Obrazy na stronie

S. .

Pour (hot Water) crosswise] The Latins, at the Council of Florence, T. P. 79wondred at the Greeks for putting warm water into the Wine in the Cup, after Tom. 13. their Consecration ; and well they might. For as Goar faith, there is nothing of p.524. D. it to be found in either the Antient MSS, or in the Antient Authors; and op: 149: a. therefore he concludes it to be a meer novel Invention. You


fee there, feveral Authors Explications of this Ceremony, but all of them tend to the Declaration of Christ's History, as in the preceding part of the Liturgy; fo here, this is to express, the Water and Blood which flow'd out of his side warm, as Germanus explains it. And Balfamon counts it Herefy not to put Theor. Moret. in warm IVater into the Wine here, upon that Account. But fürely then he turborg could not believe that the cold Water and Wine, in the Cup before, were 1. 3. Interrog. Christ's Blood; if they were Transubstantiated before, this hot water that is

18. p. 287. put in after Consecration must needs be meer Water still.

T. p. 79. a. Some of the Latins have endeavoured to palliate and excuse this Practice of the Greeks, yet most of them in good earnest utterly explode it, for it can never be reconciled to the Doctrine of their great Oracle Aquinas, who faith tert. q.83.6. exprelly : Nullo inodo debet aqua vino jam consecrato misceri, quia fequeretur quart. Corruptio Sacramenti pro aliqua parte. Water by no means ought to be mixt with the Wine when it is Consecrated, because the Sacrament would in jome part be corrupted thereby. But you may fee how that Angelick Spark of a Schoolman was sorely puzzled about this Matter; for in another place before this, he handles the same point Pro and Con; and gives us as compleat an Instance of the trifling Subtilties of the Schools, as you can find any where elle. At last bis Conclusion is this: If another Liquor, faith he, (suppose first, fresh Wine) be mixt with the confecrated Wine in such a quantity as it may be diffused through the whole Wine, ( as suppose cqual parts of that, are put to equal parts of this) in this Case this mixture is neither the one nor the other, but some third Thing is compounded of both, and therefore the first (consecrated) Wine doth not remain; but if Water was thus mixt, the Species (or Kind) of Wine would be dissolv'd, and the whole Liquor

201ld be another Kind. Now in this Cafe I must ask, what then becomes of the confecrated Wine, or the supposed Blood of Chrift? Would that be dissolved too? He goes on, But if the Liquor added be of the same Kind, as IVine to Wine, it would indeed remain the same species, or Kind, (that is, Wine ftill,) but it would not be the same Numerical, or Individual, Wine; which would appear by the diversity of Accidents, as if Red Wine and White were mixt; it would bave another (more diluted) Colour. Here I demand again, If the Accidents here plainly distinguish the whole, not to be the same Numerical Wine that it was before, why shall not the Accidents of the Bread remaining in that Element, after Confecration, as manifestly distinguish it from being the true Body, that is, the Flesh and Bones of Christ? He proceeds, But if the Liquor added be so little, as it cannot be (perfundi) diffused thorough the whole, the whole Wine will not be pers mixt, but only some part of it. I here repeat my first question, What then becomes of that part that is thus mixt, doth it remain still the same kind of Wine, or Blood, as it was before ? It is plain, according to him, by what there immediately follows, that it is not the same Numerical Thing, let the mixture be made with new Wine or with Water; and if so it is plain that it cannot be the Blood of Christ; for he faith plainly, That only the Species (or Elements) which remain (cædem numero) numerically the same, are his. Body and Blood. At last he concludes, That if the Liquor added be so much in quantity, as to be diffused and permixt with the whole Consecrated Wine, it would be Numerically another Thing, and the Blood of Christ would not remain there. Here I still would know, what then becomes of the Blood of Christ, which the Confecrated Wine before this mixture (according to him) really was ? Upon my word this is a notable Miracle indeed; the Priest by Confecrating the Wive first Transubstantiates it into the Blood of Christ, and



T. P.79.


by pouring in as much or more Water into it then there was Winc, he Untransubstantiates it again immediately. He must needs own that to much Water may (by a careless Priest, or otherways) be added as to work this Vntran. substantiation in the whole ; but he takes notice only of it as it may be done only in part, by pouring in a little Warer, (Cold or Hot after the Greeks way)

and, he faith, That part only is no longer the Blood of Christ which is thus T. p. 79. b. mixt, but all the rest still remain his Blood. How the poor Greeks will now

come off with this Angelical Doctor, and the rest of the Latins, or how either the one Party or the other in these Points, will satisfy any unbiased or unprejudiced upright Thinker, I cannot see nor fay. He that hath the School

Itch of Wrangling and Disputing, and loves to spend his time only in tying de gen. es Cor. and loosing Knots in a Bulrush, may from that one Chapter in Aristotle (from 1,1.C 10. P. whence Thomas brings his Instance of mixing one Drop of Wine with a thout

sand Buts of Water) raise more Phantoms and Apish Devils, in an hour, then all the Wisdom of their Schools would ever be able quietly to lay again; Parilon the Extravagancy of the Figure, I mean so many Physical and Metaphysical intricate Notions and Questions, as would fet all such bury Heads together by the Ears for ever: As luch as these, What is true Natural Mixture? what that of the Elements, or other Bodies; whether there can be any

Artificial Mixture true ; What is Generation and Corruption? How Mix.
ture differs from them; whether there are any Substantial Forms, or pure-
ly Immaterial Substances which distinguish the several Species, or Kinds of
Bodies; what they are; or whether only insensible Particles of one common
Matter can produce these so different kinds, by only their different Magni-
tudes, Figures, Positions, outward Applications, and Conjunctions to one
another; whether all Matter is the same in it self, and whether every
Body is specifically distinguished by only different, juxta positiones, several
placings of the insensible Particles of it" by one another; whether the
smallest parts of Bread, Flesh, and Stone ; of Wine and Water, and Blood;
of Gold and Lead, and Tin; be all the very same kind of Matter; what is
the Substratum, the ground or support of all these Specifical Modifications :
These and a thousand more of the like Points must be fettled first, or else the
School Divine, as well as the Alchymist, áego 6etgo, are only building Castles
in the Air. These are indeed fine Airy Notions and proper to exercile youth-
ful Brains; but after the School Divines brought them into Religious Matters,
To make any thing of any thing, they banish'd all Inquiry after true Devotion
and practical Religion out of the World. When such sophistical Doctors as
these, had studiously perplext what was plain Matter of Faith and Practice,
to make it Mysterious and Intricate; and had dared to dive into, and rafhly
determine Matters, fupra nos, which were known only to God himself,
Chaucer had some good Reason to say,


For the secret Things belong unto the Lord our God, but those Things which
Deut. 29. 29. are revealed belong unto us and to our Children for ever, That we may do

all the Words of his Law. B. p. 26.

Then the Priest Say] lo what now follows, there is such strange Variety of T. p.79. c. Readings in all Goar's Copies, and my Printed Euchologion, and in both my

MSS, as one would think that the Greeks have been either abominably careless, or perfect Strangers, and as it were Schismaticks to one another, in the manner of distributing the Sacrament to the Communicants.

I know not any two Copies, which, in ir, perfectly agree, as any one inay see this truth by comparing them. In some the Priest first takes his Portion to Communicate, in others the Deacon; the form of Words said to the Communicants is almost always different. It would be too tedious a matter to transcribe them all in


this one part ; I shall here only give you a Specimen or two out of my MSS, T. p. 79; which you may at your Leisure compare with the Rest. In my latest MS, A. P. 37. . just after the hot water is pour’d in, They (the Priest and Deacon) both worJhip together thrice; then pray, “ Of thy Mystical Supper, three times; Then the Deacon croseth his Horarion, (which here is done long before,) The Priest making a, pe tavoiav, low Reverence to the Deacon, and asking Pardon, takes a Portion of the Bread and dividing it in two, he keeps one piece in the palm of his right Hand, and holding the other with three Fingers of the same Hand, he Softly calls the Deacon, who makes a Reverence and asks Pardon. When he gives him his part he faith, “ The precious " and all-holy Body – melddresów is imparted to Deacon N. N. for Remission, &c. The Deacon kissing his Hand goes behind the Table, and bowing his Head, frays, “ O Lord, I believe -ó ZATENGÀr, who comest down from

the Heavens, and hast been incarnated by the Holy Ghost to fave Sinners, “ whereof I am the Chief; Lord, let not the partaking of the Holy Mysteries, " and the rest of that as here. These two Prayers following in Goar, Kúese p. 82, 83. šx tipi @Eics, “ O Lord, I am not worthy, &c. are not here. The Priest holding his piece, bows his Head before the Table, and faith the same words, as the Deacon did. The rest is much the same as it is here, only, ide te pooep zouecey. " See I come to the Immortal King, is not there. Lastly, The Deacon wipes also his Lips, and the brim of the Cup with the Covering and salutes the Priest. Then the Priest say, Christ in the middle of us, The Deacon, “ Both is and shall be. Io my other MS, all is much shorter and stands thus; T. p. 13. Just after the hot water is pour’d in, Then, the Priest, takes in the right T. p. Hand a Portion, saying " Thy Holy Body, uel didoueira N. N. iegti, to N. N.

Priest, having been made partaker, to Remission of Sins, and to Life Eternal. Keep, Quráčov auto, įr (or him) as (régi) the Pupil (or Apple) of the Eye.

And bowing the Head, he faith, “Of thy Mystical Supper, and the other. " Aéorola Dináv. Jpwme un Mon ána, “O Master, Thou Lover of Men, let “ not these Holy's become for Judgment, or for Condemnation, but for, 5 xétapoiv, sy ánæquón, Purification and Sanctification of Soul and Body; and for, appasova, an earnest of the Life and Kingdom to come.

And standing up he makes a Cross upon his Face with his right Hand, saying, “ I believe ** and confess

, that Thou art Christ the Son of the living God: without Kóesés Lord, or the rest in Goar. Then follows immediately, Receive the Body p. 82. 83. " of Christ, Tast of the Immortal Fountain. And again be faith,

" The • Servant of God, N. N. Priest, or Holy Monk, jegoueóvax@, receives the

precious, and holy, and spotless Body of our Lord, and God, and Saviour “ Jelus Christ. This, I suppose, is the same which he faith, when he gives the Bread to the Deacon, or any other Priest, or Monk. And afterwards he partakes of the Cup, aying, « Θεορρύτω αίματι κενωθέντι, δέσποτα

άχραντα πλευράς και ζωοποιά, θυσία με πέπαυλα, έδειλική" πασα δε γη σε 9 αινέσεως. • Την θυσίαν αναφέρομεν. O Master, Christ, by the Heavenly flowing Blood

empty'd out of thy spotless and quickening Side, the Idol Sacrifice, or of

Idols, is ceased. All the World or Earth. Of thy Praise, we bring the Sacrifice. All these last are short hints of other Versicles. Then thus be, éyol auta, joins or unites them with Attention and Wariness; and he turns to the People holding the Holy Cup. The Deacon faith, Draw ye near, or come hither; The People. Blessed is he that comerh. The Priest, “ O Lord save thy People, and bless. Then comes the Prayer, Eixavigoữuév Goar. p. 84: co do Trodde, “We thank Thee, O Lord, or Master. There are many other here p. 28. little various Readings of Words and Phrases which I omit; yet one thing I must here remark, that in Goar, when the Deacon partakes of the Cup, there p. 83. are expreffed, το τίμεων και άγιον σώμα και αίμα και Χρισου, both the Body and Blood of Christ, though he partook the Body before ; fo thus he partakes it double : P: 84. video But if the little bit of the Bread thrown into the Cup, made that which was in it both the Body and Blood of Christ to the Deacon, why should it not L 2


hic p. 83

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]




T. p. 80. do fo to the Priest? Yet there is no mention of the Body when the Cup is

given to the Deacon, even in some Copies in Goar, and in both my MSS, and p.150.175. fome other Copies which I have seen, and Goar confesseth the ancient way io

have been otherwise. C. p. 26. Makes his low Reverence] The Greek word is pe:C:o.2, properly Repen.

But because for many Faults amongst the Greeks (cfpecially in Monasterics) it is enjoin’d by their Confessors as a piece of Perance (upon their seeming Reperitance) not only to bow, but prostrate themselves flat upon the Ground, before a Picture or otherwise; the word is often taken for Penance in general, and frequently for that fort of Penance in particular. In some MSS. which I have of monastical Canons, I find two forts of it, one of bowing with the Hand down to the very Ground, another sepiaías velcroias of prostrating or lying flat upon it. For fome Faults these are cujoin'd to be done Ten, Twenty, nay, a Hundred times together; and truly if the Penitent performs this Penance justly, it will be no finall Mortification to him. The Turks in their Prayers, fometimes Kneel, then bending their Fists with their Thumbs out, and leaning them upon the Ground, they to do kiss it, and then touch it with their Fore-head: And I have seen the same done in the Armenian Church at Brussia, by the Votaries when they firit come in; and I am apt to believe

that the Anticnt Jews had some such Practice in the Temple, from that, O Pr. 95.6. come let us worship and fall down, and kneel before the Lord our Maker,

and I suspect that some fuch kind of Veneration was meant by the Heathens, A&. 1. 2- touching the Earth upon some frightful Accounts, as in Plautus Mostellaria.

Now from this religious Practice, or Penance amongst the Greeks, the word
is used in common Behaviour, for bowing, or making a low Reverence with
the right Hand on the Breast, as their custom is; and our common Comple-
ment, at our Entrance to any great Ecclefiaftick, as Patriarch, Metropolite,
Bishop, or the like, is letovoie deo troll, Reverence Sir, as much as to lay, I
bow my Body to kiss your Hand, or your Veft; and I fancy that our Practice
of bowing to one another, (with our Hands to the very Ground) here in the
West, was long ago borrow'd from the East; where of old, as row, they wore
long Garments, and the Clients, or Suitors, there bow'd to kiss the Hem of the
Vest or Garment of their Parrons, or other Great Men. But the word in this
Place, uendroic, significs no more then civil Reverence, or bowing, in a fami-


v. 37

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

liar way

[ocr errors]

D. p. 26. T. p. 81. p. 149.169


Asks Pardon ] Goar takes notice that every one that Communicates in the
Greek Church, fays to the rest, that are there, ou legégets Xelgravi Pardon, O
Christians, and that they answer again, ó oeds ovlywgion te, God pardon you;

and to what the Deacon here doth to the Priest (and the Priest to him, as in A. p. 37. my MS) is, according to him, in Performance of this Custom. I have always

observed indeed the Deacon, when he received, to make a reverent Bow to the
Priest, and the Priest to give a grave Nod to him again; and many of the other
Lay-Communicants will make a little Bow to the rest, fonctimes with more,
sometimes with less Respect; and these will return fometimes a little Nod to
them. And so when the Deacon receives, kiss the Hand of the Priest, and
Priclt's kissing (not his Hand but his Check, and all Priests (or in Priest's Or-
ders, and above them) kissing both the Patriarch's Hand and Check when he
celebrates) as their Fashion is, it is all to the fame Signification, of Christian
Charity or Spiritual Vnion. But I do not remember, that I ever heard any

thing of this laid aloud amongst them, though that it hath been practised somep. 98. a. timcs by them is clear by one of Goar's Copics; and I believe that mutual Forgiveness

, or Christian Love, may be the nicaning of this mutual Respect, and they may have the Seose of these words in their Minds too, or fostly speak them; as many amongst us, after these Words, The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ which was given for Thee, &c. will say, (some in their Minds, some softly out,) Amen. But if any of the Greeks fay any thing, it must not be in Goar's words, but in Vulgar Groek; as it is a usual thing amongst them, when

a Man


p. 86. c.

Ad finem.

CHRYSOSTOM'S LITURGY. a Man in Company says, or docs any odd or extravagant Thing, for him to T. p. 814 fay, vi pod wzwgrons (if to one) or, ousxaghonte if to many, which they pronounce, Na me Sinchoresete) Pardon me; and the antiver is, và coi (or for more respect ) và oa's, ouxwgion ó Oids ( 11a fe, or na sas, Synchorese o Theos ) may God pardın you ; as we say amongst us on the like Occasion, Pardon me, Sir, and God forgive you. But now at a navázugis, general Assembly at a Holy Fountain, or some Holy Place in the Fields, where Hundreds of People meet; I never faw any thing of this; and many times only one Priest performs the whole Solemnity, and when the People receive the 'Arvidogov, the Vicarious Communion, they bow to the Priest, and kiss his Hand and put it to their Forehead, without saying one word.

Takes the Holy Bread] First it is called Bread still. Next the Deacons and F. f. 26. Priests, and all higher Ecclesiastical Orders take the Bread from the Hands of him that celebrates, The Holy Bread at the Eucharist was of old taken in the hand by the Communicant, and not put into his Mouth by the Priest, as the Latins Custom now is, as Habertus fhews at large; yet I believe this peculiar way of the Greeks, as well as that of the Latins, are of novel Invention, there Archieratic was no such Custom then of giving it in a Spoon; and no Margaritæ into the hol- P-28.2.c. in low of their right Hand, with the left Hand lying crosswise under it; and then Trullo. 5. 6. fhurcing the right Hand they go behind the Holy Table; and with these Suf- P: 1596. 2. frages following O Lord I Believe and Confess &c. faid privately there vido p. 86. c. to themselves, they there eat it; and he that celebrates, bowing at the Table fays the same Suffrage, and then Eat his


there. O Lord I Believe ] These are the beginnings only of the Suffrages; you G. p. 26. have the first two entire in Goar, the third is not there.

Three times ] Saying (as I have often observed being present ) the Pre. H. p. 26. cious and All-holy Blood, leaving out Body, which is used in the Form to the Deacon, as I have above noted) of our Lord and God and Saviour Hefils Chrift is imparted to me, N. N. Priest, for the Remission of my Sins and for Eternal Life; In the name of the Father (here he takes one little Sup (and of the Son (here he takes another) and of the Holy Ghost, here he takes a third. And the Deacon and all the higher Orders, who receive the Wine out of the Cup, Sups thrice also at the same words; which here to the Deacon are left out, but the three sups are always used.

Wiping his own Lips] Here, and in what follows, is such an Evidence that I. p. 26. the first Composers of this Liturgy, (or at least of this part of it) thought nothing of Transubstantiation, as no reasonable Man can desire a greater. If they had thought this Liquor had been the very, true, real Blood of Chrift, would they have let the clout or Covering have suckt up any of it? If the least I p. 82. drop of Christ's Blood, as some tell us, was alone a fufficient Ransom for a Thousand Worlds, would they have been so Prodigal of it as to let fo contemprible a Creature, as a poor piece of Cloath, partake so freely of it, as it must needs do, by wiping the Priests, the Deacons, all the Communicants Lips ( for all they wipe too) and the brim of the Cup, where the Ecclefiasticks all Drink. Both Greeks and Latins preserve a musty Rag, or bit of filthy Cloach, or any other vile Thing, in Memory of this or that Saint, or this or that use which they made of it ; then furely the Covering, Sopt and Stain'd with the very fresh Blood of Christ, fhould never be sent to washing, but be kept, and valued by every one that can catch one, as the truest and most valuable Relicks in the World, Goar tells us that Cyril of Hierufalem advised p. 15. 173 his Communicants to touch their Eyes with the Holy Bread, and to wet their Eyes and Forehead, and all the Organs of their Senses, with the Wine or. Liquor which stuck to their Lips. If in his time they took the Bread vid. infra and Wine for Christ's very Body and Blood, methinks they made very bold with it. See I come] This is not in my MSS. as is above noted.

K. P. 26. The Precious Blood) Here is only the Blood mention'd, not the Body L. P. 25. with it.


Not. T.

« PoprzedniaDalej »