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tures by, and to know, thereby, only, what they truly are; if I mould after all think that they were not still true Bread and Wine, I fiould do the

greatest Violence and Injury imaginable to my Understanding, and wretchedly queslion the Veracity of God himself, Neither Latins nor Greeks can or dare deny that the Elements, at the Sacrament, outwardly appear ftill, after the Consecration, the very fame as they did before; not only to me but to every one else thar fhall try them; what greater assurance can I have that Bread and Wine are Bread and Wine at any time else, then what I have now? If we are all deceived in this, we must conclude that our Life is but one continued Dream, and that our clearest Faculties and most distinct Perceptions, which we thankfully acknowledge as received from the Great God of Truth, are constant cheats in this Point, and do always impose upon us in the most Sacred part of a Christian Life.

I shall here now add this Remark, which to me seems highly to concern both Latins and Greeks. If either by the Words of Christ (as the Latins fay) or by the following words in the Prayer of Chryfoftom and Basil, as the Modern Greeks seem to assert) Transubstantiation is made, why then the Miracle is doubled. By the words this is my Body or those, make this Bread thy Body, the Bread can only be made Christ's dry Body without any Blood; and by those this is the Cup of my Blood, or those make what is in this Cup, (viz. the Wine), can be made only Christ's pure Blood quite separated from the Body. Now I will ask what joins them again? It is a Miracle thus to separare them, and it is no less a Miracle perfectly and thoroughly to join them again. What makes this last Miracle amongst the Greeks? Does the Priest do it by putting a piece of Christ's Portion and the other little crumbs into the Cup, signing it with the sign of the Cross? Or do the words following do it, the Fullness of Faith of the Holy Spirit ? Whatever the meaning of those words is, it cannot relate any thing to this Union. And what must unite, the bot Water, (pour’d in afterwards ) with both the Body and the Blood? The Greeks, who are, for making the Liturgy only a representa

tion of Christ's Oeconomy, make this only a Figure of tbe warm Water and P. 148. 167. Blood which issued out of Christ's side at his Passion, as Goar himself ex

plains it out of St. Germanus and others, but at last rejects this practice as a superstitious invention, being left our in the old MSS Liturgies, and nos the Icast mention being made of it by the antient Fathers. Next if the Latins pretend that this Union of the Body and Blood is afterwards made, it must be done either by that old fuffrage above mention'd, may there be made a Commixtion and Confecration of the Body and Blood of Christ, or by the new one, this Commixtion and Confecration of the Body and blood of Christ, may it be to us, &c. The old Form plainly means the Mixtion or Union of the Elements, which before were separated; for if they say it is meant of the feparate real Body and real Blood, I would ask by what Power or Authority they dare pretend to so great a Work as to join the dry Body to the pure Blood. For they durst not say their own words had Power to do it, for it is as great a Miracle as Transubstantiation it self. And notwithstanding all that hath been said by them in defence of denying the Cup to the Laity, pretending that entiré Christ is in the Brcad, falls to nothing by this very fuffrage ; for what means then the word Commixtion, or mixing now the Body with the Blood, if the Blood was there before with the Body, and the Body

with the Blood? Christ's words, This is my Body, if they do any Thing, muit Distinct. 11. $ make the Bread only his Body; (And Lombard positively asserts as much,

there is n20 Conversion of the Bread, but into the Flesh,) else what need was there of these words, this is my Blood, and if these words made the Body as well as the Blood, chis repetition is, actum agere, to make Christ entirely twice over.

The Scholastick whimsey of Concomitancy will never clear this Commixtion, for if the Bread was both Body and Blood, and the Wine both Blood and Body (that is, both one and the fame intire Christ) it is a pretty

fed quare.

and is yet upon every thing else which they shew as spotted with Christ's Blood,
Chap. III. Notes upon St. CHRYSOSTOM's LITURGY.
wild Commixtion indeed, a Commixtion of entire Christ, with Christ entire;
or a mixing of Christ's entire Body and all his Blood, with all his Blood
and entire Body; for 1 hitherto always thought mixing a relative Term,
that necessarily required two or more several

, distinct, or different forts of Things, to be mixed, and never till now thought or heard that one, only, single, entire thing or fort could be mixt with it felf.

And the old Latins who first composed their Mass, by thus mixing the Elements in this place, plainly meant the mixing of two distinct and different Things (as of Bread and Wine ) as in a like Commixtion of the Holy Oyl, and the Chrism, with the Water in Baptism, Commixtio Chrismatis Sandificati. Ed. Aut. 1631. onis &c. Let the Commixtion of the Chrism of Sanctification, and of the Oil of Unction, and of the Water of Baptism in like manner be made, or, let there be made a Commixtion of them. So in the making of their Holy Water, Commixtio falis & aquæ pariter fiat, let the Commixtion of the Salt p. infm. ch. and of the Water be in like manner made. In the first of these lostances, three; in the second, two, distinct and different Things or forts are mixt; but in their Eucharist, if Concomitancy hold good, the fame Specifical, nay, the fame numerical Thing is mixt with it felf; which I dare say those good old Latins never dreamt of. Give me leave here to make one reflection more opon this wild Conceit of Concomitancy. If the Blood cannot be separated from the whole Body of Christ, nor this from that; they must own that this whole Body, whilst it hang’d on the Cross, (lay in the Sepulcher, Afcended into Heaven, far there at God's right Hand) was all the while in every drop of the Blood which was spilt upon his Cloaths, which was dropt and wasted upon the Cross, which was on the Spear, and in every drop fallen upon the Ground,

p. 245.

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Day, Bellarmine, from the Council of Trent, says, that not ooly Christ's Body, De Euchar. and Blood, but his Soul and Divinity also, necessarily are always together 5.225c. by natural Concomitancy. And by consequence they were all together at the Concil. 14. fame time, on the Cross, on the Ground, in Hell, in the Sepulcher ; yet Aqui- 806. a. nas tells us that if the Sacrament or Eucharist had been Celebrated during the 38. q. 76. 2. three days in which Christ lay in the Grave, there had not been this con-. S. 4comitancy; yet surely he was all this while the very fame teży gwn, God

I remember they have the Confidence to shew several long white thorne Prickles, Staip'd or Coloured red, as with Blood; and I have seen them Worshipped as Relicks or Parts of the Crown which was platted on Christ's Head. Now if they really are Srain'd with His Blood, or if they verily believe that it is fo; will they say that Christ's whole Body and Blood and Soul and Divinity, was there and still rest there stuck, or spitted upon these Thorps with the Blood ? By this wonderful Concomitarcy it must needs be so. Spectatum admissi.

There are in many places of the Euchologion Prayers which plainly shew that the former Greeks which composed them, and these for the Sacrament here in Chryfoftom and Basil's Liturgy, meant only a spiritual Sacrifice of Prayers and Praises, and a solemn Remembrance of Christ's Passion, and by these only a spiritual Change in us, and not any substantial Change in the Elements themselves. Besides what you have had above, give me leave to instance in a few more. lo repairing of the Holy Table, Fill this Altar with Glory and Sanétification and Grace, that the unbloody Sacrifices of the Body and Blood of Christ which are offered upon it, me Ta Tobagoy, may be changed to the Salvation of all thy People. For the Blessing of the Antimenfium, you have it thus, Fill this Altar, &c. That the unbloody Sa

Po 649. crifices which are offerid to Thee upon it, METOLTTO@ay, may be Changed into the Body and Blood of Christ, &c. To the Salvation of all thy People. Compare these two Prayers a little. If in the first the Latins would have Christ's real Body and Blood to be offered there, then the Change they pray for muit be meant Spiritually, for they would not Vntransubftantiate it, or

I 2

Transub.

P. 615.

p. 839

Transubstantiate it again, that is really and fribftantially Change it into another Thing. Buc if a Spiritual Change only must be there meant, how fhould the Change bé other then a Spiritual or Intellectual Changë in the second, where they pray that the unbloody Sacrifices may be changed into Christ's Body and Blood? And it is there very remarkable, that by unbloody Sacrifices there offer'd upon the Antimensium, must be meant at least thé Elements of Bread and Wine alone, (if not together with the offering of Pray. er, Praise and Thanksgiving), and not the Body and Blood, for they pray that these may be changed into these. Therefore the material Offerings of Bread and Wine, accompany'd with Prayer and Thanksgiving in a folemn Remembrance of Christ's Passion, according to his Inflitution seem to me here and all along to be only meant and fully called unbloody Sacrifices, as the whole Performance is often called a Rational Service. And thefe Sacrifices are changed into Christ's Body and Blood (which we Spiritually and by Faith Eat and Drink) by being Blessed with those Saving Effects for whịch Christ suffered, Thár is, The Salvation of all People (who are worthy partakers) and the Remission of their Sins &c. So it is there exprest a little before in the Blessing of the fame Antimenfium; Declare this present altar the Holy of Holy's; that we who stand at it may offer unto thy Goodness án unbloody Sacrifice, for the Remission of Sins, Voluntary and Involuntary, for the Government of Life &c. Yer more plainly in the Dedicatico of a Church, declare the Altar fixt in it the Holy of Holy's, that we who stand at it may serve thee without reproof, sending up Prayers for us and for all the People, and offering an tinbloody Sacrifice to thy Goodness, for the Remission of Sins &c. as in the the foregoing; why may not Prayers here be interprered the unbloody Sacrifice, by what follow, for Government of Life, for direction of a right Conversation, for the fulfilling of all Justice, which are Petitions and so relate to Prayer more Properly then to any other Sacrifice. I fhall now name but two places more of the many others, which

call thë Celebration of the Sacrament á Rational or Intellectuad Sacria P: 653fice. For the Aptimenfium, Vouchsafe that we may as anblameable and pare

ftand at this Áltar and offer to thee upon it a Rational and unbloody Sacrifice, for the Edification of thy Catholick Church, and for the Advantage and Proficiency of thy People

. Surely the Church is more Edifyed, and the People receive more Profit and Assistance, and their Affections and Devotions were raised higher by the Rational and Unbloody Sacrifice of Pray. er and Thanksgiving at the Sacrament, or solemn Remembrance of Christ's Passion (as it was of old,) then by all the Pomp and Pageantry now used in the Greek Church, or by their prcfent pretended Sacrifice of Christ's Body,

and the Fancifull Representation of his Oeconomy; of all which the poor People . neither hear nor understand one word. Next in the Dedication of a Temple,

That thou wouldst send down the Grace of thy All-holy Spirit, and Establish
this Church now raised, That we offering unto thee in it unbloody Sacrifices,
may be partakers of the Holy Ghojt (ir) being renew'd in our Hearts, and
(it) comfirming the leading part of our understanding, and (it) granting
to 15 Mistically to offer to Thee; the Lord God, Intellectual Sacrifices by
the Purifying of the Mind, to the Glory of the Father, Son, and Holy
Ghost. How all this may be accomplished by the Sacrifice of Prayer and
Thanksgiving is very intelligible, but whar the present Greeks Alysterious and
(in a manner,) Dumb shew can contribute to it, I cannot casily discern.
Even Chryfofiom himfelf (in the place above cited out of his first Ho-
mily) feems to me to have been of my Mind, for he directly there oppo-
feth the notion of a Real or Bodily Sacrifice, by making all to be done at the
Sacrament, en gchuan, in a Figure. The Priest fullfils, or performs, or Acts,
the figurative part, or the Representation, relating the Matter and Manner
of what Christ himself once did, and repeating his words which Himself once
Spake; then Christ
, by virtue of those words once spoken by himself on Earth,

applics

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applies to the faithfull and worthy Receivers all those saving Effects for which he died; This to me is his plain and natural meaning in that place. But to say thar the Priest relating matter of Fact and only repeating Christ's words Transubstantiates the Bread and Wine, must be rejected by all Men of common Sense, as well as by Cabasilas, as a forced, absurd, and unwarsantable explication; for this cannot be said then to be done, &v genuani, in

Figure only, For Christ himself must be thus brought down from the right hand of God, and thruft entire into every, the least mite, drop and particle of the Bread and Wine, especially according to the Latins Doctrine. That distin&tion of the Council of Trent, will not do, that Christ's Body is in Heaven, sef: 3. C. 1. juxta modum exiftendi naturalem, according to the natural manner of exifting, but here Sacramentaliter, Sacramentally; if they mean Sacramentally, that Christ is here Spiritually or Mystically, we say the fame; if as they explain it, his Body is truly, really, and substantially bere, it must be here as na. turally as it is in Heaven.) And the Greeks eveu fo late as 7. Damascen seem to have been only for this Figurative Sacrifice in the Sacrament, by bis words quoted, and shufflingly answered by Bessarion, Panis & Vinum non P. 789. E. eft nisi figura Corporis & Sanguinis Chrifti, The Bread and the Wine are no other but the figure of Christ's Body and Blood.

Thus I have at large shewn first that the Greeks and Latins, as to the Point of Consecration, are irreconcileable. Next that if the Elements be Transubfantiated, the Right is on the Greeks fide, for Christ's words only spoken by a Priest could effect nothing to that purpose. Lastly, that the Prayers both in the Latin and Greek Church used after Christ's words, were meapt by their first Authors or Compofers only in a spiritual Sense, and to a spiritual Ead or Effect: So that both Churches in the grofs Opinion of Tranfubftantiation, by the craft and subtilty of the Devil and Man, have by Degrees departed from their first Love, a plain folemn and spiritual Remembrance of Christ's Passion, to an abfurd jumble of Idolatry and Superstition. These proposed Gifts] The Elements being offer'd on the Prothesis, are

E. p. 23. fanétified, that is, fet a part for divine ase, and are therefore all along called, the Holy Bread and the Holy Cup, and singly, tà ávía, the Holy's. Then Goar. p.684. after the great Entrance when fer on the Holy Table, they are farther San-Codin de offic.

. Etified by Prayer, that these Gifts and spiritual Sacrifices might be acceptable to God, by the good Spirit of his Grace resting upon these proposed Gifts, and upon themselves and all the People. And these proposed Gifts in the Prayer, are a little before called these precious Gifts, and in the Rubrick of the Prayer, divine Gifts, having received feveral Degrees or Measures of Sanctification before. Thus far, i fuppose, all Parties will allow that the Gifts are yet true Bread and Wine: Why then should the Latins think that here, these Gifts propofed, should now after Christ's words signify more then true Bread and Wine still ? They are called just before, Thine of Thine, (as in the Latin Mass, Dona and Data, Gifts and what was Given) and then all along, this Bread and this Cup, so that the Latins must confess, that che Greeks thus far thought thefe Gifts true Bread and Wine fiill. Now thar the primitive Greeks, or Authors of that entire Prayer which follows, did think that after it also, the Gifts (as they are all along called) remain'd fill true Bread and Wine, is plain to me, first by chat Prayer of the Deacon, Remem. P. 25. bring all Saints let us again and again befeech the Lord, for the precious Gifts which are offer'd and fanctified, that our God having received them unto his Intellectual Altar, may send down his divine Grace, &c. The Latins object this very Prayer to the Greeks (for being used by them after their pretended Prayer for making the Bread the Body of Christ

, as likewise their using the fame Prayer in the Liturgy of the prefančtified Things) that Goar they might the better vivdicate themselves for using their Prayers (above noted) after Christ's words, and both of them thus Cavilling with one another about this Point make me conclude them both in the wrong. Arcudius offers thus

to p. 288. a.

Goar. p. 155. 190.

P.124.

Goar. p. 79

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3. C. 33,

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P. 94. b.

co excuse both the Latins and Greeks in these Practices. Non erant pro consecratione, fed potius pro noftra Imbecillitate, &c. They do not pray for the Consecration (of the Gifts) but rather for our weakness, and that we may thence receive Profit; as also that the Service of the Minister, who offers, may please God. But with his leave, it is plain, first

, that they pray for the precious Gifts which are offer'd and fančtified, that is, sanctified in several measures already (as is said ;) but they pray again and again for a farther Sanétification, or yet a greater Measure of Holiness upon them. That by their

acceptance at God's Intellectual Altar, may be sent down his Grace, &c. 34. Bibl. Cabafilas bath fram'd a Distinction much to the faine purpole, The Grace of P. P. p. 190. God, faith he, works in the Gifts two ways, one by sanctifying them, anoin my MS. ther by fančtifying us by them.

And so he would make the Gifts only fanEtified in the places which are before the Prayer, which, he tells us, makes the Bread the Body; but in this place, and in the Liturgy of the presančtified Things, He would have them pray only for our Sanétification and not at all for theirs; He supposing them now to be Christ's very Body and Blood. Buc why he should imagine the Elements by their repeated Sanétifications, changed in their very Substance and Esence more then the Water, Oyl, Salt, and the like in the Examples above cited, I cannot see. Every Creature, as God's Creature, is indeed Good; but I cannot conceive how any Creature (especially an Inanimate one ) simply considered, or as purely in it felf, can be called SanEtified or Holy, unless it is made so by some new Act, or in some new Relation to God, or to our use in his Service. Thus if a Thing be fimply fanetified by being only dedicated to God (suppose for Example a far of Oyl) ic is just the very self same Thing still in it self, but it is not so to us; for it is so far Sanctified or Holy now (that is, appropriated) as we must not put it to any common use. But now if the Greek Church do farther pray over it, That by using it, or applying it, in God's Name, they may receive This or That bodily Effect by it, as Cure of Pains and Distempers, and the like; it is still in it self the very fame Oyl, but they must think it farther fančtified, that is declared, or design'd, or set a part to that farther End and Ule.

Then if they should again and again farther pray over it, That they may receive by its use, This or That spiritual Effect, as the Delivering from Sin, and the Inheritance of Heaven, &c. Surely the Oyl is the very fame Oyl still, but they would look upon it now as fančtified, or design’d, or ser a part, to yet higher Purposes; so that as the Ends to which the Creature is Jančtified, or appointed, by repeated Prayers, are more, or higher, to the Sanctification of it, must be looked upon by Thein as proportionably Greater, tho' in Substance it is still the very fame Thing. And hence we lee such large Offices in the Euchologion, for the Holy Water, the Oyl, and the like above mention'd, where they pray again and again, often for much the same, sometimes for

new, Sančtifications, or Blessings, upon the faine individual Creature, all the p. 142. N.B. while look’t upon as, in Substance, the very fame thing; and Goar himself

owns, that many Antecedent and Consequent Moral (or Spiritual) Mutations may, thus by Degrees, be perfected by Succession of Time, and the Prayers of the Priest, but he cannot prove any substantial Change ; and Simeon T bell:

plainly owns the same, that is, several Degrees of Sanctification given to the Euchol.p.635. Holy Ointment, and to these Gifts upon the Altar; as Goar cites him. Next

I do not understand how Arcudius can distinguish between the Gifts confe. crated, and the Gifts fanétified; to me, a Creature consecrated, that is, dedicated, to God and his Service; and a Creature sanétified, that is, made Holy or fet a Part to Him and his Service, are all one.

But if he means by Jančtified, set a Part and made Holy, (as Cabafilas would have it fignify only, as to us,) and by Confecrated, Transubstantiated, or made quite another Sub. stance, ( as in Relation only to the Elements) his Distinction will not pass with me. Next they are all along called the proposed Gifts, the offered Gifts ; but the Gifts which the People offer'd, and which the Priest proposed were

Arcud.

p. 229. b.

S.11.

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