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Psalmes of the passion.

A deuoute prayer to the trinite, made by saynt gregory.

An anthem with a colet of saint hierom. Saint hieromis psaulter.

The rosare."

The above table is by no means to be considered as giving an exact description of the contents of all printed Horæ. There is a very great general resemblance among them, but scarcely are there two which do not differ in the arrangement of the prayers: some again have more, others less: some more English prayers mixed with the Latin: some a Latin table of contents, some an English. But from the contents given of the two manuscripts and of the edition by Simon Vostre, I doubt not that the reader will be able to form a very correct idea of what he may expect to find in the "Horæ Beatæ Mariæ Virginis secundum usum Sarum.”

I do not remember any copy which can be identified as of the Use of York or Hereford.

As of the Horæ so also of the "Prymer" I have spoken in another place, the Dissertation on the English Prymer, and must again refer the reader there for further information. Here I shall repeat, that I believe it to be an error to suppose that the Prymer began to be known, as some writers have supposed, only about the year 1525, and sprung out of the desire then prevalent for English formularies of devotion. I have proved that it was common, at any rate its name, centuries before: and have edited an English translation of the Prymer or Horæ, certainly earlier than the xv th century.

As a general rule, I think we may say that in the

xvith century printed books which bear the title of Prymer, contain more prayers and directions and short treatises in English than the Hora. But in other respects they agree: having between them, and between themselves the same variations, and such additions or omissions as might suit the purpose of the editor or the printer. Still these were so unimportant, that they did not at all interfere with the character either of the one or of the other. Those which bore upon the title page "Prymer in English and Latin" or "Prymer in English" explain themselves. The first would contain the offices and prayers in both languages, in parallel columns, the last in English only. There was no Prymer in English only, printed, "of Salisbury Use." Those which were published in the reign of K. Henry the Eighth are stated to have been set forth by his authority and of the Clergy, for the use of and enjoined to be used by the whole realm.73 Take, for example, an early Prymer. "This prymer of Salysbury vse is set out a long wout ony serchyng, with many prayers, and goodly pyctures.” Paris. 1532. Such is a portion of the title: but the whole book is in Latin, so far as the offices are concerned, and corresponds with the Horæ of the same date. The difference consists in more frequent translations of verses to the calendar; and some short tracts, &c. as if keeping up the ancient and proper character of the original Prymers.

Or again, a Prymer "in Englyshe and in Laten" of

73 The Prymer set forth, &c. -and none other to be used.

throughout his dominions." Edit. Whitchurch. 1545.

the date 1538." The following are "The contentes of thys boke."

Fyrste an Almanacke for .xx. yeres.
A preface.75

A Calender.


prayer of the vij. wordes that our lorde spake on the crosse at his passyon.

The forre gospels of the foure euangelistes.
Egressus est Jesus.

The passion of our Lorde.

The Pater noster. and the Aue maria.

The .xij. articles of the faythe.

The .x. comaundementes.

The duety of a christen man.


Matyns. Euynsonge. Coumplen. Salve regina. Gaude virgo. Gaude flore. Stella celi. Ave verum corpus.

The .xv. Oos.

The .vij. Psalmes with the Lateny.

Dyryge with the commendacyons.

The psalmes of the passion.

Saint Hieroms psalter.

A prayer whan thou shalt receyue the sacrament.

74 8vo. Paris. In the Bodleian library.

75 This is, 66 The preface and maner to lyue well, deuoutly and salutarily euery day for all persones of meane estate. Compyled by mayster Johan quentin doctour in diuinyte at Parys : translated out of frenche in tho Englysshe by Robert Copland prynter at London." It is very


commonly prefixed to the Hora
and Prymers. At the end are often
found, rather bound with them
than a part of the books, having
fresh signatures and pagination,
"Hierom of Ferrarye' his expo-
sicyon upon the .li. psalme." and
"A meditacyon of the same Jerom
the Psalme of In te Domine
speraui, whiche preuentyd by
death he coulde not fynyshe."



prayer whan thou haste receyued it.

O bone Jesu. Conditor celi et terre.

Thre prayers of Salomon: two for to obtayne wysdome, and one for a competent lyuyng."

The Prymers in English and Latin are thus seen not to be so full in their contents as those in Latin only or chiefly. The later Prymers "after the Use of Sarum" contain, some of them, a number of godly prayers in English, both at the beginning and at the end as the edition, for example, in 4to. by Kyngston and Sutton, 1557. On the other hand, "The Prymer in English and Latine after Salisbury use" by John Wayland, 1558, except in the addition of the xv Oos, and the Passion from the four Gospels, is an exact counterpart, as to its contents, of the earliest Prymer known, viz. the manuscript edited in the present work.

The Prymers" set forth by ye kinges maieste and his clergie," in 1545, in English and in Latin, and in English only, contain those portions of the previous books of the same name which had been already translated. I am not speaking of the translation itself, or of the alterations and omissions which were made in the offices which they contained.

It has been generally supposed that the "Orarium of 1546 was a book similar to the "Orarium" of 1560, of Queen Elizabeth, which is so well known through the reference made to it by Bishop Cosin in the titlepage of his private devotions, or "Hours of Prayer." Or again, that it was much the same as the "Preces Privata" published "regia authoritate" in 1564, and 1573. But this is a mistake: and I have no doubt has arisen from the extraordinary rarity of the original book: no copy of which is in the Museum, and but an

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imperfect one in the Bodleian. The "Orarium" of 1546 is the Latin part of the Prymer set forth by K. Henry the Eighth. It is the volume which Archbishop Cranmer enquired about in the 68th of his Visitation Articles, 1548. "Whether they that understand Latin do use any other than the Latin Prymer, set forth by the King's Majesty's authority."

Thus we have the King's Prymer in three states; in Latin and English, in English, and in Latin: not knowing what Latin name to give it, and disliking "Horæ," the editors called it "Orarium," not "Horarium." The full title is: "Orarium seu libellus precationum per Regiam maiestatem et clerum latine æditus. 1546." 12mo. At the beginning is the Latin preface, which Mr. Jenkyns, and after him Dr. Burton, could not find although they searched, that is, if they made a search.76

They who chose "Orarium" for the title of this volume, if they wished for a new word, which by the way it was not, probably did not remember that it had been no less than "Hora" applied to the corresponding book of the church of Salisbury. It is in the colophon to an Enchiridion, "Impressum est hoc orarium, &c." i. e. the Horæ, or "Enchiridion præclare ecclesie Sarum." 8vo. 1530. And in the breviary of the church of Spires the term had been already used. The edition of that book in 1507, 8vo. of which there is a copy in the library of the University of Cambridge, has the title, "Orarium Spiren."

For the "Enchiridion" is nothing more than ano

76 See more upon this in the Dissertation on the Prymer in English.

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