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inventories occurs, fol. 73. Quidam novus liber, continens missas privatas."
There were also, the "Matutinale," of which an instance occurs in Matthew Paris: 30 and more frequently the "Missale," or "Missæ defunctorum," in which were the Offices for the dead, with special prayers for particular occasions. This was also called " Liber Exequialis," and "Officium Defunctorum :" more especially if it contained the Hours of the Office for the Dead. The Harleian MS. 3166, has the Dirge only; written in a very large and bold character.
Among the Cotton MSS. in the British Museum 31 is a volume formerly belonging to the abbey church of S. Alban a portion of which relates to and specifies the vestments, &c. which every abbot elect was to be provided with. The only book it mentions is the "Missale mixtum." It is not certain what this was: but I cannot agree with Du Cange. He says, "Missale mixtum, ubi, non fallor, præter ea quæ ad Missam spectant, alia occurrunt;" and refers to "Mixtum," where he explains it "Liber, ni fallor, ecclesiasticus," and cites an authority, which appears to throw considerable light upon the question. "Scripsit manu propria libros ecclesiasticos, videlicet duo missalia, duos graduales, duo prosaria, et unum Mixtum.” I conclude from this the " Missale Mixtum" to be what
30 P. 1006. Du Cange mentions a "Matutinalis Liber" which contained the Matin office of the Canonical Hours, but he does not seem to have known of a " Missale Matutinale." The same very learned writer notes the "Matu
tinale Altare," "illud minus altare in quo Missa Matutinalis celebratur in Eccles. Cathedralibus." Glossarium. Verb. Matutinale.
31 Claud. E. iv. cit. Dugdale. Monasticon. Vol. 2. p. 236.
was also called completum or plenarium, as including all the portions of the service and in the passage just quoted is opposed to the "duo missalia," which did not contain also the proses, sequences, psalms, graduals, &c.
The "Canon Missæ," more properly rather the "Ordo Missæ," contained the Canon and the Ordinary only of the mass, unless as occasionally happens in the printed editions, some few preparatory prayers were added, or those to be said at the putting on of the vestments. I possess an edition of this "juxta formam editionis Romanæ," Salisburgi: 1728; of which the type is sufficiently large to be read with ease at a distance of twelve or fifteen feet. I need scarcely add it is a folio. No book of this kind is extant according to any English Use, neither probably was it printed: but that it was once not uncommon in manuscript, may be concluded from an old inventory of a chapel, attached to the will of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, date about 1322. In it we find "le canoun de la messe per sei." 32 "The Canon" is ordered in the Penitential of Bishop Bartholomew: 33 and occurs once in the Registrum S. Osmundi, among the books of a parish Church.34
32 This is one of the earliest Wills known. In the inventory are also "ij. Messals. j. legende. ij. auntefiniers. j. porthos. j. sautier glosè en ij. volumes. iij. greieles. j. manuel. j. epistolarie. ij. tropiers. j. sautier ovesques. [?] j. ympner. le canoun de la messe per sei." Archeological Journal, Vol. ij. p. 339. See also, Cata
logi veteres: Surtees Society. p. 38 and 115.
33 See above, p. cv. The reader will observe, that in the same order or direction, the "Liber sacramentorum," is specified immediately before.
34 Fol. 41. And see the Appendix.
The "Offertorium" contained the offertories; and the " Sequentiale" or "Sequentionarium" the sequences of the office of the mass. An "Expositio Sequentiarum totius anni secundum usum Sarum," of the same kind, and intended for the same purpose, as the exposition of the hymns before spoken of, was printed more than once, and the two were often bound together.
The "Octavarium" is an arrangement of portions of the canonical Hours which are to be said within the octaves of feasts. I am not aware of any earlier than the 17th century: the title of one now before me explains itself. "Octavarium Romanum, sive octavæ festorum, lectiones secundi scilicet et tertii nocturni singulis diebus recitandæ infra octavas Sanctorum titularium, &c." In the "Officium Hebdomadæ Sanctæ," are of course the Divine Offices to be said during the Great Week. The "Pontificale" of the same Holy Season has also been arranged and printed. The "Liber Exorcismorum," which doubtless contained exorcisms, occurs among the books which Matthew Paris tells us Geoffrey de Gorham gave to his abbey of S. Alban.35 The "Historiale," probably a Lectionary, i. e. of the Sacred Histories, with the proper responses attached, was (says Gunton) in the library of the same abbot of Peterborough, to whom the Numerale belonged, mentioned above.36
In the inventory of S. Paul's cathedral are entered "novem Versicularii." These were the same as the "Versarius," which occurs in the ancient catalogue of the books belonging to the cathedral church of Durham,
36 Gunton. Hist. of Peterborough. p. 29.
Catalogi Veteres. Surtees Society, p. 8.
and was (as Du Cange says) "Liber ecclesiasticus, continens Versus, qui canuntur in ecclesia." Probably also the "Liber, cum versu, G. R. et Alleluya,” in the royal chapel of Windsor, was a Versicularius.38
Or, this last may have been that which was in use among the Greek Churches: viz. the λλλoviágio, The Greeks would certainly require their Alleluyas to be written in a separate volume, if, as Gerbert tells us, they fill whole pages with one one only.39 I might perhaps have hesitated in admitting such a book among those of the English Church, but I have the authority of the ancient inventory of Ramsay abbey, in which occur "Libri de Alleluyes. viij:" and immediately after, "Libri de Kyries. iiij."40
The same important catalogue contains a book called "minus Mariale." This "Mariale” (at least those copies which I have seen) was a mere compilation in verse or prose, in honour of the Blessed Virgin: it did not contain any prayers, and scarcely requires notice. But the "Virginale" was a volume more nearly related to our present subject. In it were prayers to the Virgin Mary, adaptations of psalms, hymns, the five Joys, &c. It happens that in the King's library in the British Museum is a "Virginale" with which is bound up a "Mariale," and between these a collection of prayers, chiefly addressed to the Three Persons of the ever-blessed Trinity. These are in a different hand
Dugdale. Monasticon. Vol. 6. p. 1363. "G. R." Gradual and Response?
39 De Cantu et Musica sacra. Tom. 1. p. 408.
40 In the British Museum. Cotton Rolls. xi. 16. In the old Glastonbury Catalogue, of the 13th cent. are "ii lib. cum responsor. et Alleluia." Hearne. John. Glas. Chron. p. 444.
writing, but of about the same date, late in the xiv th century." I would guard the reader against confounding these two volumes, the Mariale and the Virginale: for example, he will find the Cotton MS. Titus. A. xxj. called a Mariale in the catalogue: but it exactly corresponds with the Virginale in the king's library, containing, besides various prayers, a litany of the Blessed Virgin at the end. This book is unfortunately imperfect.
I have mentioned above the Missale Matutinale: (p. cxxxiv.) and in the Peterborough catalogue, we find a sort of corresponding book, which contained an especial office from the Breviary: though I do not mean that it necessarily was a part of the Breviary. This was the "Matutina de Cruce." For a further account of this Office of the Cross I must refer the reader to the Notes upon the English Prymer, in
41 I think it will not be out of the way to give the rubric with which these devotions begin. "Orationes sive meditationes quæ subscriptæ sunt, quia ad excitandam legentis mentem ad Dei amorem seu ad suimet discussionem editæ sunt, non sunt legendæ in tumultu, sed in quiete, nec cursim et velociter, sed paulatim cum intenta et morosa meditatione. Nec debet intendere lector quamlibet earum totam perlegat, sed quantum sentit sibi, Deo adjuvante, valere ad accendendum affectum orandi, vel quantum illum delectat. Nec necesse habet aliquam semper a principio incipere, sed ubi magis illi placuerit. Ad
hoc enim ipsum paragraphis sunt distinctæ per partes, ut ubi elegerit incipiat, vel desinat, ne prolixitas aut frequens ejusdem loci repetitio generet fastidium, sed potius aliquem inde colligat lector, propter quod factæ sunt, pietatis affectum." (Bibl. Reg. MS. 7. A. vj. fol. 39.) The first prayer begins, "Omnipotens et misericors Pater, et bone Domine, &c."
This is called in a will among those in Rymer's collection, a "Virginal:" "Et unum parvum librum vocatum Virginal, coopertum in blodio panno de auro de Cipre." A. D. 1415. Tom. 9. p. 276.
42 Gunton. Hist. of Peterborough. p. 203.