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C. 27.

1.4. c. 141

Pe 275. H.

famous place, Which of the Saints hath left us in writing the Words of de spirito Sanet. Invocation (éxi tñ venitu) in the Declaration, or Renuntiation, or ConseCration, of the Bread of the Eucharist, and of the Cup of Blessing. Here the word (avádegis) can signify no more then the Declaration, Designation, or meer Confecration of the Euchariftical Bread, and of the Eucharistical Cup. And it is remarkable, that here, and in his Prayer at the Sacrament, the Cúp, and not the Wine, is said to be Blessed, Sanétified, Declared, or Consecrated, or Dedicated; and we are said in the following part of the Prayer, to partake of one Bread and one Cup still, (after the Words of Christ, and the foregoing Consecration) not of one Body and one Blood. Now I can see no reason in the World, why råvadiso) the word which we find so often used, should be taken in a peculiar Sense here in this Prayer at the Sacrament, and not as it is plainly taken in the other Examples before cited; That is, why Declare, Renounce, or Make, This Bread thy Body, thould not be Spiritually understood, as well as, declare this Altar the Holy of Holy's, and the rest. Bellarmine and his Followers notwithstanding all this will have the de Enchar. word here to signify as originally, oftendere, to thew; still to maintain their beloved Tenent, that the Bread was made before by Christ's words, his very Body, and here they only pray to sew it. But what an odd Piece of Sense is this

, To bless, fanétify, and shew this Bread thy Body, or, in his Sense, as thy Body, or being already thy Body; for it cannot be, to be already thy Body for there is no, eivou, to be, exprest; and indeed there is no need of that word in my Interpretation, to blefs, sanctify, and declare (and so to make ) this Bread thy Body - and to unite us who partake of this one Bread, &c. Besides the Absurdity in the other words, if the Bread was already the Body, to bless it, to sanctify it, as is already noted. If the Bread was now really Transubstantiated, and Christ's very Body could in it visibly appear, it might here be desired, to thew it, or to let us see it ; for if it was fo, fensibly once done, all Disputes in that Point would be at an End. Bellarmine at last secs ut suprai down another Glofs, ('Avádzkov) Ostende per effectum falutarem in mentibus nostris, istum Panem Sanctificatum non esse panen vulgarem, fcd Cæleftem Shew by a faving effect in our Minds, that That Bread being fančtified is not vulgar, or cominon, Bread, (according to Irenæus his very Words) but p. 9. Heavenly

. If instead of, oftende, Shew, he had put, declara, declare, it had been the very Senfe which I contend for, and the saving Effects are particuJarly exprest in the following part of the Prayer, to unite us, &c. And thus Dionysius prays to Chrift

, Tbou, O most divine and boly Mystery, revealing, der erschel bieajpieópez le aivispátur, the dark Vails which we cast about Thee, mary@s speiv p. 286. avastixoriri, be Thou clearly declared to us now, and fill tås voega's nueão cafels, our Intelleétual Sights (our Minds) with singular and open Light. Here the Declaration, or Manifestation of Christ, (for I clearly take it to be meant of Him by the foregoing words, ’Inoš owl@googlc ónbóuega, we shall see by Jefits Inlightning us (and in St. James's Liturgy you have almost the very Edit. Par. fame words to God) 1 lay the Declaration is made by this saving Effect ex. 1560. Po 21. prest, to wit, the Illumination of our Minds. And it is plain to me, that Dionysius meant only a figurative Representation of Christ's Passion in the Sacrament, and no sibstantial Change in the Elements, but only an Intellectual and Spiritual one in the Receivers. Hence all along in him you have these p. 189, 193, words, άγαλμα, αινίσματα, εικόνες, σύμβολα, συμβολικώς, νοητα'θεάματα, νοητή 25:23 'Jeweld, voeg troodos; voegots op Bennois, and the like, which I shall not here at large secire, but to return to our purpose. Arcudius sticks to Bellarmin's Interpreta- p.313. Li tion, to Jhew, and expounds it by the Deacon's Shewing with his Horarium, 314. a. the Holy Bread, and both the Holy's, as you have it above in what passes between Him and the Priest in the middle of the Prayer of Chryfoftom's Liturgy. But all that paltry Stuff is not to be found in the two MSS. of Bafil's Liturgy, as is above said ; and therefore I question not but that it hath been there since foisted in out of that which bears the Name of Chryfoftom; and I believe that

;

it

Luk. 10. 1.
Act. 1. 24.

it hath been even there too patch'd in altogether as impertinently. But in
Basil's Liturgy, the word avereigas is again used at the Sacrament.

In relating Gour. p. 168. what Christ did, just before his own Words we have this, Taking the Bread in Mss. into his Holy and Immaculate Hands, xý áradiças ooi to cañ xý matei, cixalgie

shods, cúnovhoos, ansoas, xnérus, and having declared (it) or dedicated it;
to Thee, the God and the Father, having given Thanks, having blessed,
having sanctified, having broken (it) He gave (it) to his Disciples, &c.
Now whatever the true mcaning of avastiças in this place is, I think it cannot
well be, having mew'd (it) to Thee, the God; whose all seeing Eye will
hardly admit of that Sense; but having dedicated it, or, cum designaverat,
having declared it as ser a part to God, (as all Holy Things are,) i think is
very plain and patural Sense; for his very taking the Bread into his hands was
a separating of it to this facred Use, and, zo and, which is in my MS makes
the Sense to be plainly thus, as if he had said, Taking the Bread into his
hands, and thereby Declaring or Dedicating of it to God. And here I
capuor but by the by, take Notice that those very Words here used (before
Christ's Words) having Blessed, having Sanétified, must be confessed by all,
to be spoken of, and refer’d to the very Bread, as now but a meer Crcature
that wanted a Blefing, and a Sanétifying; whey then Mould not the very
same Words spoken of and refer'd to the fame Bread, ( after the Priest hath
Icpeated the Words of Christ) be in the Prayer of Confecration expounded
as if the Bread was still but the same Creature and wanted yet a farther Blessing,
and Sanétification? I say why should the very fame words, Bless, Sanctify.
Bread, fignify plainly one way here, and be wrested and forced to quite ano-
ther there? But to return, the word dvadervogue is used in the Scriptures, and
I think very plainly in my Sense. The Lord, avédeger, Declared or Created
the Seventy Disciples and sent them forth. And so in the making of Mat-
thias ail Apostle, avédes For Éx TÓTay Tão dúo 'éva, Declare one of these two
whom thou hast Chofen, to take part, or share, of this Ministry; that is
Declare or Renounce him an Apostle, which was done by the Effects, for
the Lot fell upon Matthias. So it is say'd of John Baptist, He was in the
Deserts till the day of his, avadeiras, Declaring, or being Declared unto

Ifrael. The word of God came to him, and so Declared him a Prophet
Joh. 10.41.

unto Ifrael. He did no Miracle, 'tis true, but all things that he spake of Mat. 14. 5. Christ were true; and all Ifrael held and counted John as a Prophet. He

was Declared by the Effects. And so in those Words quoted by R. Simon out
of a Treatife fuppofed to be Ρroclaus’s αποφαίνειν and αναδεικνύειν, explaining
one another, are both used in this very Sense; That the Holy Ghost by his
divine Presence, arcob'un ij avadeity might Create and Declare (as above, Con-
fuls and Emperors are said to be Created and Declared) the Bread and Wine
mingled with Water, the very Body and Blood of Christ.

Therefore from all this it seems plain to me, that Basil's praying for the Holy
Ghost to Declare the Bread Christ's Body, was not to work any Substantial
change in the Bread, but only a Spiritual Change in the worthy receivers, that is,
all those saving Effects for which Christ died; Pardon of Sins and Spiritual
Communion with Him; as évãow, to Vnite us, is at large afterwards explain’d in
another Prayer, That we with a pure Testimony of Conscience receiving megísa
Tūv åricouátwo8, a Portion of thy Sanctified things, may be united to the Holy
Body and Blood of thy Christ, and having received them Worthily we may have
Christ dwelling in our Hearts, and that we may be made the Temple of the
Holy Ghost; and therefore a little farther they pray, Grant that to our last
Breath

, we may receive worthily, w peegide (in MSS. potenzida as in Goar) a Portion of thy Holy Things. Here is the Effectus Salutaris, Saving Effect above mention’d, which they pray for, by the Holy Spirits declaring the Bread Christ's

Body; and it is plain from this, what Body of Christ they here pray for, not kis Joh. 6. 58. Flesh and Blood, but his Mystical and Spiritual Body whcrcof cvery worthy Receiver is made a Member, and the Florentine Greeks in the latter Words of

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Luk. 1. 8.

Luk. 3. 2.

& 21. 26. Not. in Gabr.

Philad. p. 159

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their Answer, monocy do údiv, to make in us this Bread, &c. feem to mean the very same thing, as Bessarion also owns. And Dionysius clearly owos the p. 795. F. fame Effect ; speaking of the Eucharist, he faith, doxei gép rear úrysuécor, &c. De eccl. Hier. The design of all God's divine Operations, which we have celebrated in the Hymn of bis Praise, seem to me to be for us ; then instancing in the Preservation of our Life and Being, and in the Reforming of us, and bringing of us to a diviner Condition, and in providing to bring us from the want of Divine Gifts to a pristine State, he adds, xj TAITERE I nuetégway to pocaint, &c. and by a perfect Acceptance of our Things, (our Offerings, and Prayers, and Praises) so graciously give us the most perfect Participation of his own, and hereby to bestow upon us the Communion of God and of Things Divine. And Chryfoftom himself in the words before cited, means no more then a spiritual p. 49. Effect wrought in us, by the words of Christ once spoken by himself: For in the pext Homily wherein the very fame Things (and often in the very fame Words) are treated of, (and therefore both Homilies are Printed by the side of one another, by Sir Hen. Savil) you have these Words: Kai xafámep creiun Ý P. 559. 37. φωνή και λέγεσα, Αυξάνεσθε και πληθύνεσθε και πληρώσαλε τυ γώ, ρημα ήν και εγένετο έργον, ειδιuυαμισα ανθρωπίνω φύσιν ωeός παιδοποιΐαν έτω και αύτη ή φονή και λέγεσα, aliter, ή λεΔια παντός αύξί τη χάριτι τες αξίως μετέκοντας. And as that Voice τohich aid,

γομένη, be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the Earth, was Word, and was made Deed, impowering human Nature for the Getting of Children, so this fame Voice which said (or which was spoken) (viz. This is my Body) always gives Increase of Grace to the worthy Partakers. This is the compleating of the Sacrifice in all its parts, in Declaring the Offerings, the Offerers, the Priests, and the worthy Receivers, all acceptable to God, by the Increase of his Grace and Favour; This is the saving Effect of the whole Performance.

But because the Latins have laid such a mighty stress upon these words of Chrysostom, I cannot leave them without a farther Reflection or two upon them. If Christ had faid, be thou my Body, be thou my Blood, at every Altar; Chry. sostom's application might have then been made much more Accurate and Just, and closer urged to the Latins purpose. For then these Words, (as once those, Increase and Multiply, ) being thus once spoken, might have seem'd as properly said to have Empower'd every Priest

, by Virtue of them to effect this wonderful change. But to think, that only those first words in the Narrative, this is my Body, this is my Blood, spoken in the present Tense, either did Then make that very Bread which was handled, the very fame Body, which handled it; and the same Body which spoke the Words, and which brake the very fame Body, and distributed its pieces to the Disciples, and did it self also

as is generally believed ) receive it and eat of it; or that those words Now only repeated by the Priest can do it; I must most seriously confess that it seems to me as amazing an Assertion as that upintelligible passage in one of the Greeks Prayers which I have mention'd above, Christ (at the same time even Now,) is at the Altar the same thing that Offers, and the same thing that is Offered, Divided, Distributed, and is every single part of it that is separately Eaten by several Persons. According to this Notion of the present Greeks, not only

the Bread but the Priest too must be Transubstantiated not only into the Body, but into the very intire Person of Chrift; for certainly amongst them now, it is the Priest only who actually Offers, Divides, and Distributes the Holy Things, not Christ himself, unless they make them both one.

But as we find the whole Passage of our Saviour's Institution written in the Gospel, I think the last words there fpoken might be apply'd, after Chryfoftom's way more fitly and properly to the Purpose of those Men, who have that Norion of the Sacrament ; That it is only a Devout, Thankful, folemn Commemoration of Christ's Passion; I hat his blesed Body was broken, ana that his Precious Blood was shed for us miserable Sinners, that by true Repentance and Faith in him we might obtain Pardon and everlasting Life. For

here

Cor. 1 1.24

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Luk. 22:19. here for this we have Christ's absolute Command; this do in Remembrance

of me. These words being once spoken by him do indecd forever Sanétify ouc Joh. 14. 26. Performance of them. He that promised that the Comforter (the Holy Spirit)

jould teach the Disciples all Things, and bring all I hings to their Rés
membrance whatsoever he had said unto them, without all question by the
Same Comforter, and by the Power of this his Command, once Spoken, will
continually forever assist every Penitent receivers Memory, and enliven his
Devotion at this foleion Performance of his Command.

But let us now a little consider those Expressions. Let there he Light; let
Gen. 3. 3, 6.
9,11
, 14, 16, there be a Firmament; let the Waters be gathered together, and let the dry

Land appear; let the Earth bring forth Grass, Herbs, and Trees 1170 xá-
Ta'yévo, after his Kind; let there be Lights in the Firmament of Heaven,
Sun, and Moon and Stars; let the Waters bring forth abundantly living
Creatures, Fowl, Fish, xatonáin autão, after their Kinds; let the Earth
bring forth Beasts and all Animals after their Kinds; and at last we read

the Celebrated, Crescite & multiplicamini, be Fruitful and Multiply; which V. 28. 22.11. was not said oply to Man, but to all other Animals besides; nay, the Pow

er of this Command seems implicitely and intentionally extended to every Plant
bearing Seed, or Fruit after its Kind, by which even they also Increase and
Multiply.

Now what can be the meaning of all these Commands, Injunctions, Laws,
and Decrees of God at the Creation, but that in making all things, he there-
by gave to every particular Creature after his Kind, all such certain distinct
and peculiar Powers, Virtues, Faculties, Affections and Modifications
which were requisite to make it complearly of its own peculiar, distinct,
perfect, true Sort or Kind; he made it 19 310 Tobh Meodh, very Good,
that is answerable in every punctilio or title to the express Idea or Patern or
Image of it framed in his Allwife Mind, and fitted to the ends for which he
designed it. Hence the Species or Kinds of all Bodies or Things are irre-
concilcably opposite to one another; A Stone is not Bread, neither is a Fish

a Serpent; Water is not Earth nor a Plant a Worm. It is indeed absoluteMatt. 3. 9. ly true that God of Stones can raise up Children unto Abraham; for we who

believe that God Created all Things out of Nothing, must then needs grane
that he can make any Thing, out of Something; even a World of one grain of
Sand; of a Stone a Man; but it is utterly inconsistent with his first Fiat,
Law and Command, and with his Veracity and Unchangeableness, that any
Thing should be a true Stone and a true Man at the fame time, that a true
Stone should be invested with all the Affections of true Flesh and Blood and

yet be a meer Stone ftill. For at God's first giving Being to every Thing, it Pral, 148.5,6.

is plainly faid, He commanded and they were created. He hath Established
them for ever and ever, He hath made a Decree which shall not pass.
Therefore Fire and Hail, Snow and Vapour fulfilling his Word, are for ever
as distinct opposite Beings, as the Dragons and the Deeps; -As the Angels

and the Sun and Moon; as the Mountains and the Trees; as the Cedars Dan. 3. 17,25. and the Olives; God can preserve his Servants from the Fury of the Fire

by his Angel, or by interposing his own Almighty Hand; and he can hinder
Snow or Water from extinguishing a Flame; but God canvor violate his eter-
nal Law, and joyo what he hath made, two opposite Natures, or distinct
Specifical Powers and Affections, in the same Subject at the same time.
And thus Flesh and Bones, whilst they are truly fuch, cannot at the same
time have the very Tast, and Smelt, and Colour, and all other specifical Af-
fections and Adjuncts of true Bread, (call them Qualities or Accidents or
what you please) any more then true Bread cannot the same time have the
hardness, and all other specifical Affections of a true Stone. The Meal and
Salt; the Water and Milk; the Barm and Leaven, and all the other Things
whereof Common Bread or a Wafer is made, may indeed compound the
artificial Thing; but at the fame time they are all fill as diftin&t Beings and

Opposite

Matt. 9.9.

ܪ.

v. 8.

V.7.
V.2, 3, 9.

Opposite to one anothers Natures, as Wood, and Stone, and Iron, and Mortar, and the like, in making the House. And a pice Palate and a discerning Eye can distinguish them and Judge if all be mixe in due proportion, and accurately baked. The Meal whilft it is perfect true Meal cannot have all the specifical Affections of true Salt, nor true Water, whilf fuch, the specifical Powers or Modifications of true Milk in the Bread, no more then true Wood whilft such, those of true Stone or Iron in the House. We read that Christ made Water Joh. 1. 9, 10, Wine ; but it is plain that it was entirely changed as to all its specifical Modifications; For had it been still without all Spirit and Briskness and Savor and Strength, or had it retain’d any thing of its original Specifical Weakness and Deadness (all which are affections necessarily required to that kind of Being, true Water ;) the Intertainer would never have vouched it, as he did, for not only Good true Wine, but even for better then the rest.

As for the Substratum or inward invisible Substance or Esence of Things, which support all the Powers and Adjuncts and Affections of Them, and Principally make them what they are; it is kept Secret and known only to God Himself.: All that we know of any Body or Material Being, is only gathered from, Oxwópera, tbe Things that appear to our Senses and Observations, and by our rational deductions from them. I see a black Flint; I find it bard; it is commonly found in Clunch or Chalk or Lime-pits; it's black Colour is deeper and darker at the Center, and by degrees paler from thence towards the edges; the outward Skin is purely White, but when it is first taken out of the Matrix or Bed where it was Bred, it is foftish and harden'd by being exposed to the Air; I guess thať the Chalk lying next about it by degrees is dilgested by its seminal Virtue, and curn’d into that ourward pale Skin or part of it, and the whole seems to grow like a Spowball, by adding yearly new thin Skins to it; so that even it increaseth by (juxta positionem partium ) a constant cleaving of new parts to it; every Man may cake this Hypothesis or Solution, or make one of his own. I farther find that it will strike Fire when it is dalht against Steel or its felf or the like hard Body; I find when calcined it can be run into Glass; I find when it is red hot and quencht in several Liquors it produces several medicinal Effects; and these and many more such like remarks are all that I can know of it; but what is the Substratum, or the inward Substance or Elence, which supports all these Affetions, or from whence all these, Czwóuera, Appearances do flow, is quite hidden from my Apprehension and Conceit. Aristotle and his followers amuse us with fubftantial Forms, but what the fubftantial Form of a Flint is, we are left all yet to feek. Our Modern Philosophers perplex us as much with the Figures, Magoitudes, Magnetisms, Positions, imperceptible Motions and specifick Modifications of Atoms, or very minute insensible particles of Matter ; and every pregnant Wir hath the liberty of expounding his own Conjectures; but all this is but an Hypothesis or meer Guess still; and only a Probability at last is the very height of all that the wisest Naturalist amongst them can arrive at.

But now if any one of them find all the pasóuera, outward Appearances above pamed of a Flint in any Body, I must think him Mad or void of all Sepse and Reason, if he doth not think it and call it a true Flint; or if he could not by these Modifications and Affections distinguish it from a Pumice-stone or a piece of rotten Wood. All the knowledge of this Body which he can possibly have, being to be gathered only from the outward Appearances; he must from them say and believe that it is a true Flint indeed; for from them only he must frame the Idea of it.

Now let me briefly apply all this to our present Point. After the Words of Christ, and after the Greeks Invocation, i see, and Taste the Bread and the Wine; I find they have all the specifick outward Appearances, Affections, Effects and circumstances of true Bread and Wine ; and these are all the xfitupia, marks and means left me by the great Creator to Judge of these Crea

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tures

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