Obrazy na stronie

art and history, and spread science and civilisation from the well-ordered choir, while the nave was into the remotest regions, which otherwise would thronged with reverent suppliants. It is, inhave been sunk in barbarism. A remarkable fact, deed, a solemn, soul-impressing scene. Passing illustrative of the value of such establishments, even from the north door, you come to a row of massive in a secular point of view, is found in the history and richly carved Norman arches, one of which of this place. When the abbey was flourishing, a leads to the chapter-house, in which the venerable portion of the rents due from the adjoining district inmates of the sanctuary were wont to sit in solemn was paid in wheat, shewing that that grain was a ll conclave. Until very recently, the roof was entire, staple article of produce. But after the destruction, as well as the double row of columns. This was the of the abbey, the science of agriculture so much most beautiful part of the whole monastery in point declined, that the culture of wheat was forgotten by ll of elegance and decoration ; and is not unlike the the inhabitants of the district. This is but an in chapter-house at the cathedral of Oxford, except stance of the secular benefit which such establish that the lancet windows are double instead of triple, ments conferred on the country. They were, in || They are peculiarly elegant in form, and would be fact, the great preservers of civilisation; and, not- || admirable models for our modern churches. From withstanding their abuses and corruptions, we can- | the chapter-house you may pass slowly and silently not doubt that, but for their influence, religion itself | amongst the ruined buildings, and trace the refecwould have become extinct in many remote districts | tory, the cloisters, the school (as it is supposed to of the land. The monks, especially the Cistercians, I have been) at the northern entrance. But these in were great landed proprietors, who, besides manag- general, being of inferior structure, have crumbled ing their estates, were bound by the tenure of them into ruin; and, as in the case of most other similar to maintain a perpetual service to Almighty God. || ruins, the magnificent church, which in the days of Would it not be an advantageous arrangement, if | its prosperity constituted the primary attraction, some similar service were laid on the lords of the still remains in decay the principal feature on soil who have succeeded to their plundered domains which the eye of the visitor rests with a melan-if they would at least provide religious instruc- || choly yet solemn interest. tion and the ordinances of religion for their dependants? It must not be denied, however, that

III.-Conisheadthe Sands. Cartmel. the ancient monasteries degenerated from their re- On the following morning we crossed the sands ligious uses, and assumed too much of a secular to Cartmel. This is an interesting passage, differcharacter. The abbot of Furness, instead of resid ing, as it does, from a journey over a common road, ing with his monks, had a separate dwelling, which l or a railroad. You find yourself in the midst of a is now converted into a manor-house. He had also perfectly flat surface, which a few hours back was his castle at the Pile of Foudry, which may have covered with water, and now seems to stretch inbeen necessary as a place of refuge in times of terminably outwards to the sea, while on the land alarm. He had, moreover, a castle or court at the side it is bounded by green headlands and mounneighbouring town of Dalton, where he was privi- || tains. In the midst of the expanse of sand is a leged to try causes and confine prisoners. In short, small island, on which are the ruins of a chapel. he had all the privileges and authority of a petty Here formerly was an altar, at which a priest used prince or noble. At the time of the Reforma daily to pray for the safety of the travellers who tion, he was accused of fomenting sedition, and crossed the sands. How entirely contrary to moencouraging resistance to the civil power; and had dern notions, yet how pious and beautiful to think he not resigned his estates into the king's hands, ll of! Surely if God regards his creatures from it is not improbable that, like the abbot of Glaston- | above, and listens to the prayers of his servants, bury, he might have been hanged as a traitor on the best mode of ensuring them safety is by fervent his church-top by the cruel and rapacious Henry. and effectual prayer. Yet who would think of such

Since that time this noble edifice has been suf- || a proceeding now; such, we mean, as appointing fered to fall into decay. You can still, however, || a priest to pray for the safety of those who passed trace its noble dimensions. Standing reverently these dangerous sands? Is it that we are faithless, near the spot once occupied by the high altar, you | or our forefathers superstitious ? However, our command the splendid range of the nave and the | forefathers were practical as well as pious; for the transepts, and the eye rests on the massive remains same monks of Conishead who sent one of their of the western tower, Around you lie the fraga number to pray for the traveller's safety, also apments of ancient tombs,--knights, ladies, and ab- | pointed a guide who at each ebbing of the tide bots, anciently the great ones of the land, many of should ascertain what changes had taken place in whosę effigies still remain entire. And you can the shifting surface, and should conduct each traimagine the temple of God thronged with daily || veller across. This guide had a salary of fifteen worshippers, and the solemn service ascending | marks, besides three acres of land. When Henry

VIII. seized the revenues of the priory, he took on up from the centre of the edifice for a moderate himself the payment of the guide, who still enjoys || height above the roof, and then another square the land, and a pension of 201. a year out of the || tower, or lantern, is placed on it in such a manner revenue of the Duchy of Lancaster. The prayers that it forms “ a square within a square," as the old of the priest, however, ceased, and the chapel is a clerk well described it, the angles, of the upper ruin. How strikingly illustrative of the change of || tower bisecting the sides of the lower one. This feeling! Now people are expected to pray for || has not a pleasant effect, and is evidently an addithemselves. “Every one for himself, and God for tion of more recent times, probably the fourteenth us all," is the modern motto. Formerly men prayed | or fifteenth century, when much of the upper part for each other, as members of one body the Church, and the splendid perpendicular window at the east of which if one member suffer, all suffer with it. || end was added. The church is a good deal defaced This was partly the object of monastic establish- || with these modern additions ; still there is some ments, and the continual service in the conventual | magnificent architecture in the interior, especially chapel. It was thought that the Church as a whole, the round arches of the chancel, the carved work even those members who were engaged in the bu- ll of which, recently denuded of its many coatings of siness of the world, derived benefit from the prayers I plaster and whitewash, appears as sharp and perof the faithful ; and thus might the unwitting tra- || fect as on the day when it was first made. I emveller be saved by the prayers of the priest in the ployed all my eloquence on the old clerk to use island chapel. It would be interesting to ascertain his influence with the elders of the parish, assemwhether more lives are lost now than formerly. bled in vestry, to have more of these beautiful Three persons were drowned only a few months works disinterred. He said that various improveago; and such occurrences are far from infrequent, ments had been projected; but that the majority of though they happen chiefly to rash or drunken | the vestry thought that the church had done very persons, who lose their way in the mist. Our guide | well for their fathers and forefathers, and would do informed us that at the turn of the tide the first for them also. wave which rushed in would sometimes be five feet ||. Certainly a good deal is to be said in excuse of high ; sufficient to overthrow any traveller on foot, || a modern vestry, consisting chiefly of persons of and even place those on horseback in jeopardy. moderate means-farmers at rack-rent, and small We were reminded of the account of a similar tradesmen when they are unwilling to lay out large phenomenon described by Sir Walter Scott in his | sums in the restoration of old conventual churches, novel of Red Gauntlet, as occurring in the Solway || such as Cartmel, or, to give another instance, RomFrith. There is a project on foot for carrying an sey in Hampshire. It is too much to expect that embankment across these extensive sands, which such' persons should expend many thousands of form the estuary of Morecombe Bay, and convert- || pounds in the restoration of a church which is five ing the whole estuary into cultivable land, which times larger, according to modern computation, seems no more impossible than the reclaiming the than they require for their accommodation. Would fens of Lincolnshire and the lowlands of Belgium it not be a fit object for the exertions of the Camden and Holland. Over the top of the embankment Society ? Might not a special fund be raised, and it is proposed to carry a railroad from Lancaster, placed under their management, for the restoration which shall pass up the vale of Nightshade (alas, for or preservation of such churches as that of Cartmel, the solemn seclusion of Furness!), and so on to St. the repairs of which are beyond the means of the Bees, Whitehaven, Maryport, Carlisle, and Glas inhabitants? In this instance the great tithes, gow. That such a scheme is practicable there | amounting to 14001. a year, which formerly beseems little doubt; and that it would be beneficial, longed to the monastery, are the property of the by furnishing an investment for capital, employing | Earl of Burlington, who has an estate and mansion labourers, and adding to the country many thou in the neighbourhood; and the salary of the incumsand acres of productive land, can as little be bent and clerk are together less than 1001. a year, questioned. The scheme, however, is at present Lay impropriators might often be induced to conin abeyance.

tribute liberally to such an object. At present the Having crossed the sands, we proceeded inland workmen are employed by Lord Burlington in aluntil we arrived at the small town of Cartmel, re tering his pew, so that, whereas hitherto it has markable for its church, which was anciently the fronted the altar, it is to be turned directly round conventual church of the priory of Cartmel, and | towards the pulpit, which is most preposterously has been preserved from the same fate as Furness placed so as to command an enormous mis-shapen by being converted into the parish-church. It is gallery, which blocks up one of the transepts, while a singular, and, in some respects, handsome edifice. Il more than half the nave is left unoccupied. By What principally strikes the eye from the exterior || re-arranging the seats and pulpit, which might be is the remarkable shape of the tower. It is carried done at the expense of a few hundred pounds

placing the pulpit against one of the chancel arches, || with this difference, that it is not so easily and the seats fronting it, as well as the altar, which cured. Now the chances are, that a man will is the fittest arrangement in all churches,--all the meet with much more bad reading than good galleries and other principal disfigurements of Cart.

reading; and therefore parents, instead of mel church might be removed, and the rest of the

feeling safe of their children because they are

fond of reading, ought rather to fear the danedifice might be gradually restored according to the

ger of it, and to take great pains to guide means obtained for that purpose. It would then be

them in their choice of books. one of the most commodious and beautiful churches | In the first place, all the common everyin the kingdom. At present there are too many || day reading that falls into a young man's signs of neglect and irreverence. The lower part || hands is quite sure to be bad ; for this very of the nave was filled with benches,-for what pur | plain reason, that it is written by men who pose, does the reader suppose ?-for the accommo | have not the least thought for the welfare of dation of a number of persons who assemble once

their readers, and only write what will amuse a week to learn to sing on Hullah's system. So

most and sell best. I mean, all the common the magnificent church, which used daily to re-echo

prints of the day,-newspapers and periodi

cals, reviews, cheap novels and romances, and with the praises of God, is now made an agreeable

comic books with comic engravings. They resort for young ladies and gentlemen, for the pur are all bad food for the mind, at least if they pose of learning profane songs! Here again we | are the only food. I do not say that we are have a good illustration of the difference of times, || forbidden to read them at all; but if we do, or rather of feelings and habits. Part of the church we must read them in due measure and in is arranged as a preaching-house, the rest deemed || due place. If we read a newspaper, we may useless, except for secular purposes. I should not || read it without harm, if we look at it only to forget to mention a valuable library with which the

learn what is going on in our country, and in vestry is furnished, containing copies of many of

the rest of the world. If a man loves his

Church and country, he must feel an interest the fathers, as well as a variety of other books, but

to know what his rulers are doing, and he suffered to fall sadly into decay, for want of a few

may fairly look at a newspaper for this purpounds laid out in keeping them together. Of the

pose; but let him not get his opinions of any ancient monastery there are scarcely any remains, men or any measures from those newspapers. except a portion of the clerk's house, and a gateway, They are, they must be, unsafe guides, bethrough which we passed on leaving the village. cause they are written for the most unrighteWritten from Bowness on Windermere,

ous purposes, to condemn one party, and deAugust 17, 1843.

fend another, without caring for right or

wrong. Many of them set themselves against THE CHOICE OF BOOKS AND THE the government (which in itself must be RIGHT USE OF THEM.

wrong), and they set down to the worst mo

tives all the efforts of the queen and her miMost persons will agree with us, that there

nisters for the people's good. is nothing which poisons men's minds so Every churchman knows that he ought to niuch as unwholesome reading. The health | give his rulers credit for doing the best for of the mind depends upon the food it receives, || their subjects, as far as they can see; and we just as much as the health of the body; and | ought to receive their measures accordingly. reading much cannot make the mind sound, Still more must every churchman be grieved any more than eating much can make the at seeing the acts of his bishops and clergy body healthy. There must be choice in the so brought forward, and so hardly judged. kind of food, and there must be prudence and It were better if those matters were not canwisdom in the use of it.

vassed at all in newspapers, even by those Often does it grieve us to hear a mother say || who do it in a friendly way; for neither the of her child, even in his hearing, He is a good || authors nor the readers are likely to be free boy, he loves his book, and is always reading, || from party spirit, and no one can help seeing &c. She might as well say, He is hungry, and that it has already brought the doctrines and loves his dinner, and is always eating. Many discipline of the Church to be a matter of a fond mother has built her best hopes upon common talk and debate in reading-rooms her child's love of reading, and has never || and taverns. dreamt of guiding him in the choice of his We must beware, therefore, that we do not reading.

allow ourselves to debate on such subjects, The truth is, the love of reading is just as || nor hardly to answer an assailant (unless in much a natural bent or desire, as any other || the shortest way) if the time and place be appetite or lust that belongs to our bodies ; || unsuitable; and it would be much better if and like all of them, may be turned into a || we would avoid (as a habit) the reading of temptation and a snare to evil. The mind || discussions and judgments upon doctrines of may be poisoned as easily as the body; but || our religion, or of the government of the

Church. Whether those judgments be for or l you learn. This is the great value of history, against, we must refuse to acknowledge their that we learn by example of men and things right of judging in such matters at all. As that have gone before; we learn to avoid their churchmen we inay not. And sure enough if || faults, and follow their virtues. We, of course, we get into the liabit of reading these mat-|| must pick out those persons whose circumters at improper times and places, we shall stances most resemble our own; and we may soon get into the way of speaking and think find great guidance from studying their lives. ing lightly of them.

To a churchman, the lives of the early Much the same remarks will apply to no | Christians will claim the highest interest, vels and romances, and comic prints: they and will serve to quicken his zeal and endeaare written only to amuse, they are not writ vours to live worthily of his fellowship. Let ten by men who have the least regard or him only feel that he is a member of the same interest in their readers. They generally || body in which the early Christians lived and put forward all the strong lusts and pas died, and he will never grudge any little efsions of mankind, as if tliey were the fine fort that he can make to advance the Church parts of a man, and most to be admired and | abroad, or to strengthen her at home. copied. The wealthy and noble, and the || Again, a churchman must be eager to know beautiful and the powerful, are those whom the whole history of the Church, who planted they hold up as most to be envied and ad- it, who maintained it. He professes his bemired ; and they cloak all the worst pas- || lief in a Catholic Apostolic Church, and he sions of our flesh under the fair names of trusts that he is a member of it; but how can manliness or gallantry, courage, honour, gen- || he know it without going to history? Let tlemanlike feeling, and so forth. It is very him learn there how the succession has altrue that we may learn a great deal from the ways been maintained from the Apostles actions of bad men; but then they must be downwards; bishop from bishop receiving read under their right names. Tales, and and giving the holy but mysterious powers made-stories, and plays, may be read with | which their Master left to his first servants great benefit, if we are fully prepared to re for a never-ending ministry. He will find fuse the evil and choose the good. We may the history of the Church at large most carethen learn as much as we do from the faults || fully related by Mr. Palmer, and there he of our neighbours, which, when we cannot || will learn to know how the Church in this help seeing, we regret and avoid.

country is a branch of the Church Catholic; But if we are constantly reading of things and of this he will satisfy his mind, by readunder their wrong names, and of the worst | ing Mr. Churton's account of the Early Eng. characters under the most flattering titles lish Church. These works should be read (bitter put for sweet, and sweet for bitter), || most carefully; and they cannot fail to rouse we doubt if any mind whatever can help being | in every heart the greatest thankfulness for by degrees perverted. At least, if a man can all the blessings which we enjoy as a Church eat poison without its killing him, he may I and people. It is in vain that we read in feed his mind on poison and be none the God's Word of all the high privileges granted worse,

to the Church and body of Christ, unless we A few years ago there really was nothing can assure ourselves that we are called to be that a churchman could read (we mean, no members of that body. It would be in vain thing that he could read as a pastime or || to thank God for our redemption through the amusement) which would not really poison | Gospel, unless that Gospel had been prehis mind. There were no books which could served and brought down to us by his conlead him to better knowledge of the history of stant mercy and watchfulness over his Church. his own country and of his own Church, or || And in this land he has maintained his that could furnish such information about Church with special mercy. The first Church holy places and holy things, so as to enable of the ancient Britons, we know, was overhim to understand the historical part of his whelmed by the heathen Saxons for 150 years. Bible better. There were very few tales of || This he again restored to fresh life in the fiction which represented men and men's do- || days of St. Augustine; and here it has stood, ings in their proper light. There were very || sometimes more vigorous, sometimes less; few books of poetry, that were not either too || sometimes attacked grievously from without, sacred for common use, or too profane and sometimes grievously corrupted within ; yet indecent for any use at all.

| always supported from above. One rule which we ought to keep is, never The knowledge of these facts does encourto read merely to pass away the time. Such | age us to believe, that all its present trials are reading is little more than idle gazing at a | ordained by the same merciful hand for its book. Always read with a view of learning chastening, for its purging, for its future something. And, again, always learn with a strengthening and refreshing; and makes view of doing something; i. e. with a view of each burn to bear a hand in the work. And applying to your own life and conduct what I each may help in his own degree: I mean,

not only by contributing his time or money cessor has taken her regretted departure with an to her needs, but by living humbly in his | affectionate and cordial smile. Thus nature keeps own calling, and shewing that Church-mem up the varied changes of the year; and her book is bership is not a name only. To live brotherly

perpetually open to the view of the assiduous stuamongst our own members, and to bear our

dent, or her high-priest the poet, who meditates in selves meekly towards those who withdraw

verdant fields at morn or eventide upon the works

of the Creator. No russet mantle appears to have themselves from the Church's fellowship, will

fallen upon the distant upland, wood, or copse. do more to convince the gainsayer than the

Their several forms seem still vivid with green and stoutest arguments, or the cleverest wrang

cool-looking tints, as refreshing to the eye as a ling, or the most exclusive dealing

dewy lawn in midsummer: yet there is no monoIn this way we may make our reading not || tony of colour in these rich masses of dense foliage, only amusement for the time, and a means of these sylvan nooks and shady bowers, where petted learning and storing our minds ; but of also sheep and kine slumber away the noontide hours improving our lives, of strengthening our in social companionship. The only perceptible infaith, and warming our love. We shall then |dication of autumn's itinerary over this region of return to the study of God's own book,

verdure appears in the neighbouring cornfields, which every one, of course, must study daily,

where the yellow spikes glitter amongst half-hidden at more solemn and retired times, with a

lanes as the golden sunbeam lingers pleasantly upon

their rustling borders. The pastoral stream reflects better understanding of its words, and greater ||

a clear blue sky, or its tranquil surface is occathankfulness for its promises. We ought,

Il sionally varied by the spirit-like motion of a lovely indeed, to look upon all reading as more or ll cloud sailing majestically through its cerulean path less an handmaid to this one book, as indeed in the heavens. There is nothing saddening, cerall books ought to be written more or less tainly, in contemplating such scenery, although the after the sacred model; and it speaks well, summer song-bird's minstrelsy has ceased; the redboth for a book and for its reader, when breast, however, continues to pipe a grateful carol reading carries our minds back to the Bible. | amongst the quivering alders, and thus mingles his

hymn of gladness with the peasant's merry descant

or rustic roundelay. I have thus endeavoured, someTHE REAPERS.

what discursively, to identify an autumna Iday as it " Why should we crave a hallow'd spot?

was presented to my view in a rural part of Berks,

before a sere or faded leaf had dappled the emerald An altar is in each man's cot, A church in every grove that spreads

sward in the forest-glades with the customary emIts living roof above our heads."

blem of the waning year. WORDSWORTII.

And now to resume my narrative. The reapers The first glimpse I obtained of Windsor Castle was were in the fields gathering in the harvest-grain. from the road-side, and at a distance of about five There they stood in merry groups with sickle or miles from the picturesque old town. It dilated sheat in hand-clusters of animated men, women, very unexpectedly upon my sight, almost like some | and boys. Presently we came upon another attracaerial vision - a phantom embodiment of feudal tive party, sitting under the spreading canopy of strength and magnificence. Its imposing yet sha some fine old trees, taking their noonday repast, dowy outline, as descried afar off, of tower and bat and sharing a liberal modicum of meat and bread tlement, gave additional interest to the historic || with their hungry dependants---sundry sociable and associations connected with this celebrated Anglo | civilised dogs--for they did not molest or even bark Norman fortress. I felt as if I was indeed ap- || at us. It was a truly pastoral scene, reminding me proaching one of the favourite strongholds of the || of the beautiful poetry of the “ Seasons," aud the Norman conqueror; whilst the consciousness of ll poets of England, who delight in painting the rural

no in the vicinity of so many poetical and in- || life of her yeomanry :teresting sites and scenes, gave a singular vividness

“Behind the master walks, builds up the shocks ; to the beautiful landscape around me. Beside, there

And, conscious, glancing oft on every side were other interesting circumstances connected Ilis sated eye, feels his heart heave with joy. with the blithe period of the year, which enhanced

The gleaners spread around, and here and there, the rural imagery of the road-side. It was autumn,

Spike after spike, their scanty harvest pick.”

Thomson. England and nature's golden, glowing season, when, “ crowned with the sickle and the wheaten sheaf," " How accurate are Thomson's pictures !" I exthis harbinger of rustic joys“ comes jovial on." claimed, as I looked around me and beheld the

And here let me pause a moment to characterise || modern representatives of his original and elaboautumn as it appears in England, sheen and jocund, rate portraits. There is no difficulty in recognisto the furtive or the reflective glances, as it may ing them; take what form or fashion they see fit to chance to be, of the lingering wayfarer. The rural masquerade in, they are invariably identified and landscape, even at the moment this is written, seems detected. The reapers held up their tin drinkingunconscious of having lost a charm. The familiar cups, by way of salute, as we passed them, and or legitimate features of summer appear undis seemed very vivacious and happy. puted; her redundant and leafy honours are clus

“ The lark is gay tering in glossy freshness on every bough; yet au

That dries his feathers, saturate with dew, tumn claims her presumptive right to reign, and, Beneath the rosy cloud, while yet the beams like an amiable and courteous regent, her prede

Of day-spring overshoot his humble nest;

The peasant too, a witness of his song1 From the Churchman (New York).

Himself a songster-is as gay as he.'

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