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fore to God himself? Doth this Doctrine any where clearly appear, (especi-' * p. 28. ally as it is. now used,) to have been either Prescribed or Practised in che Primitive. Ages? Did the Communicants in those days receive the Confecrated Bread in their Hands, or was it pur into their Mouths, or laid upon their Toogues, as the Latins do? Or were both Elements put in together by three little Sips out of one fingle Spoonfull, as the Greeks now serve their Laicks? Was the Confecrated Bread kept, év. &gtoQogíw, Pixide, a Box, by ir to Communicate the Sick, or chofe who could not come to the Publick Offace? I believe those words of our Saviour, (If any Man. Mall say unto you, Mat. 24. 2ži Lo, here is Chrift, or there, believe it not, and the rest, ) were chiefly fpo- 26. ken of Living, pretended, falfe Christs which thrould soon arife; but it is said also, they were not to seek him, šv tois

: Taueios, which we in English Trapslare, in secret Chambers; yer the words more properly signify, in Graineries, Stare-rooms, and Cup-boards; surely if they were not then to seek a Living visible Cbrift, in fuch private places; I think we are now much more obliged not to feek the Invisible, Glorified Christ himself, in Boxes with the Latins, much less with the Greeks to feek him hang’d by the Wall in a miserable musly Bag. I cannot believe that it was thus in the Primitive days, though. know fome People kept Pieces, or Relicks of the Confecrated Bread, only as Memorials of Christ's Paffion; and they were fometimes abufed by misguided Zealors to Supersticious ends, as I have noted of Gorgonia and others.

All these nerariones Changes have been actually made in things of very great Moment and Importance; why then was it more Impossible for char absurd Notion, af a Bodily Presence, to have been by degrees brought in, then it was for these, or then ic was for the Greeks Holy Fire, which shey pretend Misaculously to fall upon Christ's Sepulcher, ac ferufalem, on every Easter Eve?

at The precife time, or the first Authors or Manners of brioging these andi che like into the Church, when, by whom, or how it was done, may be a Con

,

a Eroverfy (as it now is ) to the end of the World; but it is plain that it bath been done. As we commonly fay, Rome was not built in a day, so there was long time, and various Arts and Methods fuccessively required to improve

them, and from their first Seeds to cultivate them to Perfection. But of this last Point the Bodily Prefence, I fhall again touch by and by. Therefore not searching at present farther into these and pumerous other fuch Deeds of Spiritual Darkness, I fhalt consent my self with only fome few words out of that very Learned and in many things moft Ingenuous Author, Joannes Morinus; who treating of the Latins Ordioation, ( which is confest by them to be a perfect and principal Sacrament,) faith to this purpose. •The Schoolmen were ur- Pralim. * 4:

terly igoorant of the Greeks manner of Ordinations, and they understood not
any thing of their Language; and that it never came into their Miods to enquire
what their Ordinations were, how many, or of what fore they were. For my
part
I doubt not but the Greeks were all that time as Ignorant of the Latin

Tongue, and knew as little what the Schoolmen did in toffing, and turning and triming the several Articles, proposed by their graud Master of the Sentences ; so that the Latios might easily trump up daily new Notions, ta Change, new Model and deform, the primitive Sacraments and solemn Rites; and the careless barbarous Greeks all the time koew nothing of the matter. Hepce we may plainly fee not only a Possibility, but the highest Probability imaginable chat the Latins made these foul Changes and Innovations whilst the Grecks Nept. My Author justly approves ibid. ** c. that Maxim of the Schools, • That the Matters and forms of Sacraments ought

to be perpetual and never to be Changed; I will here my self add this reason of this maxim, they own the Matters and Forms to be the very Essentials of the Sacraments, if any one therefore changes thofe, he muft necessarily destroy these. But my Author tells us plain Truth, that all the antient Fathers, both lbid, ** a, b.

Greek and Latin, are perfectly filent as to the Matters and Forms of Ordination, which the Latins of latter times have made the only substantials of ir. And all the antient Latin Rituals are quite volike the Modern ones which pow

Ibid. ** b. p. . they 16. S. a.

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p. 29.

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p. 29 Ibid. **

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they use; and therefore he justly suspected that many things, in which most
• of the Schoolmen place the Sacramental Matters and Forms, were by them

added to their Rituals in process of time, and both Greeks and Latins, (but
especially the latter, far more, and much later, and by little and little, and
' for many years) have been guilty of this crime. But he is so Just and Faith-
' full as to speak more freely to this Truth, which fully satisfies me of the

very first Original and Progress of all these and such other Changes in ge-
• peral. Meer bistorical Fables, saith be, when once they have seized Meus

Minds, are most difficultly rooted out; and they that offer to go about to do
• it, are counted highly injurious to Rcligion it self. And presently after be
faith, most of such Fables have been so Fortunate, as to be started in very Igno-

rant Ages; and therefore all have fondly embraced chem, although there was
00 apprehension of either Reason or Truth in them. His reason of this im-
mediately follows, an Opinion that hath once posseft the Minds of the
· People, if Religion be pretended to be in it, never wants Learned Men to
defend it, because they purchase thereby to themselves the fame of remarkable
Piety, and the Favour of the People. These defenders ruminage all their stock

,
• of Learning, and jumble cogether all the Notions which chcy have gathered
• both Sacred and Prophane, that they may rescue the Opioion which the Peo-

ple have once conceived (or taken up) from all the Arguments of their Ad-
'versaries, and reconcile ir with antient History and primitive Practice; and

when they are at a loss ( and can go no farther) as it often happens, then,
• as the Tragick Poets had always a God ready, who sufhing out of their Ma-
* chine might explain the difficult and perplexi end of their Play, so these Mea
• from a meer probable Action preseptly fly to God's Omnipotency, as if it was
• bound to be present (or asistant) to all the Fictions (or Whimsies) of Mea
that they may prevail, or currently pass. I folemnly protest that in my fe-
rious Judgment and fixt Opinion this great Man hath here fully, and perhaps
(as it is lometimes his manner ) designedly, dropt a very excellent and true ac-
count, how all such strange Changes have come to pals

. First, Some Busy,
Hot-headed, proud speculator having conceived a wild Mysterious Notion, can-
not forbear to give it Birth by vepring it to some of his Confidents; Secondly,
Next Novelty, like the Itch or Witchcraft, never fails of Infecting others; and
in time, especially in ignorant Ages, it by degrees becomes Epidemical. One
Fool, as the saying is, may raise a Devil, which forty wise Men cannot lay
again. This happens just so in a high-flying Paradox, especially when the Au-
thor and his airy Profelices are grown most furiously bent to maintain the Brat,
and the People begin once to be fond of it. I could prove this by Instances
enough in the Sectaries of our own days, that a perfeály new, surprizing Opi-
nion can hardly be so Irrational, but it will soon find some Sticklers for it and
Abetters of it; and the Papists themselves affirm the same in their own accounts
of the Springing, and of ihe spreading growih of Heresies. Thirdly, It will
Infallibly get its full strength if their appears any Advantage or Profic to the
Patrons of ir. Lastly, When some discerning Men shall judiciously and strict-
ly examine it, and in a manner demoostrate it to be an abominable Impori-
tion, charging it with such Innumerable, horrid and manifest Absurdities as
neither common Sense nor Reason can allow, the maintainers of ic beiog
quite puzzled, confounded, and, as we say, at their Wits end; they fix
to, Olon arco uenzaras, the Tragedians contrivance, and shuffle all off with
God's Omnipotence.

Let us now a little consider the Doctrine of the Bodily Presence according to these four Remarks of this Worthy Author. For many hundred years after Christ we meet with nothing of it expressly taught by any of the reputed Fathers cither Greek or Latin; but we every where find that the Communicants, out of a deep Seose of Christ's Spiritual Presence, came to the Eucharist with a most fingular Devotion; bewailing their manifold Sins, and acknowledging their unworthiness; but yet professing their steady Faith and Hope of God's Mercy and

For

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Forgiveness through his gracious Promises declared in the Gospel; and by thank. * p. 30. fully remembring that as they were first made Members of Christ's Myftical Body, the Church, by their Baptism, so now by their hearty and real Repentance and firm Resolution of amendment of Life, they may be assured that they are Included and still continued in Christ's glorious Covenant of Gracé, which he himself sealed by his biccer Passion, which they now most folemnly and reverently Commemorate.

About seven hundred years after Christ there arose some Doctors, who, leaving the usual Stile and Expressions of the former Fathers, broached some pew Conceits of their own, amongst which I must reckon, the Dad of the Greek Schoolmen, (as we may justly call them ) John Damascen. He departing from those Expressions of the most primitive Fathers, that there was in the Eucharist an Earthly part, the Bread and Wine, and a Heavenly fančtification; by which they were indued with a supernatural and purely Spiritual Effect upon the Communicants by the divine Operation of the Holy Ghost; I say, he leaving this Original explication of Christ's lostitution, cither by mistake or a meer new Conceit of his own, made two distinct Substances in it; rrue Bread and Wine still remaining in the Eucharist, and Christ's Divine or Glorified Body and Blood upited to them, or there Coexistent with them. For he compares them to the Coal that toucht Efaiah's 11. 6. 6. Lips, and faith, as that was not, túrou notòr, plain or common Wood, but 1.4.0rthod.fid.

318. Wood united to Fire ; so Bread at the Communion is not, ägt autòs, plain Bread but united, Jeótyti, to Divinity, (or as he call'd it a little before) to owuc p. 317. xugis Telec je évov, the Lord's Deified Body. Now

faith he, a Body united to Divinity is not one Nature; there is one Nature of the Body ana another Nature of the Divinity which is united to it; so that both these together are not one Nature but two. Therefore, according to him, the Bread is Bread still, but not common by reason of its union with Christ's glorified Body. And a little p. 318. after he faith, it is the Body and Blood of Christ tending to the Constitution, or Support, both of our Soul and Body, not being consumed or corrupted, nor going into tbe draught, God forbid; but into our Substance and Confer. *p. zi. vation, being as a (facred Amulet, duwu Tigion, or) Preservative from all manner of harm, and a purge, (or Cleanser,) from all Filthiness. He still owns two distinct Substances, Bread proper for our Bodies, and Christ's corporeal Presence join’d to it, helpfull both to our Bodies and Souls ; as he there illustrates it, by adulterated Gold when it is purified, the Fire that is in it worketh quite another Effect then the Gold, to which it is united, could of it self produce. So he elsewhere explains it by red hot Iron, and again 1. .2 6. 17. p. more fully by a red hot Sword, wbich cuts as it is a Sword, and at the 247 Jame time burns by force of the Fire united to it. So I have noted else:* C. 19. p. where, every Creature of God is good, but when (by what we call saving i Tim. 4. 4. 5. Grace ) it is farther Sanctified by the word of God and Prayer, the same God, who first made it, can, and does, add to it a new Power of working Effects far above the patural Faculties and Virtues at first given to it at its Creation; thus it fared with Daniel and the three Children with him, who Dan. 1.18;13: were plentifully sustained by only Pulse and Water with the Blessiog and Alistance of God.

We commonly say indeed, good Wits may Jump; but we oftoer find suceeding Ages, Reform, Refine, Advance and Improve the Copceits of those who have been before them; and thus it happen'd with the Latins. Damafcen's Notion being by some of them not so well approved, there was this amazing Fancy proposed and embraced about the next Age ; that there were not two diftin&t Substances in the Eucharist, but that the very Substance of the Bread and Wine were changed, and made the very Substance of the real Body and Blood of Christ. Whether Pafchafius, (as many topping Papalins themselves do positively assert) gave the firft hiot, or was the first Author of it, I shall not pow corcero my felf, but all the World may see how prodigiously the Hot-headed Schoolmen have beat their

Brains

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* p. 32

* p. 3i. Brains about this monstrous Point, running (as the vulgar faying is.) an endless

wild-goofe chase after it, all cackling and Skreaking confusedly amongst
themselves. In following Ages there were Men of another mould, who un-
warily, and variously; revived Damascen's Opinion of two Substances in the
Eucharift ; 'but there arose also amongst them an Irreconcileable squabble about
the Vbiquity or Nonubiquity (as they call it,) the actual Bodily Presence or
Absence of Christ, in, with, or about the Bread on every Altar, and at every
time and place, when, and where, the Eucharist was Celebrated. All chis
therefore is very fufficient to perswade me, not only that it was possible for
the Doctrine of Christ's Bodily Presence at the Eucharist to have been brought
into the Church after many Ages which before knew nothing of it; but that it
really and actually was so brought to pass, by taking both its Birtha and Growth,
from the restless and presumptuous Thoughts, of vain and daring Searchers af-
ter Mysteries.

I have elsewhere noted that all these three Questions, whether oply, Christ's
Spiritual Preferice was in the Eucharist? Or whether his Bodily Presence
was there also with the Elements ? Or whether the Bread and Wine were de-
stroy'd, and so but one Substance remain'd, that is, very Christ entire in their
place? I say these three Points were looke upon as only disputable Problems in
Pet. Lombard's days; and the last was never made an Article of Faiih till
the Council of Lateran under P. Innocent the third. Now therefore if we
duely examine it according to Morinus's second Remark, we need not wonder
that by degrees even that crept into fome Mens minds, and at last gain'd lome
confuled credit and affcot.

For first we see that nothing is more natural to most Men, then, to Giróuufor. the delight and love of hearing and telling strange Stories. From the first fatal curiosity of our Grandame Eve, we all more or less, hunger and thirst after Knowledge, be it good or evil. How easily and how often do cunning crafty News-mongers amuse and cheat the World in managing their dark designs, by plausible Inventions of their owo ? And is it not as common and easy for subtle Seminary Priests to seduce Ignorant, Biggotted, credulous wretches in matters of Religion? How naturally do Men listen to Travailers who relate strange and prodigious wonders, which with most of them will serole in their Memory though not fully in their Opinion ? But as to this Article of Metou fiotism, how inany Men of any Learning and Capacity fufficient fully to understand it (who were not themselves, before prejudiced, for it or against it,) have attempted to give us any plain, sincere and impartial account of its being believed in Eastern Countries? As for Merchants, and ordinary careless Genrlemen ( who only affect the empty came of Men who have been in many countries) they have other matters or pleasures in their Heads theo to trouble themselves witia nice Metaphysical Speculations about Religion. And some perhaps may tell you that these and those People say they hold a Corporeal Presence of Christ in the Eucharist; (for all of them in this point, as in many others, go by meer hear fay,) but there is not one of either of them, or of the more learned. but unanimously will tell you of the most shamefull Ignorance and gross stupidity of she Laity, and of most of the Clergy, reigoing in all places in the East wherever they have been, Therefore the reports of Merchants, and also che accounts of Travailers, concerning the manners and Fashions of Countries; as to Metoufiatism must be, at most, very Imperfect and Uncertain; but as to the Peoples Ignorance, molt undoubtedly true. Most pretended Christiaas have in them lome Natural fear for God, and a common sense and general Conscience of their Duty. It seems indeed to me morally Impossible for any one absolutely to chase away, this Fear, or quite to extinguish this Light either in himself or another; But we daily fce that nothing is more feasible and practicable then it is to heighten them, or a little to quicken these Embers, aod sometimes to blow them up to forme greater warmth, wherever they are. From this very handle all Seminaries first lay hold of their Proselites, and then

by

by the same fecurely lead them op to their farther purposes. It is well known * p. 37. that profound Ignorance had miserably spread is self over the face of the Christiao Church, in those Ages when this Article of Christ's Bodily Presence was first moved; Meo then went simply and formally ou in the plain path of their Fathers; and both Priests and People walkt after the common Customs and Rites of the Religion of their own Country; without any oper curious Enquiry or nice Consideration of what was done any where else. Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin, and other anticnt Languages were in a manner quite lost, and counted meer Barbarism; and all Polite Learning was utterly neglected. Yet there was every where an outward Pomp, and great Ceremonious State of Religion kept up; and blind Devotion and Superstition, the natural Children of Ignorance, were multiplied exceedingly. Now Men of Parcs, of seeming Piety, and some little Learning more then ordinary, must needs appear in those days as perfect Saints or new Apostles amongst such People; whatever they should dictate would be admired and followed as coming from an Oracle. How many Millions of good Primitive Christians, now in Heaven, came for above five hupdred years to the Eucharist only as being a folemn Commemoration of Christ's Death for the Remission of their Sins, which there they most humbly acknowledged; and for which they as fervently beg'd his Pardon, believing and trusting in his assured Mercies ; and solemnly and firmly resolved to forsake them all, with all expressions of a hearty Devotion, firmly believing that Christ, according to his molt gracious Promise, was certainly there in the midst of them; never in the least dreaming in those days of any of the nice Speculations, and Inventions of Men, which arose in following Ages, and are now very rife amongst us. Thus it was not impossible in after times of Ignorance quite to change the very Essentials of Religion, for it hath by degrees been actually done. A plain good Man who for a long time with hearty forrow confessing to God his unworthiness, and resolving Itedfastly to repent, had reverently received the sacred Elements only in Memory of Christ's dying for his Sins, and mufting in his Mercy had given him Thanks from his very Soul; when he heard these Metufiors Men in those later days earuestly tell him that Christ's very Body and Blood, nay, that Christ himself was really and entirely chere, under only the outward appearance of Bread and Wine, withour any farther Confidesation, poor Man, he will with Fear and Trembling bc elevated into a perfect Extasy; especially when to prove all this they seriously relate unto him, how that many times the Confecrated Bread in light of all the People hath vanish'd quite away, and a little living Infant hath appear'd in its place; thaç very often from the Bread hath issued perfect Blood upon the Patine; and ten thouland more such wonderfull Miracles and Visions and Apparitions, with which the Merufiots Books are filled both in the East and West. I have elsewhere mention'd a fair but little Latin MS. of my own, which formerly belong'd to St. Edmund's Bury Abbey in Suffolk; it is about four hundred years old; amongst about fifty Legends cherein contain’d, I will give you this short extract our of one of them, it being so fully to this Poibt. • One Duke Peyter's Wife had Num. 32: • a grudge against one of her Neighbours. Communicating at Eafter she privat• ly kept the Hoftia, or Bread, I perceive that in those days it was taken in the Hand of the Commnnicants, and not put into their Mouths ) • and putting it at home into a Box, the faid to it, I know that you are my Crea- . . tor in the shape of Bread, you shall revenge me of any Adversary, or I will use you worfe then the Jews did. After three or four days find

ing no revenge made her, the put the Hoftia, (holy Bread) mixt with the • loathsome Excrements of Man and Beast into a hollow place of a Tree in her • Orchard. Next

Next year the Tree flourished prodigiously, bringing forth plenty . of Leaves, Flowers, and Fruit, all most miraculously fragrant; yet this was * p. 33 • not perceived but only by such as were firft Confeft

. The Lady Dutchess laught, and said all was a meer Phantom. But being at last perswaded by the Archbishop to Confess, the pan&ually told every thing which she had

• done;

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