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Chap. IV.

How the Mecides, PORTIONS, were brought in &c. babling Repetition ( as some rashly or maliciously have done) more then I p. 87: that Have mercy upon us, O Lord, have mercy upon us; or For his mercy Pf. 123. 3. endureth for ever. And we find that Christ had compassion on the two blind Pr. 136. Men in the Gospel, who persisted in the earnest Repetition of these very words (have Mercy on us, O Lord,) and would not give over though a Mat. 20. 30. whole Multitude rebuked them.

egnc.

CHAP. IV.

P.

My conje&ture how these mepides, Portions, were brought in by the Greeks,

at the celebration of their Eucharift.

4, 5, 6.

IT

T doth appear by what hath been said, that the primitive Communion

was performed by solemo breaking of Bread, and distributing of it to all the People, (as the Greeks now divide and distribute what they call the Antidorum) and by their drinking out of the fame Cup. How that plain familiar †; p. 88: way of its first Administration came to be turn'd into the present Greeks practice of Consecrating and Partaking of only a few little bits and mites of Bread, and of giving to the Laity only a little spoonful of Wine, hath made me often very much wonder, and consider with my self how this strange Custom should come to pass, and the result of my own thoughts (for 1 humbly offer it only as such, is thus.

First, I find the Eucharistical Sacrifices of both Jews and Gentiles were lookt upon by them both, as Communions with God and with one another as many as did partake of them. It is plain in the cou Shelamim) Peace offering of the Jews, that part was Gods, part for the Priests, part for the People who offer'd, and the rest who were invited or therein concern'd; and this to express a Communion between God, the Priest, and the People. It is easy to give numerous instances of the like Communion in the Heathen Sacrifices, where each of these also had his Portion; but I shall here only mention, that made by the Israelites in imitation of the Ægyptian Sacrifice to Apis. Exod. 32. The People rejoyced before the Golden Calf

, and after their offerings were made to it, they sat down to Eat and Drink; and fo partake of those Idol Sacrifices, as St. Paul himself explains it. And he shews more particularly the 1 Cor. 16. 4: Communion of Christians, as well as of Jews and Gentiles, to be made by the like participation of the offerings. Thus for the Jews, Behold Israel af. ter the Flesh; are not they which eat of the Sacrifices partakers of the Altar;

The Altar is called the Table of God, so that he which partakes of Mat. 1. 9, 12. what is offer'd upon it, Eats and Communicates with God whose Table it is. Thep for the Gentiles, he faith that they Sacrificed to Devils and not to God, and they that did partake of their Sacrifices, were xouwvoi, Communicants with them, and partakers of the same Table. Then for the Christian Communion he faith, the Cup of Blessing which we Bless, (alluding to the Cup of Blef- v. 16, 17. fing used by the Jews at their Paschal supper, of which is treated before, ) is p. 5,6. 7 it not the Communion of the Blood of Christ? The Bread which we break is it not the Communion of the Body of Christ? For we being many are one Bread, for we are all partakers of that one Bread. Thus then Christians by folemn breaking and eating of Bread, and drinking of Wine, in Remembrance of Christ's Body and Blood, according to his own Institution, are made Partakers of this Eucharistical Table, and thereby united to Christ's Mystical Body, and made members of the Christian Church and Communion; as the Jews were made parrakers of the Table of the true God, and the Gentiles of the Table of Devils, by eating and drinking after their respective ways prescribed or used in their Sacrifices.

Next I find this very word, pigides, Portions, used both by Sacred and Prophane Authors; for these Portions which every one did eat ‘at their Sacrifices. So the Septuagint, after God's part of the meat Offering is burnt upon the Altar, Levit. 6. iği

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T. p. 89. call the remainder, pepide, the Portion of Aaron and his Sons. And' I suppose

every one of them had out of the peculiar Portion likewise appointed to them; 1 Sam 1. 4,5. as I find Elkanal distributed to his Sons and Daughters and Wifes accord

ing to his good Pleasure, uspidas, Portions out of the remainder of his Sacrifice 2 Sam. 6. 17,

in Shiloh: And thus did David at the sertling of the Ark; after he had Sa

crificed, diepeépiot, he gave Portions to every one of the People. So Agesiin ragefilaus: Laus in Plutarch pretending that Pisander had gotten a Victory, made a mock p. 605. c. Sacrifice and sent, mopidas, Portions of what was Sacrificed to his Friends.

That is, that they might ( as it were Communicate, or) partake of his Eucharist or publick Thanklgiving. And the same word, uegides, Portions, is used for every ones Part at Feasts or Entertainments. So Jofeph entertaining his brethren, order'd megidas, Portions, or as we render it, Meses for every one

of them, and Benjamin his pepis, Mess or Portion was five times bigger then Esb.9.19,22. the reft. So at the Feast of Purim, every one sent, repídes, Meffes or Por.

tions to his neighbour. And in the fame Sense the Preacher commends ChariEcclef. 11. 2.

ty, give; uepida, a Portion (thy Dole as we say) to Seveni and also to Eight.

So at Caranus his Supper in Athenæus, the guest, #15Top arti pegidor tuwxender1. 4.p. 130.d.

Tts, were treated with Wealth, or rich Gifts and presents, instead of Portions

or Messes of Meat. And we have in him, Molpes xepzcov rý åptioxes, piece of P. 138, 139 Flesh and little Loaves of Bread, and other things distributed to every par.

ticular guest in the Lacedæmonian fuppers ( Copis and Æclon,) which exprest

what these pepidis, Portions sometimes were; and we meer with the same old 1.14. p. 640.e.

Custom mencion’d by him elsewhere. In Plutarch the word is apply'd both Sympos

. 1. 2. to Sacrifices and Feasts; upon an Argument whether it was better that every probl. 10. 644.

one at an Entertainment should have his peculiar Portion, or for all to eat in common; he faith, Sacrifices and publick Suppers were made, após keepidu,

by diftin&t Portions, every one having a certain Portion appropriated to himLamprid. in. felf. And I find the Latin word Partes, Parts used in the very fame Sense; Alex.

Severus at his Entertainment gave to his Servants Partes, Parts of the Bread Arcud. 1. 1. and other Food which was fee before him to be distributed amongit the Guests.

Next the Communion of Saints includes all Saints both Living and Dead; or 1 Cor. 12. 12. the whole Christian Church both Militant and Triumphant are all one Mystical

Body whereof Christ is the Head; all these belong to the same Community or

Society, the Dead Saints are at Home, but the Living ones at present are but On the Creed Pilgrims; or as the Learned Pearson phraseth it, they are all but one City of

God. And according to this Doctrine, the Primitive Church at the Celebration of the Eucharift made á Commemoration of all Saints or Holy Men both Quick and Dead; as at our Communion in the Prayer for the Church Militant, we first Pray for the universal Church; for all Christian Kings, Princes, and Governors; for all Bishops and Curats; for all God's People; and lastly we bless God's Holy Name in the remembrance of all his Servants departed this Life in his Faith and Fear, beseeching him to give us Grace, that with Them we may be Partakers of his Heavenly Kingdom. Thus in

thar Liturgy in the pretended Apostolical Constitutions, (which though it is p. 482. manifestly Ipurious and not St. James's, yet I think it is generally own'd and

passes for the oldest of all, there is at the Sacrament a general Commemoration or Recommendation of the Catholick Church, of the King or Emperor and all Governors under him, and of all Saints and of all the People, and lastly of all good Men that were absent. And more fully, and only, to this very Purpose is, a roupaon, the Recital or Commemoration of the Saints in Dionysius, which I shall have occasion to set down more particularly by and by. One thing there, I must here take good notice of as very remarkable, as you have the same com

manded (by a peculiar Rubrick) to be done in James his Liturgy, before the Edit. Morel. words of Christ's Institution, they made a Thankful remembrance of his Incar

ization, Life, Crucifixion, Burial, Resurrection, and Afcenfion; concluding thus, we being mindful of things which he endured for our sake, fugepitga dév odi, thank

thee O God Omnipotent, not as much as we ought, but és much

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as we are able, and fulfill his Institution; For in the night in which he T. p. 99. was betrayed, taking Bread into his holy Hands &c. From fuch a Primitive Thanksgivivg as this, the whole performance was called the Eucharist.

Now from all this, I must confess that I am apt to think, that the latter Greeks, who (perhaps from this Custom of recoupring Christ's History before the words of his Institution) brought into their Liturgies a meer Allegory, or figurative Shew of Christ's whole Oeconomy, and pretended by all their odd Rites and Ceremonies, only to represent his History from his Birth to his Paffion and Afcension; did alfo Invent and bring in these pecíðas, Portions, only to represent a Visible and General Communion of the whole mystical Body of Christ, with Christ himself the Head, for why should it seem abfurd to the Greeks to represent Christ as a Fellow Communicant with them, in the E16- 3a. 9. 81. 1.

0. do 9. 84. 7 charist now, when Aquinas asserts it, and Bellarmine owns it as a common Opinion, That himself did eat it (that is, according to him (N. B.) eat him-Tom. 3. 1: 4. felf Transubstantiated) with his Apostles at its first Institution. And therefore (as the Custom was at Sacrifices and Feafts) they assigned these peculiar Portions to every One; To Christ, to the Virgin Mary, to the Prophets, Apostles, Fathers, Doctors, Priests, Martyrs, and Saints departed this Life ; and to all Orthodox Bishops, Presbyters, and Deacons, and to all other good Christians and Friends, Living or Dead: That by thesc Por. tions, the Dead Saiots and Absent Christians, might all be represented as Vicariously (or by Proxies) communicating with the Receivers then Prefent. For we find in the (pretended) Antient Liturgy of St. James, that the Bread Apostol. Cor.ft. and Wine were offer'd to God with Thanksgiving, for the whole Church 1. 8. c. 12. Militant and Triumphant. Particularly útép trávtwv TPS dt' aiav@ evagiena oavtoyoo dziwr, for all Saints who from everlasting had well pleased God; Patriarchs, Prophets, &c. for all whose Names God knew, (that is, whose Names were in the, troyegon, Catalogue,) and for all the People. By this they plainly acknowledged all good Christians both Quick and Dead to be of the fame Communion ; and the prestis, Portions, might afterwards be easily brought in to express this visibly.

First, I think it most manifestly evident that the present Greeks Practice is by no means Aptient, Goar himself owns that the setling of the Nine Portions, or Particles in Rank and File, was a meer novel Invention, whereof nothing is found either in the antient Fathers, or in the antient Manuscript Liturgies. Yet to prove that there were some fuch, meestes, Portions, or Jittle Bits severally made of old, he there quotes Dionysius and Epiphanius. Dionysius only faith, that after the venerable Symbols, by which Christ is Eccl. Hierarch. fignified (not made N.B.) are set on the Holy Altar, immediately is present, C. 3. Ş. 9. ' A rovedpu, a Defcription (or rather a Recital or publick mention of the vid. Bude Saints, declaring their inseparable Conjunction with the Vnion to Christ, p. 585. which (Union ) is Holy and above the World. Here is not the least Syllable of

any such Portions as he pretends; only the Symbols are mention'd, which Signifies only Christ himself; and how out of this, 'Atrovedping Commemoration of the Saints, he can make his Bits and Crumbs I cannot see; This mention of the Saints was plainly no more then their Commemoration, or an owning of them to be true Members of Christ's Mystical Body, as is above noted. I will allow it possible indeed that the latter Greeks might bring in their Diptyclus afterwards, from this Antient 'Ariyegon, Commemoration of the Saints, but before I will allow even that to be Apostolical or truly Primitive, he must prove his Dionyfius to be fo and not Spurious. However in the days when James his Liturgy, in the Apostolical Constitutions was written, there were no such Crumbs as he contends for ; for the Bishop gave to every one, both Clergy and Layman, a goo pogar, an Oblation, (a whole Piece at least

, not a Mite) saying only, The Body of Christ, and be that received said, Ameil; T. p. 91. and then the Deacon gave the Cup (without these Crumbs, and not only a little Spoonful) saying only, The Blood of Christ, the Cup of Life, and he

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T. p.91. that drank said, Amen. We will allow all this Antient, but far enough from

the present Practice. Next what he would draw from Epiphanius is altogether
as trifling. We Remember (faith Epiphanius, as he cites him) the 11 jt and
the Sinners, for Sinners imploring God's Mercy; for Righteous Men, Fa-
thers, Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Evangelists, Martyrs, Confessors,
Bishops, Anachorets, and every Order, that we might separate the Lord
Christ, from the Order of Men by the Honour given to Him. Can any Man
but Goar be so quick sighted, as to fee any of the pretended Bits and Crumbs
in these Words ? They pray'd for God's mercy upon Sinners, but only remem-
bred Christ's Saints, to put that Distinction between his Holy Orders, and the
Order of meer Men. No, faith Goar, He meant, Hostiam ejus nomine præ-
cisam, to separate the Host (he had better have faid plainly the Wafer) cut
off in Christ's Name, from the Particles of the Saints, very acutely indeed.
But that the Portions of Bread, which every one received at the Sacrament,
were called, useidos, Portions, and also that they were not little Scrapings
or Bits picke out of one, or several Loafs, but Pieces of the

very

same Bread which represented Christ’s Body only, (of which many were often left after the Communion was over, sometimes in great quantities) even in Justi

nian's time, (that is about the middle of the sixth Century) is most plain from 1. 4. C. 36. that noted place in Evagrius; when any quantity, faith he, talv ávím preiden

s dxgévto owual Xerços of the Holy Portions of Christ's immaculate Body
remained not used, taidas á péágos, little young School-boys were sent for to
eat them. I think nothing can be fuller Evidence then this, to prove the pre-

fent Greeks Practice invented and raken up since that time. And the Ingenuous Not. in Gabr. R. Simon, who justiy owns that the parts of the Bread, which were received

by the Communicants, were called by the Fathers of old, uelitos, Portions,
and
quotes

this very Passage in Evagrius for it, yet very honestly confeflech
that the latter Greeks have brought in, alias particulas, another jört of Par-

ticles, or Portions, which Chryfoftom and Bafil never dream'd of; and plain{ p. 251, ao ly demonstrates that these new Portions were not received or known in Ger.

manus his time, who lived (as is above noted) in the beginning of the eight
Century; and he moreover fully declares there, how the Theoria, which

goes
under his name, hath been abused, being in some places patch'd and stuft with
new matters, and in others, gut and mangled; and he particularly mentions
the old, éyxegrow, manner of receiving the Bread, to wic all the Communi-
cants holding their left hand under their right crofwise, took it into the
hallow of the right hand, as only the Priests and Deacons, in the Greek Church,
do now, as is before mention'd; But all this about the, éyxeignois, old way of
taking the Bread in the Hand, is now left out in the common Theoria of
Germanus ; I suppose because it manifestly destroys the prefent Greeks Lay-
communion, where the poor Layman takes nothing into his hand, but one poor
little Spoonful is all his, regis, Portion. This, éyxéipnois

, taking of the Bread Can. 101: into the Hand of the Receiver, is expresly commanded by the sixth Council Labb. Tom. 6. in Trullo, and he that takes it or gives it in any lostrument or thing made of p. 1186. a.

Gold or any other matter is to be Excommunicated. And the word cited by

Arcudius out of St. Basil, shew that in his time the Communicant received,
p. 181. a.
Epist. ad Cæfar. Trio jepida tñ idia xepi, his Portion into his own hand and put it to his Mouth
Patriciam. himself. Thus the Portion which every Communicant cook, after the old use

is called twice in Basil's Liturgy megis Tão áricouátwr, a Portion of the hal-
low'd Things, (according to the Bishop of Oxford's Copy and my owo MS.)
in the Prayer ó Oeds nãr, ó ©ios Tsoulev, though in the second place, instead
of, Mepida, a Portion, is read in Goar and other printed Copies, exrida, Hope,

which makes it perfect ponsense. So in the supposed Liturgy of James, the

. 34,35,36

. mepis, Portion of every Receiver was plainly a Picce, or good Fragment of

the Bread taken out of the Dish or Patin, not deliver'd with a Spoon. So that
all this and much much more which may be faid, plainly prove that the Por.

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tions (these Bits and Scrapings ) now used by the Greeks are a very Novel or T. p. 92. late Invention.

Yet from this antient use of the word of old ( as in all the foregoing Examples) for a Port101 in the Sacrament, the latter Greeks have used it in this new contrived Vicarious Communion; for the Portions of every one, whom they count true Members of the whole Church, both Militant and Triumphant, Living or Dead, Present or Abfent. And I am perswaded that the first Inventers of this Custom did then design by it nothing but such a Vicarious Communion of the Dead and Abfent, as join'd with thole then present. And the whole Church Militant and Triumphant being lookt upon, according to St. Paul, as all 1 Cor: 10.17; one Bread and one Body, all Members of the same one Mystical Body, where. of Christ is the Head, as all are partakers of the Same Bread; These new Modellers assign’d to the Head and to every Member his particular Portion. First to Christ the Head; which Portion in James his Liturgy is ex. Edit. Mord. pressly called uegis ávía xgisē, the Holy Portion of Christ, and was then that piece of the whole Bread which was put into the several Cups; the rest was divided and laid in Dishes for the Communicants, so that the whole Vicorious Communion seems not then fully Contrived or compleated, for in that Liturgy there is not one Bit assign'd peculiarly to the Virgin Mary, or any other of the Saints, (who now make up the nine Orders, rank and file,) or any Scrapings or Crumbs for the Abient. And that they did look upon Christ, as Head, to be, ou pepeéroxo, a copartner or joint Communicant Mystically with all the other Members of that his Body, I think is most evident by that Prayer which I have fer down above out of a very fair MS. of p. 84. Nos. * my own.

The Portion of Christ, faith Goar, was called (I suppose fomctime after James his Liturgy was coin'd) ozôjecte x8isã Christ's Body, as the Portion of the Virgin Mary, was, as he faith, (not unlikely as Christ's Portion was ) by some mistaken for her Body; But he vindicates it to be only Geotóxo Mepida, the Portion of the Mother of God. And by this Portion she is also (even according to him,) made Vicariously a Communicant; for by the force of plain truth he tells us, dum cujufque nomen &c. whilst the Priest T. p. 93. and Deacon recite every ones name, at the same time for their Salvation p. i 20. 46. he takes out and offers a Portion, and by this means he makes them par. takers of the Sacrifice. So that according to him, every one that hath a Portion assign'd him now at the Sacrament, is a Communicant, as all who were of old Commemorated there, were accounted as such. And Simeon Thel.

De Templo. owns it as an old Tradition, that the Portioris did much good, for they are For (or instead of) the Perfons for whom they are offered, and a Sacrifice is offèrd to God for them. Yet I shall not agree with him about the Sacri. fice'; he making it the real Sacrifice of Christ's very Body; I the Sacs of Praise and Thanksgiving only, in Remembrance of that real Body once Sacrificed for us; and methinks He and the Greeks, to whom the Virgin Mary is Trevíz, and öxsert, All-holy and Spotlefs (that is, without Sin) do debase Her by making Her a Partaker or concern'd in this Sacrifice, if it be at the Sacrament a real Sacrifice for Sin, as Arcudius upon another account 1. 3. c. 12. owns; whereas in our Sacrifice of Praise and Thanksgiving (according to p. 184. a. this new mode) Christ himself, and She, and all Saints Dead and Living might Apocal. 14. 3: be (by this Commemoration) supposed to join. Again Goar in his Explica- 15: 3. tion of the word, pevn scoverev, "Remember, faith, Nominare in Sacrificio & Pre-p: 144, 145. cibus & ad Communicationem admittere &c. To name one in the Sacrifice and c.s. p. 11. b. Prayers, and to admit one to a Communication fignify the same thing with both Latins and Greeks. So that by this he owns all Saints both Quick and Dead by being named at the Sacrament, to be made Communicants, much more than by having a Portion affigu'd them; And it is plain by what he cites there out of Cyprian, none were of old to be named at the Communion,

Epist. 16.p.36. who where by their ill behaviour be excluded from it, Then all that were & Ep. 1. p. 3. named there, (thouglt absent) were looké upon as Communicants, and the Edit. Oxon.

fame

p. 231.

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