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F. p. 25.
Euchol. p. 75. Goar p. 174. G. p. 250
T. P. 742 would surely have Pray'd to Him there, and not as sitting in his Holy Habi
tation and on his Glorious Throne in Heaven.
All thy People by ns ] For all the megidas Portions, which are made for all the People, Present and Absent, Living and Dead, are eaten or received by thofe then Present; and the rest who are Absent, arc hereby thought to communicate with them vicariously hereby, of which more fully in another place. You have the very fame Prayer in Basil's Liturgy.
Touching the Holy Bread] It is here, and all along in what follows, called Bread still, nay, even where the Deacon and Priest communicate, and what is faid to excuse this overfight is meer trifling. And R. Simons's distinction, now darās fed geenixãs not absolutely but relatively will not do. Now, tay they, it is Christ's very Body, and so it is truly called the Holy Bread, not plaint Bread, but that Bread which came down from Heaven. But why should the Holy Bread here signify, in a more Myftical Sense, quite another thing from what it did, when the Priest at the Prothesis dig’d Christ's Portion out of the Oblation or Loaf? It is the fame individual Portion fill, and this Bread having been Sanétified, or Blessed by Prayer again and again, is ftill more
properly therefore called Holy Eucharistical Bread. H. p. 25.
The Holy Elevation) The Latins think they have some colour from hence
for their Élevation ; but first their Elevation is made of the Host and of the Can. Mifle. Cup, just after the words of Christ are pronounced, whereas the pre
tended Greek Elevation is made, as here, a very great while after, and but a little before the Deacon and Priest communicate. Next there is no such Elevation of the Bread made by the Greek Priest over his Head, as is made in the Latin Church, but only he takes it up in his Hand before him, as being
ready to divide it, as followeth. And it is remarkable that in the Liturgy of Goar, p. 142; the Pre-fančtified, by an express Rubrick, when the Priest is to Elevate N. B. Euchol.
the Holy Bread, it is to be covered with the Aer, and he only puts in his hand and touches ic warily; so that this is far cnough from shewing it to the People. I my self have been often an Eye witness of this, being permitted to stand by in the arion Peñuez, Chancel, and at their Altars at Holy Fountains, during the whole Service. Next there is no Elevation of the Cup at all, a. mongst the Greeks, either any where Mention'd or ever Practised, as it is amongst the Latins. Again the Greek Priest takes up only the biggest piece or Christ's Portion to break it, as is said, but touch not one of the other Portions or Crumbs; yet all these with a bit of Christ's Portion are fwept together into the Cup for the Lay-mens. Communion; now if these Crumbs are Tranfubftantiated, or made Christ's very Body as well as they say bis Portion is, why were thcy not taken up or Elevated as well as it; if they were pot his Body, (as several Greeks, as abovcsaid, hold that they are not Consecrated) how will
they know whether the Lay-men partake of the Body or no, for they cannot V.d. Arcud. distinguish these many many numerous Mires, from thole very few of Christ's Porp. 145. 158: tion put into the Cup: Goar himself cor.fesseth that this Elevation, or taking
3. c. 35. up, is not made so high, as that the People may see it; And Arcudius says p. 311. a. indeed an Elevation is made at those words, Holy things to the Holy, but the Eucharist is not Mewn to the People. Therefore if the word inferis
, Elevation or lifting up, and this Ceremony and Rubrick were at first here, I fancy it meant no more than to take the Bread up to divide it, as is said; but it is more likely that this very word übwris Elevation, and the whole entire paffage hath been here craftily imposed upon the Greeks, to bring them by degrees nearer and nearer to the Latins; for there hath been manifest jumbling in this
place, for what you have here in Goar, just before the pretended Elevation, po $1. S. ( And likewise all the People with reverence Adore) and just after it, (the
Choir; one Holy, one Lord, Jesus Christ, to the Glory of God the Father,
Morel. p. 177
De cult. Latin.
p. 147. 162.
tinizing Greeks; However ic was, I cannot but take notice that in Goar the T. p. 76 Adoration is made before, what is called the Elevation is made; but in the Latin Church it is after it. See more afterwards, p. 82. Goar acknowledges Ue fuprato that no mention is made of this Elevation by the old Expositors of Rites and Ceremonies; and he also confesseth that it doth not appear when the Latios joind it to their Sacrament; and blames Durantus for asserting that it never was separated from it. What he faith of Germanus his mentioning Something of the Greek Elevation, whereas (as he owns) there is nothing of it in the Euchologion, shews plainly that it is a novel Invention of those or later times; and what Germanus faith is poor stuff, and nothing to Goar's 'Eppens ors purpose. But he that would see more of this let him consult the Lcarncd Dallaus.
Holy Things ] The Gifts are called Holy, being Blessed and Sančtified, and ':*3: 6.20,&c. by Prayer appropriated to this Holy Use; therefore they ought to be Holy who receive them; according to Christ's command, give not that which is Holy Mar. 7. 6. unto the Dogs; wicked Men Eat and Drink their own Condemnation; St., Cor. 11. 29 Irenæus, They are not Sacrifices which Sanctify the Man, or makes him Holy, l. 4. C: 34but it is a pure Conscience which San&tifies the Sacrifice, that is, makes it p. 362. acceprable unto God.
Crofwise] For this sparkish Ceremony see a very poor account in Goar; he 5: P. 25; hints ar, dictum Evangelicum, some saying in the Gospel for it, but I must confels my Ignorance, for I do not remember that I ever read any thing like it there. Yet one thing here I cannot pass by; in the two Figures which he there p. 147. and gives of the Deacon, he hath represented him with the Crown of his Head' p. 210. Shorne after the Latin fashion, which I never saw in any place amongst the Greeks in my Life in any of their Ecclesiasticks; And lately when the Metropolite of Philippopoly was here with me at Cambridge, with his Priefts and Deacons, they all phew'd their bare Heads before us, without the least part Shaved. Anno. 1700. When the Deacon is ordain’d the Arch-bishop only makes the sign of the Cross chrice upon his Head, without cutting a Hair; when the’Aveyráans, Lector or Reader indeed is ordain’d, (which is the initiation of his first Ecclesiastical Function,) the Arch bishop clips a very little Hair iš the Crown of his Head crosswise, saying, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, giving a little snip at each of the three Persons names; then the Hair is presently clipt quite down by some other into the form of a very
little Cross, but the Hair is never cut there any more but suffer’d to grow; aud amongst all the Deacons and Priests that ever I conversed with, I never met with one whose Crown was Shaved, except two who had been brought up at the Greek College or School in Rome, and they had only a little place not bigger than a Groat on the very top of their Crown bare, which they kept to as a badge of Pride, or as a Mark that they had been Travellers, rather then any thing else; and they were not very ready to fhew it to every Body; but I never saw any to have such a note in any publick Ministration. For all the Greek Ecclesiasticks count it a great Glory to have store of Hair on their Crowe, and all about their Ears, as well as on their Beards; and many old Monks, Hermits, and Anchorets, have I seen at Athos and elsewhere with their Hair both very thick and very long; yer every one of them entring into their Novitiat had a little snipt cross made at first, as is abovefaid, but they ever after suffer’d it to grow.
Into four parts] One of these parts is afterwards put into the Cup, the M. p. 25. other three are for the Deacon and Priest, and if any one be left, it is crumbled with the rest and put into the Cup. But if more Priests or Deacons be there, the three pieces are divided amongst them all, as Arcudius tells us out of Sim.
1. 3: €. 11 Thessalon. It is remarkable how Goar would most shamefully turn the Antient“p. "183. a. way of breaking Bread at the Sacrament, (of which I have discoursed above ) p. 147. 163. to justify this ridiculous and empty Ceremony of dividing this little Pittance or Portion of Christ. He owns great differences in the Practice of the East and
T. 9• 76. West concerning this Matter. The Latins divide their Hoft into three parts;
the Greeks into four, and sometimes only into three, as in one of Goar's Copies. bala de car.
The Muzarabes into nine. And without doubt the reasons of these last for Lat.1.3.1 +23 their Practice, ought to be admited as Mysterious and as good, as either the
Latins or the Greeks can pretend to for theirs. In James his Liturgy they seem to have used several whole Loaves and several Cups, and thus far they
came nearer to the Primitive way. And the Priest, (a great while after the p. 34. &c. words of Christ,) took up a Loaf, and brake it in two, holding one half in Edit. Morel. the right hand, the other in the left; and dipt that in the right hand in
one of the Cups, then with it signed, or croft, that in his left; and then with that in his left hand, which was sign'd already, he sigo'd the other half; then he began to divide, and before all other things to put into each Cup a single part. Then he begins to divide the rest of the Bread and lay the parts in several Dishes, as I conclude from what follows, of the several Deacons taking up the Dishes and Cups to give the Communion to the People. This giving to the People parts of the Bread out of the Dishes favours also of Antiquity; and letting them partake of the Cups, thews their Communion then to have been in both kinds. Now I doubt not but the Compoters of this odd Signing part of this Liturgy, found out fomething to say for their Ceremony likewise, of breaking their Bread, and dipping one half in the Cup, and the rest; as indeed Men of superstitious Fancies or quick Inventions, if they are once addicted to never so vain and absurd Customs, or Ceremonies, or Traditions, may casily continue fome deep and wonderfull Mystery in them, and exposition of them, as I could bring instances enough and enongh our of the Rationalia of both the Greek and Latin Services, and out of the interpre
ters of the Alcoran it self. He that desires to see more of this dividing of the Ut fupra. Greeks Bread, may read the Learned and Industrious Dallaus,
The Lamb of God] It is manifest here likewise (as is above faid) that there
hath been odd chopping and changing and Thuffling several Passages in and out, f. 93. aa. bb, as Goar himself owns; and in a very good MS. of my own, about 500 or I. p. 13. 600 years old, the whole Dialoge between the Priest and Deacon (froin the end
of that Prayer a little before, which conclude with these words, and all thy People by us) stands exactly thus ;
T. p. 77.
Not. M. p. 75.
Είτα θυμια την αγίαν τράπεζαν λέγων,
Και ύψοι τον άρτον:
Λέγει ο διάκονο,
Είτα μελίζει τον άρτον είς τίυαρα μέρη, και ποιεί ταυρύ τόπον εν τω δίσκω
Λέγει ο διακονώ,
Rubrick. Then (the Priest) Incenses the Holy Table, saying,
And he Elevates, or lifts up, the Bread;
The Deacon faith,
I hen he divides the Bread into four parts, and he makes the sign of
T. p. 77.
The Deacon faith,
p. ; Fill, Sir ;
And he puts a Portion into the Holy Cup. Here first the Bread is called only plain Bread; next in both my MSS. Tiqews, of Faith, is left out is the last versicle of the Priest, and truly to me it seems to disturb the sense (if there be any in it ) if it be put in, the fullness of Faith, of the Holy Gboft. Lastly here this whole obscure Sentence, the Lamb of God &c. is quite left out, as it is also in that in Goar, p. 109. pretended to be a part of Chrysostom's own Works. And therefore I think ī may justly suspect that it is a fpurious Fragment, at some time or other rafhly and unadvisedly patcht in. And even in that, there hath been new piece. ing too, for in Goar's Copy is read after the Lamb of God, ó'yos hatgis, the Son of the Father, and after, always eaten but never consumed, åxná Ty's Metázcortas årıáčer
, but Sanctifies the Receivers; which words are not in the Copy which the Greeks now use, nor in another MS. of mine (above 400 4. p. 36. b. Years old) where the rest of this Sentence indeed is found. If therefore they who first grafted in this Sentence, meant any thing, it must be taken in a spiritual Sense, for all the World must see that literally it cannot be true. The T. p. 78. Bread represents Christ's Mysticab Body, whereof we all are members, Separated indeed from one another Bodily, but not separated in Spirit either from one another or from Christ our Head; and thus divided and not divided. And true Christians shall thus for ever partake of Christ's Mystical Body, which is never consumed but is ever the same and entire, For we i Cor. 10.14. being many are one Bread and one Body, for we are all partakers of that one Bread; The Paschal Lamb was indeed divided and consumed, but the Mystical Body of Christ (who was the only true Lamb of God which taketh away the Sins of the World) is not so.
Many such Mysterious Raptures may be met with all in old Authors; Synefius is full of them; of God, he faith, thou art Father, thou art Mother ; Hym. 2. v. 93. thou art Male and thou art Female; thou art Voice, and thou art Silence, thou art Father of thy self, without Father, Son of thine own Self. Thou h. 3. 146. art that which begetteth, and that which is begotten. The Holy Ghost is Mother, and Sister, and Daughter, and the like. Such another dark saying you have here in this Liturgy, the Lamb of God is divided, but not into le- p. 26. & 27. parate parts, which in a Spiritual or Mystical Sense, as I have expounded it, may pass, as thac in Synefius, Noegà de Tomà agciqov em TÒ MELLT er éxt, An h. 4. V. 120 Intellectual Section, or notional cutting, keeps still that undivided, which is divided into parts. And thus that saying of an old Father, with some Men goes
down very glib. Credendum est quia est incredibile; we must believe it, because it is incredible. The modern Greeks surely have either quite forgotten or never understood their old Master Aristotle. He tells them that they need fo@usixão can never reconcile these, or any such Propositions, xt Tò autò, cu's tò auto, inérxa. 2.C.5. ocauzas, Tw avtớ xgóvco According to the very fame meaning, or Sense, or Nature; as refer'd to one and the very fame Thing, with the very same Respect; After the very fame Manner and Circumstances; at the very fame Time. Can the very same Individual Thing, be divided and not divided, at the same Time, and in the very fame Sense? Can the fame Thing entire be eaten by many, and yet in the same Sense not be eaten, separated, or consumed? So in like manner, can the fame Thing divide, disiribute to many, p. fupr. 19.74. and receive it self? And be the Divider, Distributer, and the Receiver, according to all these Conditions of the Philosopher? I own indced that in feveral Senses and Respects Notionally or Spiritually taken, not only all these Propositions but all those Paradoxes in Synefius, and a thousand more fuch, may be tolerably well accommodated:
So those sayings, Corruption is my Fa-706 17. '4.
h. 4. v. 101,
C. 25. 6.
O. p. 25
T. p. 78. ther, and a Worm is my Mother and Sifier; Man is a Worm, and the SON PL. 22.6. of Man is a Worm; I am a Worm and not a Man'; are all Right in a figu
rative, but not in a plain literal Sense.
A Portion which lies uppermost ] Here only one of the four little Bits into
which Christ's Portion is just before divided, is put into the Cup; but in anop. 100. A. ther Copy in Goar, doublvd és Tóū évig oánalo jezeldas, the Pricst takes
Portions from the Holy Budy, so that they have, by this, fomctimes put in more bits then one. However this Practice by no means agrees with what was before cited out of James his Liturgy; the Priest there broke a whole Loaf, not a little Pitrance. This is the Union, or Commixtion of the Elements made
in the Greek Church, but there is nothing laid of it here, as there is in the sit fupra. Latin Mass, of which more above. I have a MS Liturgy of the præfančtified I. p31. Things, which is very different from Goars, and all the printed Copics. I
Ευχή της προθέσεως όταν μέλλά εκβάλλειν ή άρτον
Τα κυρία δεηθεώμεν. .
Ευχή της ενώστως
Τα κυρίg δεηθώμεν. "Ενωσις ή αχράντα σώματα και το τιμία αίματος εις φυλακίλον τοις μεταλαμβάνεστ πίσεξ αυτού, παντοπ νυν και αει, και εις τες αιώνας των αιώνων. Αμήν.
Rubrick. The Prayer of Proposition when (the Priest) is about taking the Bread out of the Cupboard, or Box where it was kepe.
Let us beleech the Lord. We thank Thec, O Lord, our God, even for this Holy (thing or place) where the Holy's of thy Holy Mysteries are sec up; for ir hath been Blest, and it hath been Glorified.
The Prayer of Union.
Let us befeech the Lord.
I have not found this Form any where but in this MS, and in this very P, 191. %. place. Goar mentions indeed a Prayer of Proposition, which is found in
Jome Copies, but it is there expresly forbidden to be used. But this Prayer of Vnion I have not yet met withall elsewhere then bere; and I cannot imagine what Vnion it refers to. The præfančtified Breads are made in Lent every Sunday, (when Basil's Liturgy is faid) for the five Days following, by dipping the Spoon in the consecrated Wine in the Cup, and then with it touching each Bread crosswise on the Crumbside, where the Cross was before made with the Launce. After this is done, these thus præfan&tified Breads are kepe in the aptopóerov, Cupboard or Box, till used in the five Days following. Now if this be the Union here mention’d, it was made before the Breads were laid up; why then is this Prayer, or rather Declaration, made now when cach Bread
is taken out for use? No Vnion can be made afterwards, when a bit of this T. p. 79. præfančtified Bread is put into the Cup of Wine and Water then used; for
that Cup is of meer Wine and Water being not confecrated; for when he then Goar. p. 191. pours in IV ine and Water into it, he is obliged by the Rubrick to say nothing
at all i.pon it. This is an Vnion of the Bread, with Wine and Water, not with Christ's Blood : And how that Wine and Water should by this bit of Bread being cast into it, be afterwards made the Blood of Christ, I cannot see, unless it be by a new invented Transubstantiation, which neither Latins or Greeks have as yet thought of.