Obrazy na stronie

man Charles entrusted himself. The man had dignity of sentiments much above his condition ; and though death was denounced against all who concealed the king, and a great reward promised should betray him, he preferred and maintained unshaken fidelity. He took the assistance of his four bro. thers, equally honourable with himself; and having clothed the king in a garb like their own, they led him into the neighbouring wood, put a bill in his hand, and pretended to be cutting faggots. .... For a better concealment, he mounted upon an oak, where he sheltered himself among the leaves and branches for twenty-four hours. He saw several soldiers pass by, all of whom were intent in search of the king; and some expressed in his hearing their earnest wishes of seizing him. This tree was afterwards denominated the royal oak; and for many years was regarded by the neighbourhood with great veneration." Such is Hume's version. Clarendon, however, who tells us that he heard the account of the king's flight from Worcester from his own lips, does not mention the oak-tree in connexion with the Penderells, but with a gentleman of the name of Careless, who being himself concealed in an oak, and seeing his majesty in a wood the night of the battle of Worcester, he came down and persuaded the king to ascend into the same hiding-place. Compare Hume, vol. vii. p. 173, and Clarendon's Hist. vol. vi. p. 519.)

face. Water contracts by cold; it thus equalises the temperature of various times and places : but if its contraction were continued all the way to the freezing point, it would bind a great part of the earth in fetters of ice. The contraction, then, is here replaced by expansion, in a manner which but slightly modifies the former effects, while it completely obviates the bad consequences. The farther expansion which takes place at the freezing point, still further facilitates the rapid removal of the icy chains in which parts of the earth's surface are at certain times bound. The expansion of water during its congelation, at which time its volume increases 1-12th, and its contraction in bulk during a thaw, tend to pulverise the soil, to separate its parts from each other, and to make it more permeable to the influence of the air. It is extremely difficult to devise any means of bringing before a common apprehension the scale on which the universe is constructed, the enormous proportion which the larger dimensions bear to the smaller, and the amazing number of steps from large to smaller, or from small to larger, which the consideration of it offers. The following comparative representations may serve to give the reader to whom the subject is new some idea of these steps. If we suppose the earth to be represented by a globe a foot in diameter, the distance of the sun from the earth will be about two miles; the diameter of the sun, on the samé supposition, will be something above 100 feet, and consequently his bulk such as might be made up of two hemispheres, each about the size of the dome of St. Paul's. The moon will be 30 feet from us, and her diameter three inches,—about that of a cricketball. Thus the sun would much more than occupy all the space within the moon's orbit. .... On such a terrestrial globe the highest mountains would be about 1-80th of an inch high, and consequently only just distinguishable. We may imagine, therefore, how imperceptible would be the || largest animals. The whole organised covering of such an earth would be quite undiscoverable by the eye, except perhaps by colour, like the bloom on a plum. In order to restore the earth and its inhabitants to their true dimensions, we must magnify the length, breadth, and thickness of every part of our supposed models forty millions of times; and to preserve the proportions, we must increase equally the distances of the sun and the stars from us.

Come, ye Britons, bold and good,
Who oft beneath the oak have stood,

And gathered from its spray,
The pale green leaves and apple rare,
Which loyal Britons love to wear

On each oak-apple day.
Come listen now, while I relate
How long ago, in humble state,

A loyal woodman brave
Did honour to his sovereign shew,
And from the base, rebellious foe,

The second Charles did save.
The rebels fought against their king,
And vanquished him, -Oh, impious thing,

To make their sovereign fly!
From Worcester-s0 historians tell.
He fled, and came to Boscobel,

Which stood some forest nigh;
Where in lone house a woodman dwelt,
Who often to his Maker knelt;

And therefore well he knew
How in God's holy Word 'tis said,
That earthly kinys should be obeyed

With fear and reverence due. “ Then shall I sell,” said Penderell bold, “ My sovereign for the traitor's gold,

And so my conscience sting?
No, never, though they threaten death,
Yet will I to my latest breath

Honour my liege and king."
His brothers four were also true,
His wife and mother loyal too-

So all agree to bring

Poetry. THE ROYAL WOODMAN. [After the battle of Worcester (Sept. 3, 1651), where King

Charles II. was defeated by Cromwell, the king escaped *** to Boscobel, a lone house on the border of Stafford.

shire, inhabited by one Penderel, a farmer. To this ||

And now with joyful hearts they greet.
Their king restored, and him can meet

In loyal feeling true.
Then come, ye Britons, one and all,
And gather now the oaken ball,

In memory of the day.
Pluck for your hats the oaken bough,
And twine its leaves around your brow

Each twenty-ninth of May.
Yes, gather now from England's tree
The leaf tliat well may prove in thee

A loyal English heart.
And keep to Penderell's motto bright,
The wrong reject, prefer the right,

And spurn the traitor's part.

A suit complete of woodman's clothes,
In which, to cheat his threatening foes,

They soon disguise the king.
Then, to refresh their royal guest,
The dame full proudly did her best

With humble cottage-fare.
Her sons kept watch that they might know
If danger threatened, or the foe

Had traced their inmate there.
Next morning, when the shades of night
Gave way before the sunbeam bright,

To work the Penderells went.
King Charles, his honest friends between,
The bill-hook plies in forest green,

E'en till the day was spent.
Then to their cot with setting sun,
When evening came, and work was done,

Their guest the woodmen brought,
Again to lay his royal head
Right gladly on that homely bed ;

Whilst him the rebels sought.
Well nigh he'd reach'd the friendly roof,
And danger seemed to keep aloof,

And all of safety spoke;
Suddenly then the king did see
His foes approach, and climbed a tree,

Now called the Royal Oak.
The tangled branches thick and green
Kept him, as there he sat, unseen ;--

The traitors 'spied him not.
They little thought how near that day
To their much-injured king were they,

So quickly left the spot.
'Twas God above that seemed to say,
When in the oak the sovereign lay,

6. Behold, my outspread arm Shall thee secure from rebels' eye; They mine anointed shall not spy,

Nor do my servant harm.
God saw thy martyred father die;
And though to slay thee rebels try,

Yet shall they try in vain.
A sinful nation killed their king;
Yet still his son in time I'll bring

In blessed peace to reign."
The Penderells lived that day to see
When God restored, their king to be,

The once poor fugitive.
Oh, how delighful then to know
They'd never been their sovereign's foe,

But toiled that he might live!
They, in rebellion's darkest night,
Refused the wrong and chose the right,

And did their duty do.

APPROACH OF SPRING. New doth the sun appear;

The mountains' snows decay; Crown'd with frail flowers, forth comes the infant

year. My soul, time posts away,

And thou yet in that frost,

Which flower and fruit hath lost, As if all here immortal were, dost stay: For shame! thy powers awake, Look to that Heaven which never night makes black,

And there, at that immortal Sun's bright rays, Deck thee with flowers which fear not rage of days.


Notices of Books. We have been much pleased with the perusal of Stories on the Lord's Prayer, and Stories illustrative of our duty towurds God, as contained in the first four Commandments. These little volumes will be found eminently useful in parochial and Sunday schools, either as rewards or lesson-books. The Wren, or the Fairy of the Green-house, consisting of song, story, and dialogue, founded upon actual incidents, and put together for the amusement and instruction of three little boys, is a charming volume, and cannot fail to be a prime favourite with boys, and girls too, of all classes. The same may be said of St. Christopher, a Painting in Fordholme Church.

The above reminds us of Stories of Cottagers, by Edward Monro, M.A., which, as the preface tells us, are, amongst other things, intended to shew that religion is to be applied to the matters of every day life. The object which the writer has in view is, therefore, highly important; and we think that his book, which is in many parts beautifully written. is likely to answer this end. Is it wise, however, to prejudice the poor against the laws of their country, which, whether agreeable or not, as good citizens, they are bound to obey? We allude to what is said in Robert

Lee against the New Poor-law Act, — the only blot I. 1 The day on which Charles II. was restored to the V hrone of his ancestors.

it must be added, which we have observed in this otherwise unexceptionable and instructive volume.


SALVATION BY CHRIST ONLY.-" This word only," - Church Courts and Church Discipline (Murray), by

a. Church Discipline, (Murray, by ll says Hooker, in his reply to the objections of Travers, Archdeacon R. Wilberforce, is a work which, both

what doth it exclude ? [As when we say] “The on account of the reputation of the writer and the Judge shall only determine this matter :'this only' importance of the subject, will so readily obtain

doth not exclude all other things beside the person public attention, that we feel no notice of ours is

of the Judge, as necessary witnesses, the equity of necessary. The reader, however, will find an ex

the cause, &c., but all persons ; and not all persons tract from the concluding chapter in another part

from being present, but from determining the cause. of the Magazine.

So when we say, Salvation only is by Christ, we do

not exclude all other things. For then how could The Outlines of English Ilistory (Houlston and

we say that faith were necessary? We exclude, Stoneman), compiled by the Re. C. Nicholls, for

therefore, not those means whereby the benefits of the Ripon Diocesan Commercial School at Leeds,

Christ are applied to us, but all other persons, for will be found a very useful compilation for other working any things for our redemption.”-Hooker, schools besides that for which it is chiefly intended. True Religion.— True religion is no way a garWe observe that a second edition has just appeared. gleism only, to wash the tongue and mouth, to speak

good words; it must root in the heart, and then The Obligation, Uses, and Results of the Weekly Offer fructify in the hand, else it will not cleanse the tory (Burns) are forcibly stated by Mr. Palin, in a whole man.-Bishop Buckridge. sermon lately preached by him in the parish-church Church-RATES.-" We are all of opinion, that of which he is rector. After answering several fri. the obligation by which the parishioners are bound volous objections against obedience to the Church to repair the body of the parish-church, whenever in this particular, the writer shews the advantages necessary, and to provide all things essential for the of the Weekly Offertory, as regards its frequency, || performance of divine service therein, is an obligaconstancy, moderation, inexpensiveness, simplicity, tion imposed on them by the common law of the and sobriety; and contrasts this legitimate and scrip land. When the fabric of the church stands in need tural mode of raising money for charitable purposes of repair, the only question upon which the parishwith those which have been resorted to, happily ioners, when convened together to make a rate, can without success, to supply its place, such as “charity by law deliberate and determine is, not whether balls, philanthropic concerts, church-building ba. || they will repair the church or not (for on that point zaars or fancy-fairs, missionary tea-parties,” and || they are concluded by the law), but how and in the more recent applications through the penny- || what manner the common law obligation so obliging post. Mr. Palin has no doubt said enough to con them may be best and most effectually performed vince all right-minded Churchmen of the importance and carried into effect. The parishioners have no and advantages connected with the offertory; but might more power to throw off the burden of the repair of not still higher ground be taken? Bishop Buckridge, the church, than that of the repair of bridges and in his celebrated funeral sermon on Bishop Andrewes, || highways."--Lord Chief Justice Tindul. has shewn, that the Church's sacrifice is incomplete || USE AND ABUSE OF LEARNING.- Learning is without the use of the offertory. “Our Liturgy," he now a very different thing from what it was forobserves, “in the offertory, tenders her prayers and merly. When joined with good principle and the álms on the Lord's day, or Sunday, as a part of the sa fear of God, it turned a good man into a great man; crifice or service of that day, and of God's worship. || but if joined with error and ungodliness, as is now which I wish were more carefully observed among us, |too frequently the case, it turns a scholar into a :.. The Lord's day, or Sunday, is the best kept and || ruffian ; and of two men who are both equally observed when to our prayers and praise and sacri- || wicked, he that is the more learned (as learning is fices of ourselves, our souls and bodies, we also add | now) will be the more noxious animal of the two. the sacrifice of our goods and alms .... and these | If our learning be such as leads us astray from God, two sacrifices of praise and alms, joined here by God and turns an irresistible judge into an enemy-away and his apostle (Heb. xiii. 16) may never be parted with it all; the humble ploughman who says his by us in our lives and practice."

daily prayers, is the more useful subject, the hapThe sacrifice of praise and alms being thus pier man, and will soon be the greater.-Jones of made complete by the use of the offertory, may be Nayland. noticed as another advantage of it. It is gra DANGEROUS CHARACTERS.-Few men have done tifying to know that this primitive practice has more harm than those who have been thought to been lately restored in many parishes, and, as might be able to do least; and there cannot be a greater have been expected for the right way is generally error than to believe a man whom we see qualithe most successful- the plan has succeeded admir. fied with too mean parts to do good, to be thereably. Of this there is abundant evidence in the fore incapable of doing hurt: there is a supply of notes appended to Mr. Palin's sermon.

malice, of pride, of industry, and even of folly, in the

meekest, when he sets his heart upon it, that makes Mr. Gresley's sermon, The Church the Healer of || a strange progress in wickedness.- Clarendon. the Nation's Wounds (Rivingtons), preached at the | The CHURCH Tie HEALER Of The Nation's late Warwickshire assizes, should be in the hands || WOUNDS.-All of us will readily acknowledge, that of all classes of Churchmen. The rich will see || what the country most needs is, the diffusion of a what solemn obligations wealth and station impose sense of true religion, whereby men of different upon them, while the poor may learn that they have || classes shall be induced to perform their respective no warmer advocates than the clergy of England. Il duties to God and to each other. But there is,

in the prevailing notion of religion, a remarkable | might seem to limit the bishop's power, would in defect, which greatly impedes its healthy efficacy. || fact so greatly increase it, as a renewal of synodMen are accustomed to think that religion is no ical action. It was said of old that the prince who thing more than a doctrine, or series of doctrines, limited Spartan rule, left it in fact greater, bewhich, being believed and received into the heart cause more secure. And this must ever be the of an individual, are effective to his conversion, case in an institution like the Church, compacted and the amendment of his life; and they forget || merely by voluntary acquiescence, where the power the equally important truth, that religion is a bond of rulers depends on their carrying with them the of union between man and man; that our Lord and willing assent of an attached people. Let the lower Saviour came into the world, not only to deliver a clergy feel that they have a voice in what is dedoctrine, but to found a kingdom, a holy brother cided, that their wishes are consulted, and their hood and association, bound together by ties closer wants known, and the moral influence of their even than those of country, kindred, or family; in || leaders-without which power in this country is one word, that he came to establish a CHURCH Il but an unmanageable weapon-would become irreupon earth, in which, as there is one hope of our sistible. Now how can this be so naturally and so calling, so there is one Lord, one faith, one bap- || safely effected as through the existence of a lower tism, one God and Father of us all, whom we are house of convocation, consisting on the one hand bound, with one heart and voice, to worship and of the representatives of the clergy, and on the adore together; and that in whatever age or com- || other of persons appointed by the bishops themmunity this holy union is broken and shattered, it | selves? When backed in this manner by the unaniis a great sin and reproach to that age and coun- || mous voice of the Church, with what confidence try, one of the essential features of Christ's reli- || would they proceed in every reform! They would gion is lost, and the gospel scheme is, in a great || be in no danger of committing themselves to steps degree, robbed of its efficacy to mould society into - like the suppression of the See of Sodor and harmonious union, and to promote godliness, and Man, not to take a more present instance-which love, and peace among men.- Gresley's Assize Ser- || the unanimous reclamations of the inferior clergy mon.

must make them desirous to recall. They would A WORD TO THE Rich. It is the duty of every || either advance with greater safety, or stand still one of us, whom God has blessed with wealth or with greater satisfaction. The necessary result of competence, to see that the poor as well as rich the contrary system may be seen in the lamente in our respective parishes or neighbourhood have able condition of things during the last century; places of Worship, ample and suitable for the ser on the one hand might be seen clergymen whose vice of God, and also that they have sufficient || conduct called loudly for restraint and censurepastoral superintendence. If there is no church, 1 and bishops on the other, who felt that they were we ought to build one if the church is not of | too unpopular to venture upon measures of reform. sufficient size, we should enlarge it. If the popu. | Yet such must ever be the case among a free peolation is too numerous for the superintendence of ple, when mere force is substituted in the place of one pastor, we should obtain the services of more. || influence. From such difficulties we might now be If the pastor is incapacitated by age or infirmity, | free. No disputed succession divides the nation. we should aid him in procuring an assistant. Fur- | No doubt as to the truth or excellence of our forther, we should look to the parish-school, and see mularies divides the Church. The character of our that it is sufficient for the children of our poor || clergy has advanced with the popularity of their neighbours : and we should take care that such a rulers. Disputes indeed there are, but their res salary is provided for the schoolmaster, as to se- | medy is not rest, but action. Let the Church but cure the services of one who is really competent to | move on in her divine warfare, and many who are teach what is required. These things-namely, now ready to turn their weapons against one anchurch room, pastoral superintendence, and reli other, would then vie in service against the comgious instruction of the young—are of palpable and mon foe. We need only to have a path laid open evident necessity, and it is the business of us all to our attempt, in that direction which God's laws 'to look to them, and until they are supplied there require, and in which the leaders of our reforma. is not the least hope of improvement. We should // tion have invited us to advance.--Archdeacon R, make any sacrifice rather than suffer these vital || Wilberforce. deficiencies to continue. To have suffered them | CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.-Cruelty to dumb ani. to continue so long is a shame and reproach to | mals is one of the distinguishing vices of the lowest any nation.-Ibid.

and basest of the people. Wherever it is found, it Church Courts." Authority of Synods. A || is a certain mark of ignorance and meanness; an national Synod the Church representative. --Who intrinsic mark, which all the external advantages soever shall hereafter affirm that the sacred Synod of wealth, splendour, and nobility cannot oblite. of this nation in the name of the Church, and by the rate. It will consist neither with true learning nor king's authority assembled, is not the true Church true civility; and religion disclaims and detests it of England by representation, let him be excom as an insult upon the majesty and the goodness of municated” [Canon 139]. Such is the present con God, who, having made the instincts of brute beasts stitution of the English Church; and it is by no minister to the improvement of the mind, as well means so opposite to primitive usages as might at as to the convenience of the body, hath furnished first sight be supposed. The subject is not noticed us with a motive to mercy and compassion toward in this place with a view of resuming the discussion || them very strong and powerful, but too refined to of the conformity of this usage to ancient rules, || have any influence on the illiterate or irreligious. but with a view of noticing its practical conse- ||-JONES of Nayland. quence. There is nothing, then, which, though it |


a large portion of the top of the east wall fell, and

the whole of the south-east wall was precipitated DISSENT OUTWITTED.-In consequence of the || into the churchyard, carrying along with it two of opening of the new chapel of St. Peter, at New- || the cast-iron windows, while the other six recastle, the clergy of St. Andrew's parish have mained projecting from the walls in which they been obliged to relinquish the Sunday services at had been originally inserted; a large pile of heavy Brandling Place Oratory for the present, and also cut stones and masses of brick fell down at the the Sunday-school, until they can procure a room south and at the north doors ; seven of the large to serve as a school-room to St. Peters. A cer front pipes of the organ were thrown out by the tain class of dissenters took advantage of these violence of the shock, and many of the metal and circumstances, and opened a Sunday-school at wooden pipes within displaced ; the massive basin Brandling Place, with the view of connecting it of the font was tossed from the pedestal on which with their own meeting-house in Newcastle. On it rested, and pitched upon the pavement bepeath the first Sunday of this new school being opened, uninjured. Thus, within the space of three mihaving succeeded in drawing together a number nutes, this church was reduced to a pile of crumof the Church children, the teachers of the strange bling ruins; the walls that were left standing being communion marshalled the young folks in a body, rent in every part, the main roof only remaining and marched them off in triumph at the success of sound, being supported by the hard-wood pillars. their scheme, and questionless with much grati By the same calamity were destroyed the parish fication at the prospect of the increase of dissent, church of St. Paul, the district church of All and at the beneficial working of the voluntary Saints, St. Stephen's chapel of ease, and the newlysystem. On the way, the party came to where the erected chapel-schools of St. Bartholomew and St. roads cross at the end of New Bridge Street, when Mark; the parish church of St. Philip, so rent in the children, in a body, turned down New Bridge every part, as to be unsafe for public worship ; the Street, the teachers having turned the opposite new parish church of St. Peter, the erection of way, towards Blackett Street, where the meeting | which, at a considerable cost, was to have been house is situated. The teachers were not long in completed this year, severely injured in the east discovering that their youthful charge had forsaken |wall, and arches of the windows shaken; the re, the way in which they themselves were going, and || cently built north and south wings of St. James's they called after the children, saying "This way, || chapel of ease broken down, and the rest of the this way; that's not the right way ;'-to which the walls cracked in many parts; the south wall of the young Churchmen replied, “ Yes, it is ; it's the way || chapel-school of St. Barnabas broken down, and to St. Peter's Chapel.” Onward they went, no per- | other parts of the building shaken; the schoolsuasions or entreaties of the strange teachers being houses at St. Philip's rectory and St. Stephen's sufficient to induce them to deviate from the right | thrown down flat; the brick-built infant school at way; and in due time they were seated in St. Peter's the rectory, St. John's, much shaken, and the stoneChapel, and shared in the public worship of the day. || built national school for girls so dilapidated, as to

LIBRARIES FOR SOLDIERS.--At the general meet- || render it necessary to take the stone walls down, ing of the S. P. C, K., held on Tuesday, the 7th of || and to replace them with wood; the school-room March, a letter of acknowledgment having been | at Brecknock's in the same parish, so dilapidated, read for a grant of books to the Portsmouth gar- || in the east wall, as to be unsafe. The devastating rison, the secretary stated that applications for aid | effects of this terrific visitation have, in short, befrom the fund of Clericus-a charity designed by fallen all the public stone edifices in St. John's, the donor, the late Archdeacon Owen, for the spi the buildings for the navy and military at English ritual benefit of the soldiery of the United Kingdom | Harbour, Monk's Hill, and the Ridge, as well as -would be cheerfully attended to by the society, the stores of the merchants, the mills, the boiling

EARTHQUAKE AT ANTIGUA, - On Wednesday, houses, and still-houses, on the sugar-plantations. Sih February, 1843, this island was visited by a The time when this work of destruction took place most terrific and destructive earthquake. At being just at the commencement of the crop, which twenty minutes before eleven o'clock in the fore the dry weather makes it the more necessary to noon, wbile the bell was ringing for prayers, and take off with all possible despatch, has added great, the Venerable Robert Holberton was in the vestry ly to the present embarrassment, and darkened room, awaiting the arrival of persons to have more deeply the gloomy prospect. With the ut. their marriage solemnised, before the commence- | most efforts that the persevering ingenuity and ment of the morning service, the whole edifice strength of man can put forth, it is believed that a from one end to the other, was suddenly and considerable portion of the present crop must be violently agitated. Every one within the church, sacrificed. Out of one hundred and seventy-two after the first shock, was compelled to escape for mills in the island, there are not, at the present his life. The tower was rent from the top to the date, more than twenty-three at work, and not bottom; the north dial of the clock precipitated to half of that number can be said to be sound. Very the ground with a dreadful crash ; the east parapet many families in town and country, inhabiting wall of the tower thrown upon the roof of the stone houses, or wooden houses supported by church; almost the whole of the north-west wall stone-built cellars, have been suddenly thrown by the north gallery fell out in a mass; the north into great discomfort, and some into extreme diseast wall was protruded beyond the perpendicular; tress. In truth, the calamity that has come upon the altar-piece, the public monument erected to this island is of such a nature, that, in the dethe memory of Lord Lavington, and the private struction of the works of man, it has gone almost monuments, bearing the names of Kelsick, Warner, | beyond the power of exaggeration. In the preOttley, and Atkinson, fell down piecemeal inside; servation of human life, however, marvellous mercy

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