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knowledgment may be, it must be confessed that at the same time two opposite things, maintain a these things are principally, if not entirely, to be building and pull out the foundations. ,

. found in, or to have arisen out of, its internal state. It is not every time that has witnessed the growth There is in some respects a lack of vitality, from of jealousies and suspicions directed against the faults of tending and culture, which hinders vigorous clergy, arising principally out of a hasty and inconand healthy, growth. And there are positive hin- siderate return by some of their number to portions drances and not negative only; some of them in of ritual and ceremonial which in themselves are full operation ; others less active now, but having good to revive, but which should always wait upon left dark traces upon our religious and social life. the revival of doctrine, and not be made to forestall Unfaithfulness to the doctrine and the discipline of it; and to other portions which are in themselves a Church will be found, perhaps, at all times, in one indifferent, and from one cause or another affronting degree or another, among the members of that to popular feeling. It is not every time which has Church, but it is not every time that produces this seen some considerable number of clergy and laity unfaithfulness in its most revolting aspect; that is, evidencing their want of faith in the position of the when exhibited in the persons of men who have Church of England by a desertion of it for the come under the most solemn voluntary obligations Roman obedience. to be faithful, and who retain the emoluments and There is a revival, too, of that which, if it could the positions of a Church which they do all in their succeed, could only issue in the disruption of the power to discredit and overthrow. Of this we have Church. It will not succeed; but it is an evil that

. had of late a most unhappy instance, one charged with the question should be stirred at all, and a hindrance great and insidious danger, in the publication of and offence. . At no time, indeed, since the ReforEssays and Reviews. And there are worse signs of mation has “Revision of the Book of Common our internal condition than the publication of the Prayer, and Administration of the Sacraments, and book, even under the aggravated circumstances just other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church,” been noted. It is bad to have such a book at all. It is advocated at once so recklessly and so feebly. But worse to see it eagerly bought up and read, and it is no testimony to the depth and calmness of the either palliated or feebly and faintly condemned. judgment of our time that men should think it posIt is bad to have authors of such a book in charge sible to persuade the public mind that the changes of the education of the youth of the Church. It they seek would have no effect but to relieve conis worse to see parents and guardians still content to science. They would aggrieve conscience very far entrust their children to their keeping.

more than relieve it, as every one knows who knows Again, it is not every time that sees proposals to anything of the matter. There is no grievance destroy at the call not only of an unproved, but of here, any more than there is in Church-rate, or in a disproved necessity, a necessity not many years the case of clergy whom it is proposed to "relieve”

" old, and born upon the hustings of the great towns of their orders. in the excitement of 1831-2, a portion of the Church's There are other internal hindrances and offences inheritance; one identified with its national position : of longer date; some of them in process of partial of this we have had not one, but many instances in removal; of others of them the remedies do not

; Bills for abolition of Church-rate. Other bills there yet appear. Among them the chief blot is the are, the offspring of abolition, which alike destroy abandonment, as it were by general consent of the the principle but keep the name. This is the way members of the Church, of spiritual discipline by in which not a few Churchmen have met the aboli- way of formal censure of notorious offenders; and tionist. A proposal to kill is met by counter proposals this notwithstanding that the civil power, while to kill, invigorate, and cure all at once; and, what modifying in some respects the exercise of the anis more wonderful still, by the same process. Al cient jurisdiction of the courts spiritual, has taken most every man has his nostrum for®“ the settle express care to guard and provide, by acts of parment of Church-rate.” The first ingredient in each liament of this century, for the substance of that nostrum is the admission of a grievance, which it jurisdiction. There is no greater cause of inherent has long been contended has no existence, and weakness than that which is found in this dereliction which is now allowed to have no existence except as of the office and duty of the Church; none which being a part of the great comprehensive grievance is a more just ground of scandal and reproach, none of the Established or National Church. Neverthe- which supplies a more striking instance of the facility less the proposals go on. Individual and collective and complacency with which those who are themselves wisdom are continuously taxed to invent them. in fault lay the blame anywhere but on themselves. It is a sort of epidemic which we will hope will pass It has somehow or other come to be assumed as an away with the finer weather of 1862. Now all historical fact, and as such is often deplored by these proposals, as addressed to those who would Churchmen, that it is the legislature which is to kill, and as inviting their concurrence and co-opera- blame for the unhappy condition of the Church of tion in the proposed killing, invigorating, and cura- England in this particular. Now the fault is not tive process, are comical enough; and, as addressed with the legislature at all, but with the people, the to those who are really minded to save, they lack clergy, and, most of all, with the ordinaries of the cogency, as surrendering the entire principle of that Church; and that man, whether clergyman or which they would conserve, and slaying by slow churchwarden, would do the greatest service to the poison and lingering death instead of by a blow. National Church, because he would assist very power, No Conservative who knows what he is about will fully towards the relief of it from a great scandal vote for what is called, in parliamentary language, and reproach, who should present to the ordinary,

Compromise of Church-rate.” No man can do sitting in his visitation court, a case of notorious

1

State

Church and

Review.

No. 1,

Vol. I.

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of men.

Now encouragement is not lacking even

in this aspect of the case. Of all forms of ChrisReview of Position.

tianity, and of all ecclesiastical positions, the form and position of the National Church of England

are those which may be looked to most reasonably T is a faint heart which does not look and most hopefully to do the work which every cheerfully and hopefully upon the future Church has in charge to do. This is not an assump

of the National Church of England. It tion; it rests upon facts ; not only upon the facts of is, on the other hand, a poorly informed or self- her primitive faith and apostolic order, but upon complacent judgment which does not measure the those also of her actual religious life; not only depth and the amount of the accumulating respon- upon her amity and close conjunction with the State, sibilities of her clergy and her people. It is a sloth- but upon her earnest endeavour to discharge her ful or a self-indulgent life which does not act steadily office and execute her trust as the Church of all upon the sense of what those responsibilities are. It English people. The Church, that is, clergy and is wilful blindness not to note the weaker points of people, are beginning to rise more and more to the the position, and especially the danger from within. special exigencies of the position. There is the For all danger to a Church is, in its origin and its building and the restoring of churches within the power, from within.

The fortunes of a falling last thirty years, a thing of perhaps unexampled Church are a continuous suicide. All warning and extent; the clearing away of the square pews, and, all experience, from the days of the Seven Churches both by arrangement of space and multiplication of of Asia till now, put this fact upon record. It services, the caring for the free and frequent worship makes no difference here whether a Church be na- of the people. There are many things, part of tional or not national: whether it be, that is, as the that worship, which tell of a truer and larger perChurch of England, recognized and established by ception of privileges and duties. There is the the common and the statute law of the land as an building and the maintaining of schools with liberal integral part of the constitution, or whether it exist assistance from the State. There is the more clerical in a country as one religious body out of many, life of the clergy, not as though many things in which but with no peculiar and distinctive rights and pri- they do not take part so much as heretofore are not vileges by custom and by law. There is no differ- lawful and innocent, but because their time and

| ence in respect of the source of danger. The thing energies are not more than sufficient for their special which weakens or finally destroys is, in kind, the work. There is the devotion of the lay life of same in both cases. But there is a difference in men and women, and especially of women, to works degree: because, as the nationality of a Church is of charity. There is the partial revival of the funca gift superadded to its existence, and a very excel- tions of the Church in Synod, attended with proof lent gift, so the suicide in this case is the worse and manifold that differences in theology and harshness the more thankless.

of judgment between those who differ need not There is no present fear for the national position co-exist. And it is not only that men are not so of the Church of England. There is no future divided as heretofore; they are acting in concert fear, except under circumstances of intrinsic unwor- upon the basis of Church and State. Upon this thiness which there is no ground to anticipate, and basis we may all unite, but there is no other at once of changes in the framework and order of our social broad enough and sound enough. There is the relations greater than it is easy to foresee. It is drawing together and the better mutual understandmuch to be able to say this, but it is not enough: it | ing of clergy and laity. All these things are beis after all only negative encouragement. To beginning to tell powerfully on our national condition. able to take the position of the Church out of the But with all this there is no room for saying that category of things for which we fear is but a poor the position is good; good as measured by what it result and cannot satisfy the conditions of the gift. ought to be and may be. There are many things The Church need not fear for its position, and yet still

, some of them of long standing, which check may be standing still. But what is required is that and embarrass, in one degree or another, the deit do not stand still; that it advance continually in velopment of the gifts and the power of the Napromoting the well-being of all sorts and conditions tional Church; and, however unpalatable the ac

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knowledgment may be, it must be confessed that at the same time two opposite things, maintain a these things are principally, if not entirely, to be building and pull out the foundations. found in, or to have arisen out of, its internal state. It is not every time that has witnessed the growth There is in some respects a lack of vitality, from of jealousies and suspicions directed against the faults of tending and culture, which hinders vigorous clergy, arising principally out of a hasty and inconand healthy growth. And there are positive hin- siderate return by some of their number to portions drances and not negative only ; some of them in of ritual and ceremonial which in themselves are full operation ; others less active now, but having good to revive, but which should always wait upon left dark traces upon our religious and social life. the revival of doctrine, and not be made to forestall Unfaithfulness to the doctrine and the discipline of it; and to other portions which are in themselves a Church will be found, perhaps, at all times, in one indifferent, and from one cause or another affronting degree or another, among the members of that to popular feeling. It is not every time which has Church, but it is not every time that produces this seen some considerable number of clergy and laity unfaithfulness in its most revolting aspect; that is, evidencing their want of faith in the position of the when exhibited in the persons of men who have Church of England by a desertion of it for the come under the most solemn voluntary obligations Roman obedience. to be faithful, and who retain the emoluments and There is a revival, too, of that which, if it could the positions of a Church which they do all in their succeed, could only issue in the disruption of the power to discredit and overthrow. Of this we have Church. It will not succeed; but it is an evil that had of late a most unhappy instance, one charged with the question should be stirred at all, and a hindrance great and insidious danger, in the publication of and offence. At no time, indeed, since the ReforEssays and Reviews. And there are worse signs of mation has “Revision of the Book of Common our internal condition than the publication of the Prayer, and Administration of the Sacraments, and book, even under the aggravated circumstances just other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church,” been noted. It is bad to have such a book at all. It is advocated at once so recklessly and so feebly. But worse to see it eagerly bought up and read, and it is no testimony to the depth and calmness of the either palliated or feebly and faintly condemned. judgment of our time that men should think it posIt is bad to have authors of such a book in charge sible to persuade the public mind that the changes of the education of the youth of the Church. It they seek would have no effect but to relieve conis worse to see parents and guardians still content to science. They would aggrieve conscience very far entrust their children to their keeping.

more than relieve it, as every one knows who knows Again, it is not every time that sees proposals to anything of the matter. There is no grievance destroy at the call not only of an unproved, but of here, any more than there is in Church-rate, or in a disproved necessity, a necessity not many years the case of clergy whom it is proposed to "relieve” old, and born upon the hustings of the great towns of their orders. in the excitement of 1831-2, a portion of the Church's There are other internal hindrances and offences inheritance; one identified with its national position: of longer date; some of them in process of partial of this we have had not one, but many instances in removal; of others of them the remedies do not Bills for abolition of Church-rate. Other bills there yet appear. Among them the chief blot is the

. are, the offspring of abolition, which alike destroy abandonment, as it were by general consent of the the principle but keep the name.

This is the way

members of the Church, of spiritual discipline by in which not a few Churchmen have met the aboli- way of formal censure of notorious offenders; and tionist. A proposal to kill is met by counter proposals this notwithstanding that the civil power, while to kill, invigorate, and cure all at once; and, what modifying in some respects the exercise of the anis more wonderful still, by the same process. Al

Al- cient jurisdiction of the courts spiritual, has taken most every man has his nostrum for the settle- express care to guard and provide, by acts of par

“ ment of Church-rate.” The first ingredient in each liament of this century, for the substance of that nostrum is the admission of a grievance, which it jurisdiction. There is no greater cause of inherent

. has long been contended has no existence, and weakness than that which is found in this dereliction which is now allowed to have no existence except as of the office and duty of the Church ; none which

; being a part of the great comprehensive grievance is a more just ground of scandal and reproach, none of the Established or National Church. Neverthe- which supplies a more striking instance of the facility less the proposals go on. Individual and collective and complacency with which those who are themselves wisdom are continuously taxed to invent them. in fault lay the blame anywhere but on themselves. It is a sort of epidemic which we will hope will pass It has somehow or other come to be assumed as an away with the finer weather of 1862. Now all historical fact, and as such is often deplored by these proposals, as addressed to those who would Churchmen, that it is the legislature which is to kill, and as inviting their concurrence and co-opera- blame for the unhappy condition of the Church of tion in the proposed killing, invigorating, and cura- England in this particular. Now the fault is not tive process, are comical enough; and, as addressed with the legislature at all, but with the people, the to those who are really minded to save, they lack clergy, and, most of all, with the ordinaries of the cogency, as surrendering the entire principle of that Church; and that man, whether clergyman or which they would conserve, and slaying by slow churchwarden, would do the greatest service to the poison and lingering death instead of by a blow. National Church, because he would assist very power

a No Conservative who knows what he is about will fully towards the relief of it from a great scandal vote for what is called, in parliamentary language, and reproach, who should present to the ordinary,

Compromise of Church-rate.” No man can do sitting in his visitation court, a case of notorious offence against the morality of the Gospel, existing | discipline amongst ourselves, the Churchman cannot within his parish, and which he is prepared to prove, pretend to cast out the Nonconformist by act of and, upon the refusal or the neglect of the spiritual parliament. There is surely a grave inconsistency judge to deal with such case so brought under his in taking no account of the life of the professing cognizance, should proceed to compel him, by way Churchman, however bad it may be, and seeking to of “ mandamus,” to do his duty. The abeyance exclude the Nonconformist-against whom it may and present discouragement of the other manner of be that all that has to be said is that he is a Nonspiritual discipline, that by judgment in Synod of conformist—from so much of Church membership heretical books, will be dealt with elsewhere. as has belonged to him, and which he desires to re

The argument might be extended farther. It tain. It were better than this to return to the old might be shown in detail that, even in cases of actual days of civil disabilities and penal laws; for there legislation unfavourable to the well-being and effi- was then at least something like equal dealing, beciency of the Church, the primary cause of such cause there was such a thing as Church penance too. legislation has not been so much hostility ab extrà Those days cannot return. It is not to be desired, as some failure of the Church in respect of this or under any circumstances, that they should; no, not that portion of her mission and her office. This even with the revival of spiritual discipline within might be shown from the history of the abolition of the Church. But it looks like a lingering desire to Irish Bishoprics, the appropriation of the property see them return to attempt to supplement the of Cathedrals, and the Divorce Act. It might be Church's failure by statute law. The Church of shown from other failures and losses in which legis- England can have no more to do with civil dislation has had no part: e.g. from those connected with abilities, much less with penal laws. Within her the mismanagement of the Wesleyan revival in the own pale she must needs guard her children against last century. But it is not necessary to pursue the teachers who hold her endowments but deny her matter, and certainly is not a grateful task. There teaching. This is essential to the life of every reis a great awakening to responsibilities, a deepening ligious body. Without her pale she accepts “resense of shortcomings and of opportunities lost: if ligious liberty” in its true meaning of the recognized Churchmen will only grasp and hold fast the prin- freedom of the Nonconformist from all manner of ciple that the Church cannot suffer, except by coercion, and the admission on her own part not Churchmen's fault; if they will make profit of the only of the fact that it is impossible, but also of opportunities now presented to their hands by the the principle that, if it were possible, it is not good political and social circumstances of the time, all to coerce. will be more than well.

On the other hand, it ought not to be possible One happy résult at least would be that, in look that the principle of a Bill, such as Mr. Bouverie's ing principally to ourselves for the causes of failure Bill, which includes a clause making it compulsory and distress, we should be less given to make com- on a Bishop to violate the law of the Church, plaints of the action of the civil power. In truth, / should receive that amount of sanction which is it is unwise, if it be possible, to separate into its implied in its being read a second time in the component parts the complex notion of Church and House of Commons, to whatever extent it may have State in such sort as to assign to each its precise been in contemplation to amend it in Select Comshare in any given act of public policy. And, in- mittee. Sir Morton Peto's Bill for “extending deed, when it is spoken of as two things in the rights of parishioners in parish churchyards,” stead of as one thing compounded of both, this doubtless with the ulterior view of “extending indicates a tendency to fall into the great mistake of them in parish churches also, is in one respect less viewing the Church as composed of the clergy only, objectionable, in that it is brought in by a Nonconand not of the clergy and the people. There are formist, and not by a professing Churchman. But doubtless some things in respect of which there is the question is not what the man is, or professes to a quicker jealousy of the direct action of the civil | be, who brings in a Bill, but what Parliament does power; for example, the appointment of Bishops by with it. This Bill, too, has been referred to a Select ,

, the Crown; and some Churchmen wish to see this Committee, but without the justification which is appointment otherwise ordered. In this we cannot found in the other case. It includes a provision agree. A Churchman’s business is, surely, not to call enabling a clergyman legally to dispense with obefor organic changes in Church and State, but so to dience to the Rubric in a primary point. assist, according to his gifts and opportunities, in What is not in the mind of the Church will not doing the Church's work for all men's good, that it be heard in her voice. Harshness of language and will be scarcely possible to make bad appointments. imputations of insincerity in those who differ are It is another question, and one which need not be no part of her preaching. That is never the purtouched in this place, whether any other manner of pose the best assured in itself, nor the steadiest in appointment would not be full of extreme difficulties, action, which is the loudest in complaint. To deand be of dangerous consequence to the peace of nounce Nonconformity and Roman Catholicism can the Church,

answer no good purpose, and the Church herself is Some Churchmen, again, want to see the line be- not free from blame in either case. But it is as tween Church members and Nonconformists more much our duty to protest and to guard against a spudefined than it is now. In this, again, we cannot rious Nonconformity and Roman Catholicism as it agree. On the contrary, it seems abundantly plain is against a spurious Churchmanship. Religious

. that nothing could be devised more harmful to the antagonism is one thing, political antagonism is Church, and more destructive of her national cha- another. It may not be easy in a country where racter : and certainly, in the absence of spiritual there is a Church established by law to keep the two

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apart and distinct, but it should always be the aim is the most pressing, if not the most important,

, on either side. The National Church may not con- question of the day; and it is the one upon the socede equality instead of toleration. She cannot ac- lution of which the balance of power in Parliament cept, in place of the religious nonconformity of now mainly depends. A glance into the history many conflicting denominations, the merging of all of the past will show how the matter stands. religious differences in a general conspiracy against The hopeless confusion into which the Whig Adher national existence. She cannot accept compre- ministrations had brought the finances of the country hension of creeds instead of religious liberty. In so before 1841, was one of the principal causes which far as she does any one of these things deliberately led to Sir R. Peel’s being called to power. Sir R. she is unfaithful to her trust. In so far as she Peel's measures restored the

Peel's measures restored the proper balance between allows herself to be betrayed into them, or any one income and expenditure, and up to the time of the of them, she is not holding fast that she hath. To Russian war that balance was not seriously disturbed. win the Nonconformist and the Roman Catholic is The war led, of course, to an enormous increase in the truest praise. The Church may not despair of our armaments, and consequently in our expendiwinning even the political Nonconformist and the ture, and to a considerable addition to our debt. Roman Catholic, because it is her mission. In pro- As soon as it was over, the necessity of reducing portion as she is faithful to her trust she will fulfil our establishments became obvious, and statesmen her mission. Assuredly there is such a thing as of all parties agreed that they ought to be brought conversion to primitive faith and Apostolic order, as rapidly as possible to a peace level. Upon this

. and to the true principles of government in Church point all parties, we say, were agreed; but there and State. The way to win is not so much to was considerable difference of opinion between reason upon the defects of opposing systems as statesmen in office and statesmen out of office as to to carry out our own in truth and love. It is the extent to which the reduction should be carby the heart much more than by the understand ried, that is to say, as to what should be considered ing that we must learn to approach the gainsayer. a peace level for the future. Lord Palmerston and Without the heart arguments to them are power- his colleagues were for keeping the establishments less ; for ourselves they are not required; but up, while Lord Russell, Mr. Disraeli, and Mr. rather, by fixing attention upon others, take off the Gladstone, being all out of office, were for cutting edge of keen perception of our own deficiencies. them down. It is probable that if nothing unexNeither is it the true way of defence. The true pected had occurred the views of the economical way of defence is, having faith in the position as party would have prevailed. But just as the crisis being not of human foundation, to lay out and ex- of the struggle was approaching a series of events tend our building on every side, and to watch took place which materially disturBed the process anxiously and painfully lest any portion of it, as of of Retrenchment. Before the country was well out a thing committed to our trust to keep and to en- of the Russian war it had plunged into a war in large in all its strength and beauty, he allowed to China, and a war in Persia. Before these were concrumble under our hands. This is the Church's cluded the great Indian mutiny broke out; and bework; and the work will be done the more her fore the effects of that disaster had passed away a clergy and her people press onward and upward great war commenced upon the Continent, in which through the ice and snow of worldliness and sloth, it was highly probable that England would have bearing on high the word written on her banner by sooner or later to engage, and which, at all events, no earthly hand-the word which tells at once of imposed upon her the necessity of arming in her their calling, their answer, and their reward-Ex- own defence. The danger was happily averted;

but though the country escaped an European war, it was compelled to undertake another contest in

China. Lastly, upon the close of the Chinese war Retrenchment.

we have had to make provision against possible

hostilities with America. Thus one event crowding HE common observation that a day which upon another has prevented the accomplishment of

opens too brightly is generally overclouded the task to which at the conclusion of the Russian war

before its close is one that must often we had been addressing ourselves, that of reducing occur to a Minister at the commencement of what our armaments to a proper peace establishment. is called a quiet Session of Parliament. Few Ses- Meanwhile we have felt the consequences of this sions have been so tranquil as the present, and there prolonged interruption of a necessary work in the has seldom been a time when Ministers have had disorder of our finances, the weight of our taxation, less of opposition to encounter; yet slowly and and, which perhaps is the most serious consideration surely their position has been changing for the of all

, in the unhinging of our minds, and the forworse, and they are now visibly less strong than mation of a habit of reckless expenditure of which when Parliament met, while embarrassments are in- it is very difficult to get rid. The cause of politicreasing and storms are brewing around them. cal changes has greatly tended to aggravate the evil.

The symptoms of this change are various, but Lord Palmerston, the impersonation of the policy we shall at present content ourselves with noticing of expense, has upon the whole maintained an one of them. The most remarkable feature of the ascendancy over the mind of the country such as actual political situation is the attitude in which no minister has been able to exercise since the fall the two great parties that divide the country now of Sir Robert Peel. Of his three chief opponents, stand to each other on the question of public eco- he has absorbed two, Lord Russell and Mr. Gladnomy, and of the necessity for Retrenchment. It stone, into his ranks, and has made them the,

CELSIOR.

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