be briefly he believes that if his heavenly Father had thought noticed. It is the certain source of that happiness it good for him, he would have placed him. His which discontent, while always aiming at it, never wishes are bounded by the circle, be it wide or attains. There is, indeed, no earthly possession contracted, of his own peculiar duties. He lives equal to a contented mind. Godliness, with con. under a constant sense of the divine wisdom of tentment, is great gain. The infidel Hyme deProvidence; and thus, while labouring diligently |clared that it was worth a fortune of twenty thouin his vocation, leaves the issue of events in other | sand a year; and the writer of these remarks when hands. This state of mind induces calmness and once observing to a good old man, who for many sobriety of thought, and fits a man equally for years had been afflicted with dreadful asthma, ibat the service of God and the duties of daily life. health was the greatest of earthly blessings, the Moreover, contentment, while it checks all aspira- || suffering old man checked him, and said, “ Not the tions after what is beyond our sphere, renders us greatest earthly blessing, sir. Much as I have sufthankful with the state of things within it. Even || fered for many years, I would not exchange my from suffering it struggles not to be free, partly contented mind for the healthiest body in the world. from the conviction that all things are intended to || No, sir, contentment is the greatest earthly blesswork together for the Christian's good, and partly | ing." And so it is. It infuses a gentle and soothbecause it is felt that a state of suffering is much ing calm over the feelings, and fills the heart with better suited to the growth of Christian grace than every emotion of sympathy, tenderness, resignaone of prosperity, which not unfrequently, nay, tion, and quietness, without which true happiness which always, unless it be sanctified to the glory || can have no existence; and in comparison of which, of God, engenders pride, self-sufficiency, hard the feverish excitement and tumultuous passions of heartedness, together with every disposition most mere worldly-minded men are as darkness to light opposed to the Gospel, the chief graces of which and bitterness to sweetness. are humility, self-distrust, and charity. So condu- \| Endeavour then, gentle reader, to attain the mind cive, therefore, is contentment to the performance | of St. Paul, and with him to learn in whatever situof our duty towards God and the promotion of his ation you are therewith to be content. It will, glory: let us now see how subservient it is to our || by God's blessing, be the best preservative against duty towards our neighbour and to our own hap- || that restlessness and disquietude which are the sadpiness.
dest characteristics of the age in which we live, and Now, the best proof of our loving one another is against which each one of us should coutend with to do good and kind deeds, to sympathise in the all his power and all his might. There is somesorrow, and rejoice in the prosperity of others. I thing very specious, to young minds especially, in And this can only be done by those who consider | enterprising projects, in bustle and excitement; their neighbours not as rivals, but as brethren; and many generous spirits are entangled in their
snares before they know whither they are being || bishops, which might have proved fatal to led. Let it be your endeavour not to fall into the measure. Andrewes mentioned that these snares. Confine yourselves to a conscien persons proposed to be consecrated bishops tious discharge of the duties of your particular
ought first to be made priests, on the score callings, and be not busybodies in other men's ll of their having not been ordained by a bia matters. If your station be one of influence, em shop. On the other hand, Heylyn says that ploy whatever influence you possess, not as a step | Archbishop Bancroft argued there was no to rise higher in worldly dignity, but in promoting || necessity the Scotch bishops should pass God's glory and man's good. If your lot be one through the intermediate orders of deacon of privation, obscurity, or suffering, remember that
and priest, as the episcopal character might He who assigus to every man his position has placed
I be fully conveyed at a single consecration. you there, and that your duty is submission and
This argument, not unsupported by the thankfulness. Aye, thankfulness; for how much
practice of the early Church, and which did better is the condition of every man, even as re
not in the least acknowledge the validity of gards the world, than he deserves! How many
I presbyterian orders, was accepted, and the worldly comforts belong to the poorest and most
consecration was proceeded with, Andrewes destitute which he can lay no claim to, but must
taking a part in it (Oct. 21, 1609). ascribe wholly to the undeserved mercies of God! But when we pass from considering the food and
Within a fortnight after the consecraraiment and preservation of our bodies, to the in
tion of the Scottish bishops the primacy valuable blessings of our souls - when we reflect
| become vacant by the death of Archbishop that, beyond the wants and sorrows of this life,
| Bancroft, than whom a more orthodox there is an eternity of bliss wherein all our wants
| and vigilant bishop never presided over will be supplied and all our sorrows forgotten, if so
the English Church. A man he was, says be we are found God's obedient children— the an
| Heylyn, of eminent parts, and of a most ticipation of this state must throw present suffering
undaunted spirit, one who well knew his into the shade, and lead us to be abundantly con
work, and did it. When chaplain to Lord tent with such things as we have. Reader, labour
Chancellor Hatton he had won that nobleafter contentment.
man over to the interests of the Church,
towards which his colleagues in the ministry THE LIFE OF
were generally opposed. His work also on LANCELOT ANDREWES, D.D.
the “Dangerous Positions and Proceedings
published and practised within the island of BISHOP OF WINCIIESTER.
Britain, under pretence of Reformation, and [Continued from last Number. )
for the presbyterial discipline,” as well as his To services in defence of his literary re- | treatise, entitled a “ Survey of the pretended putation, of which he felt no little pride, | Holy Discipline," did much to expose the James I. was never insensible. And it was dangers and sophistries of the puritan faction. probably in consideration of such services || He also had a chief hand in effecting a conthat Andrewes, in the same year (1609), was || formity between the Churches of England translated to the see of Ely.
and Scotland. The conference at Hampton In the following year the king, with a |Court was under his management, as well view of giving increased efficiency to the | as the convocation of the same year, the Church in Scotland, convened an assembly || canons of which, when archbishop of Canat Glasgow, in which several heads of disci. || terbury, he duly enforced. The successor pline were drawn up favourable to a moderate of such a man therefore was, at this juncepiscopacy. Soon after the dissolution of the || ture especially, of no ordinary importance; assembly, the archbishop of Glasgow was and the bishop of Ely being universally accommanded to attend the king in London, | knowledged to be the fittest person to sucand to bring with him two chaplains for the || ceed him, several of the bishops met togepurpose of being consecrated bishops. On ther and unanimously recommended him to their arrival, in September, a commission || the king for that purpose. But supposing was issued to the bishops of London, Ely, that his partiality towards Andrewes renand Bath and Wells, to consecrate them ac- || dered it unnecessary for them to press their cording to the English ordinal; but in the suit, they left town with the conviction that interval of issuing the commission and the || he would succeed as a matter of course to solemnity a difficulty suggested itself with || the primacy. The earl of Dunbar, howreference to the consecration of the Scotch lever, the king's first Scotch favourite, taking
advantage of their absence, used all his in- || we render ourselves in the same condition."! fluence in behalf of Abbott, bishop of Lon- || A sense of justice was doubtless sufficient don, who, to the surprise of all, was ap to ensure the bishop's services, but his zeal pointed archbishop of Canterbury. Though || might not be a little increased by a desire at all times unfit for that post, at the pre- || to prevent the ambitious designs of Lord sent crisis his appointment was fatal to the || Keeper Williams, who, in the hope of suc. Church of England. Being a man of very || ceeding the primate, had done all in his morose manners and of a very sour aspect, | power to damage him with the king. He as Clarendon describes him, and with no other also still retained the king's favour; he acidea of the Christian religion than as it op- || companied him to Scotland, whither James posed and reviled popery, and who valued proceeded in the hope of settling the affairs those men most who did that most furiously, | of the Church in that distracted kingdom he soon neutralised the labours of Whitgift (1617); and Andrewes no doubt prepared and Bancroft, who, by their moderation and the way by his prudent counsel to the orthodoxy, had almost rescued the Church || passing of the canons in the assembly at out of the hands of the Calvinian party ; || Perth, when the constitution of the Church and he did much to enkindle those flames in Scotland was brought nearer to that of of religious disaffection and controversy England than it had ever been before. A which eventually broke out in the great || sermon preached before the king at Holy. rebellion,-a catastrophe that, in the judg- || rood house, on Whitsunday, 1617, is extant. ment of the noble historian, would in all hu- | While in Scotland, where his munificence, man probability have been prevented, had | hospitality, and piety were greatly commend. Bancroft been succeeded by Bishop An- || ed, he was made a privy counsellor of that drewes, or any man who understood and || kingdom, having the year before been adloved the Church.' Heylyn is of the same || mitted to the same honour in England; opinion. “If,” he says, “ Andrewes had suc- || and on his return home (Sept. 29), the ceeded Bancroft, and Laud followed An- | king appointed him dean of the Chapel drewes, the Church would have been settled | Royal and bishop of Winchester. Peter Du so sure on a foundation, that it could not || Moulin, a celebrated teacher and professor easily have been shaken ; to the preventing ll of divinity among the French protestants, of those deplorable miseries which the re- || writing to him about this time, warmly miss government of that popular prelate congratulates both himself and the Church [Abbott] did so unfortunately bring both on on his appointment. After a deserved euthe Church and state."
logium upon Andrewes' predecessor, Bishop Andrewes, however, was far too generous Montagu, who appears to have been an into resent his disappointment, if disappointed | timate friend and patron of Moulin, he adds, he was, though it is more probable that he, “ I put by my grief [at Montagu's death] who had with difficulty been prevailed upon when I heard that you succeeded in his room, to receive the episcopate, would rejoice at | whose learning I long since admired, and of having been spared the danger and difficulty || whose good affection I had great experience of so high a sphere; and it is gratifying to when I was with you ; indeed, his most ju. know that when, many years afterwards, | dicious majesty did not stick long upon his the archbishop was likely to have fallen into |choice ; you were even then designed his sucdisgrace, from having accidentally killed a cessor in the judgment of all who knew the keeper when shooting with the cross-bow | wisdom of the king. May it, I beseech God, in Lord Zouch's park, at Bramzill in Hamp- || prove happy and fortunate to yourself, the shire, Andrewes was among the first and Church, and kingdom. May he grant you, warmest advocates of his grace's innocence. |with increase of honour, increase of virtue, “ Brethren,” said he, with his usual gene and a fresh and lively old age; that his most rosity of spirit, to several bishops associated || gracious majesty may long enjoy you for with himself and others by the king to in- || his counsellor, and the Church daily reap quire into the matter, who were laying more | more and more fruits of your industry and guilt on the act than it would bear, “be || vigilance."'3 not too busy to condemn any for uncanon Having hitherto exhibited the character icals according to the strictness thereof, lest|
| Fuller's Church History, iii. 288, 350. • History of the Rebellion, i. 157, Ox. ed. 1826.
2 Cyp. Anglic. p. 88. 2 Cyprianus Anglicus, p. 64.
3 Wordsworth's Christian Institutes, iii. 222.
12 of this “ peerless prelate” in relation to the setshire at the bishop's hands, in testimony 2. more public duties of his exalted station, || of his father's merits and his own. Matthew
e let us now turn to the practice of his daily | Wren and Dr. Corbet, formerly students 2 life, and admire the high scriptural princi. of Pembroke Hall, and eventually bishops * ples which guided it. The reader may pro of Ely and of London, were also of his
bably be surprised to find that Bishop An- || chaplains; and Henry Isaacson,” a layman c. -- drewes, who took a leading part in the ec and celebrated chronologer, his amanuensis, 11clesiastical politics of his times, was, not- | to whom we are indebted for the sketch of
withstanding, during his whole career, a | the bishop's life which appears in Fuller's vetene severe student, a painful preacher, a volu- || Abel Redivivus, or lives and deaths of moes minous writer, and irrefragable controver dern divines. When bishop of Ely, he in22 sialist, and lived a prayerful and almost vited Cosin, then fellow of Caius College, e ascetic life.
Cambridge, and afterwards the famous biv It need not be said that he discharged the || shop of Durham, to become his librarian; * 13 duties of his most holy office with all fidelity but Dr. Overall, bishop of Lichfield, makoutube and zeal. He who maintained that epis ing him a similar offer the same time, at
copacy was of divine origin, instituted by || the advice of his tutor, he gave Overall the enesten Christ himself, and yet had so humble an preference. Toei opinion of his individual merits as to have That love of retirement and meditation, for under confessed himself inutilis servus, atque inutile | which he was so remarkable in boyhood and dows pondus, and adopted for the motto of his youth, continued with him through life. He To episcopal seal the sacred words, Et ad hæc || always rose early, and from the hour of risto quis idoneus? (Who is sufficient for these
rising till noon, when he dined, he never med i things ?), was not likely to forget the solemn || allowed himself to be interrupted in his bunte vows he had made to feed the flock of || studies, except for the performance of public am Christ, of which he was an overseer, and to l and private prayer, duties to which he devoted capi, watch as one that must give account. In | five hours daily. When bishop of Ely, his Simplement dispensing the patronage which he possessed, chapel, in which he had monthly commupoblat he took most anxious pains in the selection nions, was so decently and reverently adornfraise of worthy recipients. What had long before |ed, and God served there with so holy and
been said of Robert Winchelsey, archbi- | reverent behaviour of himself, and his family Vishop of Canterbury, was generally applied to by his pattern, that the souls of many that
him. “He never conferred ecclesiastical be- || came thither in time of divine service were
nefices upon any but men of learning, and very much elevated, and they stirred up to ist always rejected those who depended upon the like reverent deportment; “ Yea,” says
the solicitations and favour of the nobility, || Isaacson, “ some that had been there were so and were eager in their pursuits of prefer- || taken with it, that they desired to end their ment.” Against nepotism, in matters of | days in the bishop of Ely's chapel.”4 Before such sacred trust, he had deserved aversion. Il dinner he denied himself even to scholars, He would frequently send for men of repu though, as he used to observe, they were no tation and character, though unknown to scholars who would interrupt him before him, upon whom he bestowed valuable pre noon. After dinner he recreated himself ferment. In cases also where it was incon by two or three hours' agreeable conversavenient for the objects of his patronage to || tion with his guests or friends, and the dispay the customary fees of induction, he charge of his episcopal and other public would pay them himself. Of the individuals | business, and then returned to his studies thus honourably preferred, one or two names and devotions, at which he usually conare preserved sufficient to justify the selec- || tinued till bedtime, unless he was obliged tions he had made. To Nicholas Fuller,' || to entertain or visit friends at supper, the his chaplain, “the most admired critic of || principal meal of the times. He always, his time,” he gave, unsolicited, the valuable
however, ate sparingly, besides scrupulously rectory of St. Bishop's Waltham. Meric
Ath. Ox. ii. 885.
2 Fasti, i. 337. Fuller. Casaubon, son of the learned Isaac Casau 3 See Life of Bishop Cosin, prefixed to Brewer's edition of
the History of Popish Transubstantiation, p. x. sites bon, received the living of Blidon in Somer
manner of that at Winchester, an account of which is given in Prynne's “Canterbury Doom,” Bishop Andrewes'
furniture having been adopted by Laud. This statement 2 lb, iii, 934.
11.of Prynne should be received with some caution.
4 His chapel at Ely was probably furnished after the
1 Ath. Ox. ii. 327.
Fuller's Ch. Hist. iii. 349.