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true Bread and Wine , and in the Prayer of Proposition, they pray God too @sds, ó Ords bless this proposing (of them) and to receive it up to his Heavenly Altar, Goar. p. 63. and to remember those who Offered, and those for whom they Offered. Euchol. p. 36. What then becomes of these Gifts and Offerings, are they substantially and really taken up to Heaven, and leave only their bare Accidents behind them? If they be annihilated, quite destroy'd, how are they accepted? And how can they say, that Christ's Body and Blood (which they now would juggle into their place) are the People's Gifts and Offerings ? For they offer'd only Bread and Wine, and Prayers: The first, it seems, are Lost and Gone; the others prove Ineffectual and not heard; and if Christ's very Body and Blood are now there, they are his own Offerings; and yet that seem now as strange, for He, (as I can find) never offer'd himself but on the Cross once for all. Lastly after all these Prayers for the precious Gifts, the Table is called a spiritual Table, and the Bread, again and again, only the Holy Bread still, as it was at first; and by the Holy Gifts is plainly meant the Bread and Wine, or Holy Cup in what presently follows, and the remainder of them after the Communion is over, which are carried back to the Prothesis are still called, Gifts, and Holy Gifts, in one of Goar's Copies.
Lord who sentejt down] In this Euchologion only the beginning or part of G. p. 23: these three Suffrages are set down, but I have translated them entire, as the Priest and Deacon repeat them to themselves; and they are indeed but the beginning of that Prayer which you have put altogether above.
The Holy Bread] Here by the Holy Bread and the Holy Cup, and by the I. p. 23. Holy Gifts, are plainly meant the fame Things; and the firit Composers of this part of their Liturgy counted them till but true Bread and Wine ; and all the Variations that Goar pretends to have been made by the Greeks in this place (be they earlier or later) prove that then at least they thought the fame thing.
Make the Bread] I have touch'd above Bellarmines solution, which Arcu- L. p. 23. dius and others cannot most solid. That the Bread is made Christ's Body at the pronouncing of Christ's words, and that here they only pray that it may be Spiritually made so to the Receivers. If this was the Sense of the old Greeks, they would not have faid, make this Bread, but make this real Body of thine, thy spiritual Body to the Receivers, and thy real Blood now in this Cup, thy Spiritual Blood to them. But calling it still plain Bread, they could mean nothing else but this, make this (plain, true, natural) Bread, the Bread of the Eucharist, that is, Bleft with these divine Effects which follow. Again they who first composed this form, make this Bread, meant all the Loaves upon the Table, and they little thought that all the Bread to be used at the Sacrament, would afterwards be brought into only a little, Pugil, or heap of Crumbs and Mites; no Man of common Sense can be so gross and dull as to think that this was the Practice in the Apostles days, or in the Primitive times immediately following; And this I take to be another instance of the following Greeks blundering and inadvertency; after they had fancifully brought in these, megidis, Portions or Crumbs, they still keep the old Form, make this Bread, not at all considering whether it would well fuit with their new Invention; and it is remarkable that the Greeks themselves quarrel about this Matter ; G. Philadelph. and Simon Thesal. say that only
Arcad. l. 3 Christ's Portion offer'd to his Memory, is made His Body, and that the other Portions or Mites, duetasándorty, are not Changed. And Simon adds a pretty
183 remark to my purpose, that in this Liturgy the Priest says make this Bread, or Loaf,) and in the Præfančtified (where there are more than one Loaf) make these Loaves, not make these Portions or Mites. And suitably to this I take Notice, that in pronouncing these Words, the Priest does not take either the Bread or Particles into his Hands (as of old the whole Loaf was taken) but standing up (after the Deacon hath shewn them with his Horarium) he only makes a Cross over them, (as many common Blessing) which is certainly contrary to the Primitive practice. But now if the Portions (the Crumbs
P. 23. L.
C. 11. p. 182.
Not. in Gabr.
p. 113. b.
and Mites) are not Confecrated (as these Meo assert, ') or Transubstantiated;
the People, who only partake of them ( with a few Crumbs of Christ's Portion p. 94. L. put into the Cup and mixt with them are in a bad, or at best, in a worfe case
then the Priests, who partake of Christ's Portion by it self; yet they are bec
then in the Latin Church, where they have no Wine at all. Philadelph.
Next I observe that not only here after Christ's words, but after the Greeks Prayer also it is often called plainly Bread. To solve this Difficulry I fiod that the Learned R. Simon gave it this turn, mentioning an objection against Tran . fubftantiation taken from the Malabar Cbristians, with whom these words are used in the Consecration, Accipite & comedite ex hoc Pane omnes, take and Eat all of you of this Bread, and from the Æthiopians, where are these words, Hic Panis eft Corpus meum, This Bread is my Body, his Antwer is, That, Theologi, Divines with one Mouth do confess that the Bread after it is confecrated may well be called Bread still. If he instances in any of the old Fathers, I should think it plainly makes against the Dogma; if in your Modern Authors either Greek or Latin that hold the Dogma, to me ir argues their Carelessness and inadvertency, to embrace that novel Doctrine, and yec retain the old Word which by no means suits with it. And his Realon, which he gives for these Divines still calling it Bread, will not do here, As long. faith he, as the Species of Bread remain with the same kind of Accidents, so long the Name of Bread may be retained. Then the meaning of acircor i Mè & ptor, make these Species and Accidents of Bread (for the real Bread is annihilated) thy precious Body of thy Chrift; or make this real Body of Christ (which is only like Bread, but verily no such thing) the Body of thy Christ. This I must confess do not satisfy me, and the fame Interpretation seems altogether as harsh in all the other Places following, where we meet with the plain
word Bread. N. p. 23.
Changing by thy Holy Spirit ] To make this plain Sense, you must add p. 43. 46. Them, and that is, Both the Holy's, as is clear by the words of the Deacon
just before, bless the Holy Bread, bless the Holy Cup, bless them Both; Then
the Sentence imperfect. Changing, What? The Bread and Wine. Changing, P. 58. 59. How? That they may be made to Soberness, &c. But this is plainly a SpiriEdit. Moreto, tual or Intellectual Change, only as to their Effects upon the Receivers.
And that there may not such a Stress be laid upon the word Changing here, it
very remarkable, that as in Basil's Liturgy above noted, fo in that attributed
Basil's Liturgies were in the most Antient and Constant Use of the Greek T. p. 71. Church ; I think we oughe most carefully to consider and examine Them; and see how much of the Substantial parts of them are exactly used in the Oriental one. For I never yet observed any of them herein fully to agree with these, or with themselves. So (whether the Orientals were taken from written Copies, or made only or composed from Memory ) whether they can in most Passages (of the greatest Concern) be of any fufficient Authority is with me very Questionable. For all Patriarchs and Metropolites, and other Prime Governours, com-.: monly added and inserted their own Conceits in such Transcripts; either out of some superstitious Customs, or out of some private blind Devotion, or otherwise, as I have elsewhere noted. Therefore, I hope the Reader will in some measure excuse my present Marks and Reflections on these Licurgies as they are in Goar; p. 71. they being merely my own Private Thoughts, and I offer them as only such.
Note again, the Deacon desires the Priest, to bless the Holy's, and the Priest accordingly is faid to Bless them; How? By desiring God to change them s as they may be to the Receivers to Soberness of Mind &c. This Interpretation is most Natural and Familiar ; As when we daily say Grace at Meat, Bless O God, these thy good Creatures to our Vse, and us to thy Service, that they may nourish us, and we in the strength of them may jerve Thee. What is the Blessing here desired, but that gracious Effect in the Creatures, that they may nourish &c.
That to all that receive] As they Pray'd for the Descent of the Holy O. p. 23. Ghost upon themselves before, so here they Pray for all the Communicants, P. p. 23. that the Holy Gifts might be so Spiritually Changed, as to work in them all these good Effects following. So that all other expositions of this whole Prayer, from the beginning to the end, appears wonderfully forced and upintelligible, whilst this is very obvious and familiar.
To Soberness of Mind] In the Euchologia Printed at Venice, and in that ser out by Goar it is, eis väfer, to Soberness or Sobriety of Mind; But in the Council of Florence, it is eis vízfor, for washing, that is, purifying of the Soul. The vulgar Greeks pronounce », and e, alike, and from thence is this Various Reading, though the Sense is much the same.
Rational Service] See Nor. B. p.43. and here the Prayer.
For our Forefathers ] Here is a Summary naming of all the Holy Persons, R. p. 13. and Fathers, and Friends, Living and Dead, whose Portions were before affigo'd on the Prothesis, not as a Remedy, or as Prayers for them, saith Goar, p. 143. 140 but that God may be Glorified in their name, for the Gifts exhibited to them from Heaven. But I lay it is to express their Communion with us, as hath been before hinted, and thall be more largely insisted on in another place.
The Diptychs ] These are two folding Tables, like a pair of playing Tables; A. p. 24. (I once saw a very old Pair, three square, perhaps ip a Mysterious reference to the Trinity) In one of these Tables are set the Names of the Living, in the other the Names of the Dead; That is, of some most Eminent Persons, as Chryfoftom, Basil, Nazianzen, Athanasius, &c. amongst the Dead; so the five Patriarchs (The Pope, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Hierufalem,) the Emperor and Favourite Princes &c. amongst the Living. Quarrels between the two grear Churches, the Popes name was often struck out of the Diptychs, and upon any reunion pur in again; It hath been left out ever since Constantinople was taken, if not soon after Joh. Palæologus his return from the Council of Florence. As for these Tables now, they are quite left off, and not any kept of late date that I ever saw in Churches; so that what names are now remembered, are recited either by heart, or out of the common Catalogues above mention'd; of Quick and Dead.
Where they behold] Here I suspect a great Blunder; and, to me, no small B. p.24 instance of their jumbling things together indiscreetly or without confideration.
Q. p. 23.
T. p. 72.
In Goar's Lirargy here, there is a Prayer or Suffrage to be said for every particular Perfon amongst the Dead, whom the Priest Commemorates by náme, and it is thus in the fingular Bumber, for the Rest and Forgiveness of the Soul of thy Servant. N. N. in a light some place, from which Grief and Lamentation are ablent, και ανάπαυσον αυτην ύπα Επισκοπεί το φως τα προσόπο σε, άιάπαυσον authbe ó Reds impecov, give it rest o God, and give it (the Sou!,) rest where
it beholds the Light of thy Countenance. In this Copy, (and that Printed at 1. 31. 4. 32: Ven. 1672, and several others, as likewise in my two MSS.) the first part
of this Suffrage is left out, and this latter part is attacke to the former Prayer as you here have it; where though they have put in, cutes, I hem, (referring to all Saints before mention'd) instead of autin, it, (referring to the Soul in the other part, yet they have retain'd, '620xotic, it Beholds, and made a false Concord, instead of & moxonia, they Behold. 'Tis true that we find the fame in Basil's Liturgy and the MSS. of it, avérzuoov aute's try &T:OXSTER yet still it seems unnatural to me to render it, where the Light of thy Countenance behold or feeth; and in my MS. of Chryfoftom's Liturgy is in red Letters die Favoor autor en de &Toxoth and in Bafil's Liturgy, in Latin, fèt our by Cochleus, is refrigera eos ubi visitat lux vultus tui, and in the Margin for visitat, is visitur. I confefs many amongit their Priests are ignorant cuough of the old School Greek, yet I should rather attribute this mistake to their mccr cåretestness and Inadvertency. I have taken notice above of rue cow and pe cer ofren pro
miscuously used; take notice also here of that, which is often used, (cfpecially Goar p:67. at the Procession or carrying of the Gospel to the Holy Table ) it is in MSS.
abbreviated, but in all Printed Copies which I have seen, thus, & pia igiós. Wif dom, Right, in the plural Number and masculine Gender. To me (as it feeins undoubtedly to have been ar first,) copia ögin, Right or trile Wisdom, and so
Cabafilas expounds it, out of St. Paul; and to the Copy Printed by MoreP. 83. 85. tius part 2d. yet he allows ogrol Habertus in his Pontifical and Horinus. But 1 Cor. 2. 7, 8. fince those days, this wrong way of spelling hath prevailed through the vulgar
Pronuntiation, (where ois and ng both found as, y) and 'Oploi have been conp. 189. 65; stantly in their Books.
See what stuff Gear brings to explain this reading, though he takes notice of the other, I wonder he did not as wisely justify the zz: p. 128. old Monkish Mumpfimus instead of Sumptimis; for Sense or Nonfenfé, all
must be made Good, as he find it now, whatever it be.
The Arch-Bishop the Metropolite] See Nor. 7. p. 33.
Intellectual Altar for a smell of Spiritual] From this and many other places, G. p. 24.
as is said, the whole Service was plainly meant by the first Greeks, as only a Spiritual Sacrifice of Prayer, Praise and Thanksgiving. So in the Prayer of Offering, the Sacrifice of Praise, the Prayer of Sinners, Gifts and
Spiritual Sacrifices for Sins, that there may be brought to his Holy Altar. Euch. 37. 1. 2. So in the Prayer of Proposition, as is above noted, Bless the Proposing, and Goar 63. receive it up to thy Heavenly Altar. (This is in the very beginning of the
whole Scrvice, and the first Prayer of Basil's Liturgy,) these and the like Phrases can never be stretche to any Bodily Sacrifice, neither can it be meant that any
such Bodily Sacrifice should be litterally and Bodily received, and laid upoit P: 16. N.B. the Altar in Heaven, any more then the Insense, but there and here, that the
whole Spiritual Service should be received as a Savour or Smell of Spiri-
And this Cabasilas himself allows upon
P: 54. p. 97:
vid. 39. 8.
p. 125. 88.p.129.99
D. p. 24:
a like occasion. For if they take this whole Sacrifice, as I do, in a Spiritual T. p. 73. Sense, they may repeat their Prayers for God's acceptance of them again and again, and for the continuing of the asistance of the Holy Spirit, by various Petitions throughout the whole Performance; as we again and again pray for John 14:24 the peace of our Lord Jefius Christ, though he gave it us as his Legacy before his Death; and the like.
To make Bold] The reason why the Greeks in this place use such an humble A. p. 25. Preface to the Lord's Prayer, I conceive to be this; the Catechumens of old, (or such as were not yet Baptized, ) were never permitted to use this Prayer of our Lord; it seeming a very high Presumption for any to call God their Father, before they were adopted by Baptism. And therefore this Prayer was called by Chryfoftom, and others, eixń mação the Prayer of Believers. And ac. Hom. 10. ini cording to this Primitive Reverence for it, it is here prayed, that they may be Coloff. counted worthy to say it, and permitted, with humble assurance, to call him Father without Rebuke. Yet there is a Phrase in what I have above cited out of St. Jerom, which may a little illustrate this expression here. He faith, Christ taught his Apostles, at the Celebration of the Eucharist, ut Audcant loqui Pater Noster, that they should make bold to say Our Father. An humble Christian (as St. Jerom adds a little after ) pavore tractilitatis humane conscientiam suam formidantis, out of fear of human Frailty, which shrinks at the touch of his Conscience, might be afraid thus confidently to call God, Father; had Christ himself thus encouraged him to cry Abba Father. And accordingly the Author of this Suffrage perhaps hath made his humble address here only from that account.
For thine is the Kingdom] In the Greek Church the People always faỹ B. p. 25. the Lord's Prayer, and only the Priest adds, for thine is the Kingdom &c. which hath given occasion for many to think, that that Doxology was at first no part of the Prayer, but was added fome Centuries after out of the Greek Liturgy; as it is well knowo not to be in the vulgar Latin, the Arabick, Coptick Translations, and lome very old Greek Copies. It is likewise por in many of the first Latin Fathers. And Lucian, (or the Author of Philopatri A Capire ini in him, ) seems jestingly to hint that the Doxology (which was in his time) Mat, 6. 13. was only a short Ode or Versicle, which had been added to Christ's Original Prayer by a latter hand. If that Dialogue was written (as some think) in Trajan's time, then it was used in the second Century; but if it was written, (as teems more probable) in Constantius his time, (when such Naughters were made between him, and Sapores in the East; and him, avd Magneutius in the
Zonaras 15. b West; when Sapores lost 20000 Men at Nisibis, and between Constantius and Magneutius about 30000 on both sides were Nain) I say if it was used in his
17. L. time, the addition must be of larer dare, in the fourth Century.
Bow'd down their Heads ] This expression refers plainly to the words of C. p. 258 the Deacon foregoing, where by, bow your Heads unto the Lord, is clearly meant to God the Father, to whom only this Prayer is made, as appears by what the Priest adds to it, Aloud; and therefore the next words have not bow'd to Flesh and Blood, plainly excludes here their Worship of, or Bowing down to, the Flesh and Blood of Christ pretended now to lie on the Altar.
Thou who sittest above ] This I think a most plain Evidence against Tran. E. p. 25: substantiation, and a further Inftańce of the latter "Greeks rashness and inadvertency, who embraced that Doctrine, and yet still retained this Prayer; where the Composers of it manifestly own'd Christ's Body to be now in Heaven, and pray'd to Him as owyxathuevo, fitting there above with the Father, and as here only Invisibly present, according to that, where two or three are gather- Mat. 18. 29. ed together in my Name, there am I in the midst of them; and this invisible Presence is both Pray'd for and expounded only in a Spiritual Sepse, come to Sanctify us, and by thy Powerful Hand make us Partakers of thy Body ond Blood. If they had thought that he was now Bodily on the Altar, they K z