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p. 25.


p. 21, 22.

fufficiently shew the temper of them both. It is an old report chat Arrius * p. 8. died thrusting out his Bowels; and it is here said of Josephus the Greek Patri. P: 13 arch, that died at Florence vomiting up his Excrements. The like is said ofP- 29. Marcus Eugenicus and Palamas by the Latins; as bad is said of Leo Allarius by Dositheus, that he Eac his owo Tongue as is above noted. We and the Greeks have the current Story of Pope Joan, and the Latins have one of a She Patriarch at Conftantinople. The Greeks inveigh bitterly against the La. tios and our Priests in Europe for not wearing Beards. The Gregorian Calen- Praf.3. $. 315. der was a long time boggled at, and at last rejected by a folemn Council. Se.

Praf. 14. veral Synods Apathematized the Council of Florence. Arcudius noted as a p. 17, 18. Traitor to the Greek Church, and was expelled publickly. Georgius Scholari. us every where vindicated, and his true works own d, and the spurious ones oamed and rejected. At last comes a peculiar Office and Ceremonies to be ufed, p. 568. 583. when apy Lario repounceth his Heresy and rurn to the Greeks. The chief controversies in all these pieces, are the old ones de Additamento Filioque, Monarchia Papa, luua, and the late one, Lumen Taborium or Christ's Transfiguration. I have some little Books also lately Printed in those parts, but they are of lefser moment then to be mention'd here.

I shall now proceed, according to my Journal, to what concerns my dear Patron, Sir Dan. Harvey and my self. Dec. the 23. 1671. I was much indisposed, and on the 26. I fell ill of a continued Feaver which held me 17 days; I lost above thirty ounces of Blood. By my Lord's kindness, Alexandero Maurocordato (as I find that Family named in Crusius, paugoyogdátov, Maurogordato) was Turco-Grae, employ'd as my Physitian ; He was afterwards chief Turgeman to the Grand 1. 4. p. 289. Seignor, and continued so all my time. Whilst I was thus Sick in Bed the French Ambassador came and dined with my Lord, and seeing that I was not at the Table, he made as merry Reflection upon it, as if I had absented my self on purpose to avoid the force of those Subscriptions, which he had then procared. What was the whole Discourse which then pals'd between them, I cannot rell; but Sir Daniel never own'd any thing more of it then this, that the Marquis gloried much in those Testimonies, and carnestly urged him to subfcribe the same; to which Sir Daniel ( as he constantly all along averred) anfwer'd, • That he would never deny that he had seen those Actestations, but as • for himself he was not at all acquainted with any of the Greeks Opinions ;

and therefore it would be a very rash and extravagant thing in him positively to • attest any such thing; Nay, for him to give it under his hand, only that he

had seen fuch Subscriptions, even this might be of very bad consequence to • him, and give a just occasion for the busy World to think him an Abettor, or at least a Favourer of that design; and all Men would at least condemn him for a very Imprudent and over forward Person, if he should apy ways seem to countenance a matter of that Nature, which he did • not in the least understand. The Marquis afterwards repeated his fuic to him, but soon gave it over when he saw that he could not prevail; and this gave occasion to the Report, that Sir Daniel had subscribed, had not I hindred him. Soon after my Recovery I went alone and waited upon the Marquis ; to whom I had the Honour to be well known before, as being with him at the Creation of Dionyfius of Larisa (being made Patriarch Nov. 8th. just beforegoing, ) and otherwise; and afterwards whenever the two Ambassadors met, after their private discourses about matters of State were over, I was continually admitted into their Company, where this Point of the Greeks Subscriptions was certainly one of the common Themes in our Conversation; and the fumm of what I said to the Marquis in all our Conferences was to this purpose.

•These Articles, especially That about the Eucharist, were all either fairly in Difcourse or otherwise proposed and declared to those who subscribed them, that first they might well understand and consider them and then give and set down their Opinion in their own Sense and Words; or Else, they were first drawo up and modeld by the Latins themselves, and then offer'd to the Greeks for their Subscriptions.



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• When I seriously consider either of these two ways (for I cannot reasonably coc-
• ceive any other third way,) Imust freely confess that I cannot fee how either of
them can signify any thing to the end for which they were by the Latins desiga'd.

• For as to the first, it is impossible by what hath already been faid, that one
* in a hundred, I may say a chousand, of those Subscribers, thould be capable
• of thoroughly apprehending or duly weighing the full Sense and meaning
• which the Latins put upon them. Were they folemnly askt whether they
• believed that the whole Bread undivided, and every one of the Margarité,

( as they call all the least Mites of it,) when divided,. are every one of
• them by it self after Consecration made the entire Body, Head and Members,
• the very Flesh and Bones of Jesus Christ which he bare about him here on

Earth; whether every particle of the Bread was also by ic self then made his
• very entire Blood by Concomitancy; whether every one of the least drops
• of ine Wine by it self was then made his entire Body by the like Corcomi-
tancy; or lastly whether the whole Bread whilst it was entire, and whe-

ther every particle of it, when afterwards it was crumbled into Millions
* of Grains of inpalpable duft, were every one of them still che entire undi-
'vided Body and Blood of Jesus Christ which is in Heaven?

• If these and the like questions ( according to these in Monsieur Claude's
instructions ) had been first asked them, and afcer due Deliberation and Itrict
enquiry into them, they had given and see down their own answer plainly
* and fully in the Affirmative to them all, this had then been something to your

purpose, and had given a specious resemblance of some kind of an imper-
• fect Union with the Latin Church; but for some to fay only. (like Par-

rots) that there is, meteowols, a Transubstantiation ; or for others to own
'a real Presence, without the Expression of its Mode or Manner; or for all
to say that it is made nor by the words of Christ, but by the Priest's Invoca-

tion; all this is far enough off from the Latins point. Our Church of En-
'gland owns plainly, that the Body and Blood of Christ, are, őrtas sjargay-
Matixüs, verily and indeed taken and received by, the Faithfull, in the
Lord's Supper; we, (according to the words of Bishop Andrews, ) Pre-
sentiam realem non minus quam vos, veram agnoscimus, modum vero
nefcimus, do no less then you acknowledge a real Presence, but we

koow nothing at all of the Mode, or Manner, of it. Therefore it is a
• meer vain and empty thing for a Greek to say only, I believe a real Pre-
fence; for unless he expresseth himself fully by your very Explication of its
Mode, or Manner, he comes no nearer to your Tranfubftantiation, then our
Church doth by owning the Presence, without one word of the Mode.

• Your Excellency told me your self, That in some Mouasteries the chief of
• the Monks refused to subscribe by reason their, úrguer@, Abbot or prime
• Governor was not at home; and that several of the most noted Priests, here
• and there, refused to do it, without the knowledge and approbation of their

Metropolites or Bishops; nay, that some faid ( what are my own very
thoughts ) .that the belief of a Church, is not to be gathered from the

Opinions of private Men, but taken from the decrees of full and gene.
'ral Councils, made by all the Patriarchs and Prelates of it, where there

hath been, érrioxealis, a folemn debate, a serious deliberation, and judicious
examination of all particulars before they subscribe them. In all the ge-
'ncral Councils, that ever have been, there were (especially at their first meet-

ing) strange differences of Opinion and Judgment amongst the Members; what
had their Sentiments fignified, if they had been only gathered separately, or
• in private Junto's; and yet much more fruitless had the private Subscriptions
'been of each particular Man.

Nectarius in his Letter to Paisius Patriarch of Alexandria, (which I re-
ceived from your Excellencies own hand, and which I have now by me) doth
• fcverely blame the boldness of chao Latin Emissary, Monk Lazarus; who
• durft demand aby such Declaration or Subscription from him. These are his


* p. 10.

very words, tis yag ésir ó póvax Adlag@, who is this Monk Lazarus, *p: 159 that he should, anaubadialóuerc, so arrogantly dare to ask from you a

Confession of Faith, and i hat, ue ta' Sóng xj uTorómt , with deceit and dissembling, when the Pope himself was refused the like request; And • he tells Paisius that the Greeks belief is fufficiently and manifestly to be seen in the Writings of their Fathers.

• Next it is very remarkable, that he there cautions Paisius folemnly, ( após Jeg, for Gods Jake,) against giving any Declaration or Subscription what

ever to the Latin Emissaries; 90, not so much as how the Greeks said the Lord's Prayer; for they come not sincerely but subtilly, that taking hold of any the least Phrase (being meer, knavilh Criticks, catchers at words, j ouxopartey étouws Xorris, and being always ready to be patter · and falsly accuse whom they do not like ;) they might flander us; more

over Nectarius there tells Paisius rightly, that Cyril's Confession alone, as his own private Act, could signify nothing to the belief of the whole Greek

Church; and for my part I can see no reason why any of the rest of the • Patriarchs Confessions, or pretended Councils can be looke upon, in like manner, as sufficient declarations of the true fenfe of all the Prelates under them; for they were manifestly contrived by the open and malicious Enemies of Cyril, animated and managed by the Latins, or only by Latinized • Greeks; and therefore they must be counted by all discreet Men, as meer Con- venticles and Junto's composed by only Partizans and Persons dependent upon • them; and not by a fourth or a fifth part of all the real Prelares of that

Church; and thole never folemnly or impartially debating matters, or being indeed ever able fully co apprehend or judge of them.

• Your Excellency knows very well, that both by the Civil Law, and by ff. de teflib. 1. • common Reason, poor, hungry, indigent, Persons are at best very 1. 6 6. suspicious Witnesses; for they are most likely to be bribed. But those

who are declared Enemies to the adverse Party, or who are ablolutely · under the Command of the Managers of their own; or who are purely

Ignorant of the matter in Question, are utterly excluded from being Wić• nesses in any Cause; but chis is plainly the present Condition of the 6 Greeks.

• Your Excellency hath truly observed in your account to me of your Visirs • to the Greeks, that most Priests have no Books by them, but only their • Church Offices; and that all their Study is only to get them by Heart, which • takes up fo much of their time as they cannot attend to read or Study o

ther learned Books if they had them; neither have they Judgment to under• stand them. I my self have seen valt heaps of MSS. (for I never found them • on shelves or in good Order) of the Fathers and other learned Authors in the • Monasteries at Mount Athos and elsewhere, all cover'd over with dust and • dirt, and many of them rotted and spoild; not a Monk ever touch them, or • read them, or look after them to preserve them; they take no Books into

their hands but their Liturgies and their several, axonelias, Church Offices; · and the greatest part of their, weyanógenuci

, chief Monks spend their time only in rudely and erroneously copying of them out, for their own use; and

hence it is that we meet with such numbers of them every where. You truly own, what I have every where observed my self, that the only Knowledge

of these Church Offices is all the Learning that is required of them to fit • them for holy Orders; how many then of these Subscribers are truly qua• lified to give their Testimony of the Belief of their whole Church, in any Article that is controverted ?

Nectarius io the forenamed Epistle doth honestly confess, that the Latins * p. 11. ' and Greeks do manifestly differ about the use of Fermented Bread, and the

unfermented Wafer in the Eucharist; and likewise about the words of Consecration; the Latins afsere it to be done only by Christ's words (which

yet in Confecrating the Wine they have mangled and corrupted by an arbitrary


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• Form of their own,) the Greeks as peremptorily affirm it to be done only by
*the Invocation of the Priests. When there is so weighty a Difference as this
• between them in these fubftantial Points; how can the Greeks testify that the
• belief of both Churches about the Eucharist is the fame, when not one of a

thousand of them understand Latin, or know any thing of the matter? And
to fay, that notwithstanding all this, they however both believe the thing (or
• rather the word ) metroswois, Tranfubftantiation, is the same as to say that a
Pye or a Parrot believe or know what they say, when they Pratele the same
words. From all this then you see, my Lord, that Nectarius was utterly a-
verse then from any such Subscription; and he as much condemo'd and under-
• valu'd them, as being both useless and dangerous.

• As to the second Case, let us consider whether these Articles were not first
• drawn up by the Latins themselves before they were offer'd to the Subscribers ;
• next how these Subscriptions were procured; and lastly of what Authority

or Value they can be. It is manifest in all the Subscriptions which I have * yet feen, that the Articles were first Modell’d and set down or contrived by • the Latins themselves, and then offer'd and urg'd upon the Subscribers. In the • Preface to most of these Testimonies, is set down a complaint, that they had • heard from credible Persons, that the Greeks and Eastern Churches had been

Impudently and Outragiously Nandred and misrepresented by Monsieur Claude, • and his Calvinists in France and elsewhere. It is plain that they had these • informations only from the Jesuits and other Emissaries of Rome; for the Easterlings understand nothing of the Latin, and altogether as little of French, or any other European Western Language ; and let these Agents alone to tell

their Tale in Narrations and Expressions horrid and foul enough as well * as falfe; and to make and press the Forms to be Subscribed accordingly.

• The greatest part of the Easterlings Oeconomy and Discipline, especially of
the Greeks, consist first in their Pomp and amusing Ceremonies at their Litur-
gies and other Offices. Their Priests, especially in their chief Monasteries,
• and in their Metropolitical and Episcopal Churches, have their, Qerbov, or up-

per Garment, (which is something like a Woman's Petticoat, with only a hole
• at the top to put their Heads through, and the rest of it hangs down round

about their thighs to their ankles ) it is richly wrought with Gold and Silver;
• and the poorest Parish Priest hath such a one, though of a meaner making.

They have no such thing as our Linnen Surplice, but that Philonium and all
• their other Garments and Accoutrements are very Glorious and different; there
• is one kind for a Patriarch, another for a Metropolite, and so for all others
• suitable to their different degrees; and in this point they look askue even up-
• on us English, for not being so Gaudy, Stately and Ceremonious in our OF-
• fices as themselves; though we are Episcopally Ordained, and have grave and

different Garments for all sorts of our Clergy in their various degrees, from
* the Primates and Metropolites down to the lowest Order of Deacons; and
our Doctors in Divinity, and our Masters and Bachelors of Arts, if in Orders,
are likewise decently and distinctly habited; and if we English Church men
are looke upon by the Easterlings in this point, but as Mongrels or half Pri-
mitive Clergy.men at the best, how odious and abominable mult the Calvin.
ists appear to them, when they shall be told (which fufficient aggravations l’ll
warrant you) that there is no such outward Pomp, or any reverend or de-
cent Garments used in their divine Offices amongst them; their Ministers are
• not Episcopally ordain'd, and they wear only a common black Cloak and a
• Coat or Jump, without either Gown, or Cassock, or Girdle, or Surplice.

• Next the greatest shew or outward proof of the Greeks Religion is seen ia
Celebrating their Fasts and Feasts. I have known many, especially of the Lay-
• men, who would count Fornication, Uncleanness, Excess in Drinking, Cursing,
Revenge and the like Practices, for less Crimes then to violate their Fasts, (of
which they have four principal and publick ones,) especially Lent or thac be-
• fore Easter; a Zealous Monk will rather die, theo at any time or in any di-


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* p. 12.

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stemper rast the least Morsel of Flesh; and some, Mezarógenpoi, Monks of the * p. 12. highest Order, especially Anchorets and Hermets, never eat at most above • three times in a week; whence they are emaciated to meer Skin and Bones be· fore they quite leave this World ; this extravagant Fasting being counted the

very heighth of an Ascherick Life; and I dare say that the Armenians Fast a * third part of the whole year. What then must these Easterlings think of such

Westerling Christians, who are confidently reported to be such wretched Crea. • tures, as they never at all observe any common times of Fasting themselves, • and count it stupid Superstition and meer Dotage in them who do it.

Then for their Festivals, especially that at Christmass, Easter, and the other great ones, and their great Holy.days, (which they folemnly keep with us

English-men,) or to name no more, at their Aonual, namyúgeis, Conventions • of many whole Country Towos and Villages, at their Holy Fountains, which are dedicated to some of their celebrated Saints, (where I have often been an Eye witness) there is not one that appears there but will contribute something, • as his share, towards the providing of victuals and drink in abundance, (as at • our old Whit fun- Ales, or secting up May poles and the like in England) there • is hardly one Greek so poor, but he will borrow, or pawo, or sell his very

Cloaths, or something else, to get Money for Wine, co Celebrate the Festival, • and it is the same Practice amongst them upon the Holydays ser apart for the Virgin Mary, or any other peculiar Saint, especially those to whom they are particularly devoted. These jolly Easterlings, when they hear from the cunning Emissaries, that the Christians pretending to be Reformed in the West, do

utterly hate and abjure all such Practices as Heathenish and Prophane, must • think them all the vilest Miscreants living.

• I beseech your Excellence, seriously to think what a Horrid and most Abo• minable Idea, the crafty and busy Emissaries, nay many of the selfish, politick • Greek Prelates themselves from their by ends, or out of a prospect of being • safe and quiet in their stations; (or indeed from a perfect Indifference in them • to all Mystical and Scholastick speculations) I say, consider well what foul,

opprobrious, extravagant Characters these wicked Confederates may create, not only in the blind bigotted Laicks, but even in all their illiterate Clergy, against all in the West, who value and distinguish themselves by protesting

against many of those abuses which generally all over the East are counted • most Sacred; as oral Tradition, Auricular Confession, Worshipping of the Vir

gin Mary and Images, all Ceremonies and Prayers at their Funerals, the use of holy Water and the sign of the Cross, (which in the East are generally counted Sanctifications and Phylactories, or Preservatives against the Devil and all Evils) and the like; day, these Westerlings in their Writings and Discourses *p. 13 both publick and private, declare and bitterly Censure all these Observaoces as • vain, wicked, gross and intolerable Superstitions; and many of them as right • down Idolatry. These Men thus Characterized, must in the East be assuredly • counted Arch-heriticks indeed, pay, very Devils incarnate. The word, aige

Tiuds, Heretick, there signifying alcogether as Abominable and Dreadful, as

Erege, in Spain, where they think such a one absolutely delivered over to • the Legion of frightfull Devils, usually painted upon the Samarra Charuce. Limb. Hiß. In

To speak plain Truth, our Mob, or the Vulgar in England, are much of the quil.l.4.c.4. • fame Temper. The very name of a Popis (as they call Men of your Re- P. 368. 369.

ligion) or more rudely, of a Popish Dog, or a Jesuit, fixe upon any one, * is as much as to call him Belzebub; especially on Q. Elizabeth's Festival,

or the fifth of November, when they burn the Pope, should a Man pass • by, kpown by, or branded with that Character, he may be in danger of his · Life, or at least of being groftly abused. Some in Spain (to my own know

ledge) at this very day believe that the English, especially the Kentish-men, are born with Tails, ( as the Impudent Emissaries in those days bad told the • credelous Zealors) for Curtailing Becket's Mule. Such Creatures as those will from the mouth of an Audacious seemingly Religious, eloquent Seminary,


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