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Benedictio elemosynæ. lxv.

Benedictio scuti et baculi ad duellum. eodem.

Benedictio oculorum infirmorum. lxvj.

Benedictio navis. eodem.

Benedictiones mensæ, et gratiarum actiones. lxvij. et

lxviij.

Servitium includendorum. lxix.

Præfationes. lxxv. et lxxvj.

Canon cum rubrica a novo incipientibus commodissima. lxxviij.

Ordo ad visitandum infirmum. lxxx.

Extrema unctio. xciij.

Commendatio animarum. cj.

Rubrica de vigil. mortuorum. cxij.
Vigiliæ mortuorum. cxiij.

Psalmi cantandi in commendatione animarum. cxxix,

Missa pro defunctis. cxxxiiij.
Inhumatio defuncti. cxliiij.
Benedictio tumuli. ċlij.

Missa de sancta cruce.

Missa de beata Maria.

Epistola cum evangelio de Trinitate. clv.
Missa de Sancto Spiritu. eodem.

Confirmatio puerorum. clvj.

Benedictiones omnium rerum ecclesiasticarum.

cliij.

eodem.

Benedictio ad omnia. clxj.

Benedictio campanæ. eodem.

Compotus. clxiij.

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Modus separandi leprosos. clxiiij.

Forma testamenti. clxvj.

Forma bannorum proclamatorum. clxvij.
Of the above offices some, although more properly

Preces post egressum animæ." Douay. 1604.

clvij.

they belong to the missal, as the Canon and the votive masses, or again to the pontifical as the order of confirmation, yet were generally included in the Manual during the xvth and xvjth centuries, for the convenience and instruction of the parish priest. They are in three editions now before me, all of 1554.28 But

28 Viz: "Londini, Kingston et Henricus Sutton impress." (in the Colophon.) "Londini recenter impressum." (Title.) And "Londini nouiter Impressum." (Title.) All these are in 4to. and so alike that only a careful comparison with the different copies actually before one, will prove that they are not of the same edition. Separately, the best practised could not say to which the sheets of an imperfect copy would belong. They are exactly similar in type, in paper, in arrangement: and more than this, not only do the catchwords correspond in almost every page, but where owing to some error corrected it happens that they do not, the succeeding page by management is made to take up the agreement again. The same object was aimed at in other books of the same period, and there are many of which several editions were put forth, all so alike, that bibliographers who have examined them apart, have set them down as belonging to one and the same edition. For example: Bp. Bonner's Necessary Doctrine, and

Homilies, and Bishop Watson's Holsome Doctrine. Or, the Common Prayer Books of Edwd. vith. There are two editions dated in the month of June, 1549 : and Grafton and Whitchurch printed each two in folio, of 1552. It

may be said that all this is of little or no importance: but it is not so. The fact of more than one edition of any book proves the demand for it, and its popularity. Again, the editions may look the same exactly, because the type, and pagination, and signatures, and catchwords are so; but in fact very considerable differences may exist. This is remarkably the case with the Necessary Doctrine of Bishop Bonner. The second edition contains a table of errata corrected, which is not to be found in the first. And, once more, the common error of supposing only a single edition of a book to have been published, has led, I do not hesitate to speak without doubt in the hope that more care may be taken for the future, has led (I say) to the throwing out of so called duplicates from public libraries.

after the revision of the service-books of the western Church which followed the council of Trent some of these were omitted and a more exact arrangement and distribution followed. This was observed in two editions of the "Manuale ad usum Sarum," published at Douay, in 4to. 1604, and 8vo. 1610.29 I need scarcely say that these volumes were intended for the use of the priests and congregations who did not at that date conform to the Church of England. They place first the Orders of baptism, churching of women, marriage, visitation of the sick, extreme unction, and burial, which are followed by that of confirmation and seventeen offices of Benediction. The rest of the Manual, as it was fifty years before, is omitted. The edition of 1610 adds a few pages of notes, and I believe is the last which was printed of the Manual which with some variations the Church of England had used for 1000 years.

But the table given above, full as it is and much more so than of the later editions, is not to be understood as exactly corresponding to the contents of all the early Manuals. It omits for example one very important part which is seldom however contained in them after 1520. I mean the Greater Form of Excommunication. As I propose to give this entire in the second volume of the present work, I think it unnecessary to do more here than notice the circumstance.

The book of occasional offices was, if I mistake not, always known in England by the name of Manual: but abroad there were other names given to it, which require a brief mention.

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The most usual of these was Ritual. "Rituale" or "Liber Ritualis," and with this was sometimes joined the Manuale, as for example: "Rituale seu Manuale Ecclesiæ Catalaunensis." (Chalons) 1649. And it is this title which the Church of Rome has adopted of late years. "Rituale Sacramentorum Romanum." 30

Sometimes "Agenda": and this of course in quite a different meaning from that in which it was (very anciently) applied to the Holy Communion: thus we

30 "Rituale Romanum a ritibus in eo descriptis, nomen desumpsisse concordant omnes DD. et ipsamet etymologia satis docet, eo pacto, quo Missale a missa, Sacramentarium a sacramentis, Processionale a processionibus, et alia hujusmodi volumina derivationem traxere a rebus in iisdem descriptis et explicatis.In ecclesia Catholica nomen hoc Rituale præcipue invaluit tempore Pauli v. tunc quando (anno sc. 1614) jussit ex antiquis præscriptis cæremoniis ab ecclesia apostolica non discrepantibus volumen unum confici, in quo sacri ejusdem ecclesiæ ritus in sacramentorum administratione, aliisque ecclesiasticis functionibus servandi comprehenderentur, illudque Rituale Romanum appellari mandavit." Baruffaldus, ad Rit. Rom. Comm. Tit. 1. Cap. 1.

31 Du Cange. Glossarium. The Agenda mortuorum occurs

repeatedly in the Antiphoner of S. Gregory and compare the ix th. Canon of the Council of Carthage, A. D. 397. "Ab universis episcopis dictum est: Quisquis presbyter inconsulto episcopo Agenda in quolibet loco voluerit celebrare, ipse honori suo contrarius existit." Labbe et Cossart. Tom. 2. col. 1162. See also Bona. Rer. Liturg. Lib. 1. Cap. iij. The notes to the folio edition cite an important place out of Bede, Vita S. Augustini Cantuar. Episc. "Per omne Sabbatum a Presbytero loci illius Agendæ eorum solemniter celebrantur." Those who remember how much hangs upon the full meaning of τῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνηov will not regret having their attention turned to this synonym of Missa. Facere, I need scarcely add, also signifies to offer: as in the famous place of Tertullian, de Corona, "Pro natalitiis annua die facimus." Opera. p. 102.

have, "Agenda parochialium ecclesiarum Argentinensis diœcesis." (Strasburgh.) This again, explained in the title. Agenda, seu Rituale Osnabrugense. 1653." Again, of which there is a copy in the Cambridge University library: "Agenda S. Coloniensis Ecclesiæ hoc est, Liber Pastoralis, in quo continentur omnia quæ in sacramentis administrandis-officium spectant. 4to. Colon. 1637.

was

Another title was "Sacramentale": of which Zaccaria gives three examples, all of Churches in Italy : and one of Sacramentarium.32 But much more usual "Pastorale": as, Pastorale ecclesiæ sive dicecesis Gandavensis." (Ghent.) 1640. Or more fully, of Mechlin, in a copy before me: "Pastorale, sive canones et ritus ecclesiastici, qui ad sacramentorum administrationem aliaque pastoralia officia rite obeunda pertinent." 1589. In the ancient catalogue of the Durham books, we find "Pastoralis, eximius liber." But this could not have been a Manual, for it is among books headed, "Hii sunt libri qui leguntur ad collationem." 33 So there is a "Liber Pastoralis" among the books which William, Bp. of Durham, gave to S. Cuthbert's church. But we cannot decide what this particular book was.

The Manual cited above, printed at Douay 1604, has in its colophon a name which was also occasionally in use by itself as a title: viz. "Institutio." "Hæc sacra Institutio baptizandi, et alia quædam sacramenta et ritus ecclesiasticos administrandi &c." Thus; "Institutio parochorum, recognita et edita jussu D. Petri, Arch. Viennensis." 1586. and again: "Institutio

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32 Bibl. Ritualis. Tom. 1. p. 156.

33 Catalogi veteres Librorum. Surtees Society. p. 9.

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