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bread and the cup of blessing were blessed: and which, the Spirit moving them often to compose on that occation, might perhaps afterwards be the reason of calling the bread and cup of blessing, the eucharist.

3. Another instance is prayer ; which is called , Praying with the Spirit, and with - understanding;" and praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit h; for the Spirit then helped their infirmities; for tho' they knew not what they should pray for as they ought, yet the Spirit itself sometimes makes intercession for them with groanings which cannot be uttered i: and praying in the Holy Ghost k It was this gift of the Spirit, among other gifts of prophecy imparied to women in the church of Corinth, which gave rise to that question, whether a woman might not pray or prophecy in the church, with her head uncovered, as well as a man? The gifts of prayer and prophecy being common to the women as well as the men, the women thought these gifts gave them not only an equal right to pray or prophecy in the public assemblies as well as the men, but without their veil also. Though in this last they were mistaken; for the apostle orders, that they shall pray or prophecy with their veils on; or, because the gifts of & Cor. xiv. 14, 15.

* Eph. vi. 18. i Rom. viii. 26.

• Jude 19, 20.


the Spirit did not take away the subjection of the women, of which the vail was the token! In such a prayer, no doubt, the matter, the order, and the expressions of the pray. er were dictated by the Spirit, such was the apostle's prayer, Acts iv. 24–31. such likewise perhaps was Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the temple m, the Levite's prayer ”, and Daniel's o; not to mention others. The only difficulty here is, whether it can be brought under the head of prophecying. I think it may, for the reasons I have given, when I first entered upon that sort of prophecying, which relates to speaking in christian assemblies, see p. 132. And though praying is distinguished from prophecying, i Cor. xi. 4, 5. as prophecying 16 there speaking direct. ly to men, and praying is there addressing God; yet in the xivth chapter prophecying seems to me to include prayer; since every thing in that chapter seems to be included under prophecying, that, as I said before, is spoken in an afsembly of christians under the immediate influence of the Spirit; and is to the edification, exhortation, or comfort of the assembly, as the apostle fpeaks, ver. 2. and as prayer in a known tongue was. Accordingly prayer seems to me to be mentioned in this

1 Cor. xi. 3-17. fee Locke in loc. #Kings viii. 124-622 Nehem. ix. 6—38. Dan. ix. 4- 20. 7


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chapter, as one instance of prophecying, as singing is mentioned as another, ver. 14–18. and as a doctrine, a revelation, and an interpretation, are mentioned as others, ver. 26. and is opposed to praying, singing, teaching, exhorting, or uttering a revelation in an unknown tongue ; in which a man might speak to God, or his own spirit or understanding; but was a barbarian to the congregation, to whom he talked mysteries, or things not known or understood.

4. And for this reason I think interpretation of tongues, mentioned ver. 6. is included under prophecying in this xivth chapter; as an interpretation was turning that with readiness, beauty, and propriety, to the edification, exhortation, and comfort of the afsembly; which in him who spoke in a tongue unknown to the assembly was only for oftentation, or conviction of unbelievers; or at best an act of some devotion to God, and for his own private edification. And the Holy Ghost distributed his gifts in such measure and proportion, that he who had the gift or knowledge of a tongue, was not always able to interpret it readily and elegantly, whilft another who stood by could; especially if the prayer or discourse that was to be interpreted was of any considerable length, in which case the interpreter must be affifted with great judgment and a strong memory: for which


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reason the apostle directs, that in case any one spoke in the church in an unknown tongue, that he should pray that he might interpret ; or, at least, if he could not, that others who had that gift should interpret for him. The gift of the Hebrew tongue was, perhaps, that which some of the Corinthians, who had the gift of tongues in the church of Corinth, chiefly used, it being the tongue in which the Old Testament was written. For which reason, if there was an interpreter, that is, one who could turn it readily and elegantly into Greek, it might be very properly used in the Corinthian church; as it had been in the Jewish aflemblies in Ezra's time; when yet the people, after seventy years captivity, had disused it. But if no interpreter was by, he who could speak that tongue, or any other unknown to the church, was to keep silence P, I understand the gift of interpreting to be, the ability to interpret an unknown tongue with readiness and elegance; because it cannot be supposed otherwise a gift different from the gift of tongues itself. For no man that speaks a tongue which he understands himself, but can, in some fort, interpret it to him that does not understand it; though he may not be able to do it with propriety and beauty. And that he who had the gift of the tongue understood it himself, appears from ver. 4.

P Cor. xiv. 27, 28.


for, says the apostle, “ he that speaketh in an “ unknown tongue edifieth himself;” see also ver. 11, 14, 28.

But there were not only apostles, and prophets of the higher and lower orders in the church, but teachers 9; and pastors and teachers are said to be among those to whom Christ gave gifts; or whom he filled and qualified for their work, after he had ascended up on high":

I take pastors and teachers (or doctors, as the word daorado is rendered, Acts xiii. 1.) to mean the same thing: and that one is but a metaphorical name to denote the same miniftry, which the other does in its natural fignification. For the very character of a pastor after God's own heart, is to feed his people with knowledge and understanding'. For which reason teachers are here set but as exegetical, to shew us more fully the meaning of pastors. And for that reason pastors are omitted in i Cor. xii. 28. and Rom. xii. 7. (which may be considered as parallel places), and teachers only mentioned. And I believe it will be very difficult to find any sense of pastors, agreeable to fcripture, distinct from teachers, that will be at the same time also distinct from apostles, prophets, evangelists, and other spiritual men mentioned in fcripture. 9 i Cor. xii. 28.

Eph. iv. 10, 11 & Ibid. ver, li.

Jer. ili, 15.



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