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Him, and for all things and purposes for which he hath order'd them to be. And therefore here I hine of Thine is plainly the same with what Irenæus faith, 1. 4. C. 32Novi Testamenti novam oblationem, panem qui ex creatura est, & calicem qui P. 355. ex creatura, the new Offering or Oblation of the New Testament, Bread which is of a Creature, and the Cup which is of a Creature, this is plainly, Thine of Thine. So in another place he hath these very words, offerimus quæ 1.4. Ci 34funt ejus, we offer unto him what things are his, and afterwards explains them p. 363. after the words here quoted above. And the Prayer which here immediately follows, yet evinces this Sense more clearly, for having offer'd those cuaterial Oblations, Bread and Wine, They offer next, or moreover a rational and unbloody worship, and


God to send down his Holy Spirit upon these Gifts, or Oblations, (the Bread and Wine) as well as upon themselves, and so both of them wanted his farther Benediction alike. If they were now, after the Consecration, Christ's real Body and Blood, there would have been no need of this. Goar in expoundiog this, Thine of Thine, shuffles most miserably: He faith, The same Gifts are thrice offer'd (as in the Liturgy now p.139. 9.134. modeld.) ist. Upon the Prothesis ( where remember Christ's Portion is pierced with the Lance) and according to their mystical Tragedy, Christ is sain, that is facrificed; I should think there once for all was enough. 2dly. They are offer'd when the Elements after the Great Procession are set down upon the Holy Table ; for which the Prayer of Offering follows. Christ all this while is supposed not only Dead but laid in the Grave. 3dly. He faith, here they are offered again, where the Priest takes greater courage then he had before. But they are the fame Gifts still, that is meer Creatures, else why would he pray for the descent of God's Spirit upon them, as is before faid. See what a trifling Account he there gives for this threefold Offering. But however he hooks in his Tranfubftantiation by this special Gloss, In Sacrificio ncc nudus, &c. In the Sacrifice (which as is noted was over long before ) ncither bare Bread, nor the Body of Christ, simply speaking, but Bread truly confecrated, and the Body of Christ, covered with the species of Bread, is Sacrificed as the Sacrifice of the whole World. How is it now Sacrificed ? there is not one word of it here, or in the words of Consecration; at the Pro- . thesis indeed there is a great deal of stuft to that purpose as is above faid. He had forgot what he had freely said in expounding the word túxorów, where speaking of several sorts of Prayer, he hath thele Words, Eft quoque aliud Orationis genuus &c. There is also another kind of Prayer by which we implore God not only as a benefactor, but also offer unto him His of His, or we depute a Creature to his Worship, and make our selves at length Holy, or think to receive or derive divine Holiness from Him; this happens, either when we return thanks for benefits, when we dedicate Vessels, Altars, Temples, the Matters or the Elements of the Sacraments, we desire they may be made the Promptuaries or Store-houses of Grace, and lastly we think to render our selves more Holy by any means, yet by the help of Prayer being added; and so a Creature deputed not for the use Man alone, but chiefly for the service of God is sanctified by the word of God and Prayer. Here he gives a truer account of this very saying, we offer unto Thee Thine of Thine; that is, we depute these Creatures of Thine (Bread and Wine) to thy Worship, and we pray that (by thy Holy Spirit) they may be made Promptuaries or Store-houses of thy Grace, and that (by partaking of them ) we may be render'd more Holy thereby.

Rational Worship ] This is refer'd to the whole Service and is meant B. C. p. 23. only Spiritually. In the Prayer before the great Entrance or Procession, this Eucholog. p.45. Office of celebrating the Eucharist is called Quoia, a Sacrifice; the Priest chere Goar. P. 72. owning his commission from Christ, faith that he gave him, añs detugyixñs ταυτης και αναιμάκτεο θησίας την ιεραρχίαν, the Holy office of performing this Ministerial and unbloody Sacrifice; but the word Sacrifice there must relate to the whole Administration of the Eucharist, and cannot be wrested to signify


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literally, or to justify the absurd Sacrifice of the Latins, unless you will say Christ was before really Sacrificed on the Prothesis; it therefore signifies the Spiritual Sacrifice of Prayer, Praise and Thanksgiving carried on through. out the whole Office. Accordingly it is here and often afterwards expounded by, Xoyixin ratgear, a Rational Worship or Service. Surely after the Coolecration had been the properest place to have named it a Sacrifice, had it been meant litterally so in the Prayer above mention'd; but it is called all along no

otherwise then a Rational, that is a spiritual Service. And this is fully exGoar. p. 165. plain’d in Basil's Liturgy in the Prayer after the Prayer of Oblation, coi af poopé

ρειν έν καρδία συντετριμμένη και πνεύματι ταπεινώσεως την λογικίω ταυτην λατρείαν ημών, to offer unto Thee in a broken Heart, and in a spirit of Humility this our rational Worship; for in the words just before we are told what this Worship is, a' aiveiv, od ljeveny &c. To praise Thee, to sing hymns to Thee, to bless Thee, to adore Thee, to give thanks to Thee, to glorify Thee; and from this spiritual Sacrifice the whole Communion is truly called, the Eucharift

. Apologeticon So Nazianzen; He deserves not the name of a Priest, who hath not first

presented himself a Living, Holy, Sacrifice, and who hath not shewn or demonstrared, soyezici Latgeiar euágiçovy a rational Worship well-pleasing, and who hath not Sacrificed to God a Sacrifice of Praise and a broken Spirit (' rów rle Juosav, which only Sacrifice , who hath given all things, requires of κς) how hould I dare to offer to him τίω έξωθεν, τίω του μεγάλων μυστηρίων årritu nove the outward Sacrifice, the Antitype of the great Mysteries, or to

take upon me the habit and name of a Priest before I had Sacrificed, &c. Rom. 12. 1, 2. None can explain this woyixlee' na tgéicu rational Service better than St. Paul

himself hath done it; he plainly makes it the presenting of our Bodies, that is, our Selves, to God with Faith and true Repentance, being transformed by the renewing of our Minds; and this he calls a living Sacrifice, Holy, acceptable to God, our rational Service. And in this Seuse all Christians are

called by St. Peter, a Holy Priest-hood, obliged to offer up spiritual SacriHeb. 13. 15. fices, of Praise and Thanksgiving; David tells us how acceptable these Spiritual Services were to God, and they are so fill by Jesus Christ

. Goar p. 139. 136. mentions this as Melanĉton's opinion, and thus offers at an answer to it. The

principal part, faith he, of divine Worship is an external Sacrifice, to be Rom. 12. 1. performed with an humble Mind and Reflection, (very right, and we pre

sent our Bodies a living Sacrifice, Holy and Well.pleasing unto God, a raPfal. 116. 17. tional Service: We offer broken and contrite Hearts, and the Sacrifice of Pal.si.19. Thanksgiving and Prayer; we offer both External and Internal Sacrifices of Body

and Soul,) and this Sacrifice, faith he, must be the very Body of Christ the Hcb. 9. 27. Lord, slain on the Altar of the Cross for the Salvation of Man, (this was

done by himself once, and cannot be done again by us; 'neither can it be proved to have ever been done either by Latins or Greeks; so that 'here he ineerly begs the Question) and, as he goes on, consecrated on the Altar by an unbloody way, which is offer'd in Memory of his Passion. If he had proved that Christ's very Body and Blood are thus confecrated (that is, really inade,)

and offered upon their Altars, he had done his business. But we are otherwise Dialog. cum taught by Justin Martyr, who ( answering the Jews, excusing themselves for Tryph.p.345.a. Want of offering their Bodily Sacrifices then at Jerusalem, because they

faid, their Prayers in their dispersion were now as acceptable ) faith, that he indeed himself own'd, that Prayers and Thansgivings, made by worthy Per. fons, are the only Sacrifices which are perfect and well-pleasing unto God, and that Christians have learnt to make only these, at the remembrance of Christ's Paffion. In another place he faith, the fine Flower offer'd for Lepers, was a Figure of the Bread of the Eucharist, which Christ commanded to be made in the remembrance of his Passion. And there he seems to give the very reason wby the celebration of the Lord's Supper is called the Eucharist, or Thanksgiving, by way of Excellence ; because Christ commanded, with the use of the Bread, that we shonld give thanks to God, both for having Created the World with


1 Pet. 2.5.

1 Pet. 2.5

C. 9. 28
1 Pet. 3. 18.

p. 260. a.

all things therein for Man, and for freeing us from all the Evil in which we
were set, and for utterly destroying Principalities and Powers by him that
was made to suffer by his Counsel. And you will find the general Sense of
these Thanksgivings, scattered up and down in these very Prayers; by which
we may conceive, that as to this point, they have not much varied from cho
usage in Justin's time.
Send down thy Holy Spirit] What need is there of this earnest Intreating,

D. p. 23: Praying, and Befeeching for the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Gifts, as well as upon themselves, if the Gifts after the words of Christ wanted it not as well as they? Therefore it is first plain, that the Compilers of this Prayer did not believe that the Gifts were Transubstantiated by the words of Christ, or that they turn'd it into his very Body and Blood. For it would have been impious to have called for the Spirit upon them, equally with themselves, nay, after themselves. The Priest and Deacon indeed promised Boldly to one another, the descent of the Holy Ghost, and the Power of the most High, and that they should be with them for ever, and it was therefore highly requisite for them to pray earnestly (as they both do here ) to God to make it Good. Bur why should this descent be upon the Gifts, if they were already Christ him. self? The Gifts therefore were thought, by the first contrivers of this Prayer, to be still the same very Bread and Wine, and the Holy Ghost was pray'd to for his assistance, that by the taking of them in Remembrance of Christ's Passion, (@ge yevé a &c.) thus they may be made to every one that receives them to fobernefs of Mind and Remision of Sins, as follows in the next Prayer; though that Prayer is now jumbled a good way off from this. For if

you would reduce the words, without the Interruptions which follow, made by the Priest and Deacon, ipto due frame and order, the Prayer would stand entirely thus; send down thy Holy Spirit upon us and upon these Gifts; create in us a clean Heart, O God, and renew a right Spirit within us; cast us not away from thy Presence, and take not thy Holy Spirit from us; Thus far they pray, for the Spirit upon themselves) and make this Bread the precious Body of thy Christ, and what is in this Cup the precious Blood of thy Christ, changing by thy Holy Spirit, that to all that receive (them) they may be made to Soberness of Mind, to the Remission of Sins, to the Communication of tby Holy Spirit, and the rest that follow; here they pray for the Holy Spirit upon the Gifts, that they may by God's Grace be fo changed as to work in the Receivers these blessed Effects.

Now before I come to give an account of this whole Prayer, give me leave to take notice, that although the Latins during my stay in the East

, and since, have boasted that the Greeks did own Transubstantiation as well as themselves, yet supposing ( what I cannot grant) that the thing it self was true, yet there is still a vast and an irreconcileable difference between the Latins, and those Greeks which favour that Opinion, about the Form and Means of effecting it. It is well known that the Latins positively assert, that only the Words of our Saviour, this is my Body, this is my Blood &c. pronounced by a lawfull Priest with a true intention, and the like, immediately does the thing; so as nothing of the very Substance of either Bread or Wine remains, but only their sensible Accidents. There are Latins and Greeks, who are well inclin'd to own that the thing is done, yet as positively assert that it is not done till the Priest hath added, after Christ's words, this Prayer to the end of those words, Meta Banco Tivéepeate og tã årío, changing by i hy Holy Spirit. For this, not to mention any of the Greek Authors, who upon Record have been Zealous Goar. D. 199. sticklers for this point, I shall give you here only the very words of a Declara- 137. p. 140. rion, subscribed by some of the chief in the Greek Church when I was at Con- "39. ** ftantinople, and firmed with that Patriarch's Bulla Aurea, Golden Seal, ac the Instance of the French Embassador, the Marquess of Nointel; which Declasarion, (with many other fubscriptions to the fame purpose, which were likewise procured up and down by him) was preserved in thic Abby of St. Germain at



Paris when I was there 1679. The Embassador fhcw'd me it ar bis Palace in Pera, with many other Subscriptions, and gave me this Copy himself, with a Translation of it also in French for his own use, because he did not understand Greek; of which and all the rest I shall speak more fully in a more proper place. It is this. Περί δε και Φρικτό μωτηρία της ευχαριστίας, πισεύομεν και ομολογεμεν άδι, φάκτως, ότι το τυ σωμα και κυρίω ημών Ιησε Χρυσου πάρεσιν αορά τις πραματική παρεσία και τα μυσηeίω ώ γαρ το είπειν ή λιταργενα ιερέα με τα κυριακά λόγια, Ποίησον τ μεν άρτον τετοι τίμιον σώμα του Χριστού σε, το δε το ποτιμίω τέτω τίμιον αίμα τα Χρισού σε μεαβαλών τα πνεύματι σο τω αγίω, Tότι την ενεργεία και παναγία πνεύμαλο, ορφυώς και αρρώ πως ο άρτος μεταποιείται εις αυτό εκείνο το ίδιον σώμα και σωτης Χρυφού πραγματικώς και αληθώς και κυρίως, ο δε οίνος ές το ζωηρόν αίμα αυτό: και αυτόν όλον ή χιτών πισεύομεν είναι ωe9σφέροντα και ασφρόνιον, και ωe9σδεχόμόνον και Ααδιδόμενον άπαξ άπασι και ολόκληρον απαθως έθιόμενον οι μεν αξίως μεταλαβόντες αυτο ζωοποιόνται ενώμενοι αυτα τα Χρισώ, οι δε αναξίως κατακρίνονίας και εις όλεθρον ρίπλεσιν εαυτους. όπερ μυσήριον και λατρεία επί και λέγετα, και θεοπρεπώς και αυτό

λατρεύεται το τεθωμίον σώμα και σωτης G Χeιου, και ουσία προσφέρεται υπερ πάντων ή *In the French, ορθοδόξων χριστιανών ζώντων και κεκοιμημένων. Concerning the * dreadful Mitery of

the Eucharift we believe, and without doubting confess, that the Living Body of our Lord Jesus Christ is present invisibly, by a real presence in

the Mystery; for by the Priest, who celebrates, his saying after the Lord's +Fr. honorable.Words, Make this Bread the f precious Body of this Christ, and that in this

Cup the precious Blood of thy Christ changing by thy Holy Spirit, Then by the Power of the Holy Spirit, fupernaturally and ineffably, the Bread is changed into that very proper Body of the Saviour Christ, Really, and

Truly, and Properly; and the Wine into his Living Blood. And we be# French, qui lieve that the same entire Christ is both he that offers, and he that is ofoffre con quien fered, and he that receives, and he that is distributed at once to all, and L'diftribue. is without suffering any thing entirely eaten. Ibey also who worthily reSce Goar P.72. ceive him are quickned, being united to Christ himself; but they who unOfervis a ljumis worthily, are condemn'd, and cast themselves into Destruction. Which Mydistribueriso stery both is and is called Wormip; and in it, as is: worthy of God, is

worshipped the deifyed Body, of the Saviour Christ, and is offer'd a Sacrifice offers e offerris, qui jufcipis for all Orthodox Christians quick and dead. The Greeks (or at least some e impertis.

few of them) at the Council of Florence, seem to have been much of the Labb. Conc. fame Opinion, as to this point ; for we find that four of their chief Managers Flor. p. 489.

in that Council (though they were Persons who willi'd well to the Latin Caule, &c.) thus answer the Pope touching this fame Mateer. 'Hpés el mojeev, ότι ομολογώμεν και του ρημάτων τέτων τιλειθ, τον θείον άρτον, και γίνεσθαι σωμα Χεμσου: αλλ' ύσερονο καθώς και αυτοί λέγετε, Κέλυσον προσενεχθήναι τα δώρα ταύτα Δα χειρός αγία αγέλε εις το ορυφάνιόν σε θυσιαςήριον, ούτω κ ημεις ευχόμεθα, λέγοντες, Κατελθείν το πνεύμα το άγιον εφ' ημάς, και ποιήσαι ο ημιν ή άρτον τέτον, τίμιον σώμα Xeuσου σ' και το δ τω πατησίω τέτω, τίμιον αίμα τα Xeiroυ σε, και μεταβαλείν αυτά τα πνεύματι αυτά τα αγίω ώτε γενέας τοις μεταλαμβάνεσιν εις νίψιν ψυχής, εις άφεσιν αμαρτιών μη γένωνίαι εις κρίμα ή εις κατακeιμα ημών. We raid, that we conies, that by these words (the words of Christ the Holy Bread is confecrated, (The Latins to hook in their absurd Doctrine, render the word meičas here,

most impu lently Transubstantiari to be Transubsantiated; though a little Not. in Gabr. before they have render'd 16.7 6. Tæv, fanétificatis, Janetified. Ř. Simon is Philad.p.125.b.fo ingenuous as to own such Verfions to be made, ad mentem Theologorum,

according to the Divines Opinion, that is, those of the Roman Sect. Goar

is something more modest, and interprers it tranfmittari to be changed, and In the Canon made the Body of Christ. B1lt afterwards even as you say, Command these of the Mals. Gifts to be brought by the Hands of a Holy Angel to thy Heavenly Altar

above, so we also pray, saying, That the Holy Spirit may defcend upon 145, and make in us this Bread the precious Body of thy Christ, and what is in this Cup the precious Blood of thy Chrift, and to change them by his Holy Spirit, that they may be, to those who receive, for i be purifying of the Soul, for the Remission of Sins; that they may not be 10 011r Judgment

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Conc. Florent:


or Condemnation. Now let the Latins make what use they can of these Dé. clarations of the Greeks, it is impossible to reconcile their Opinions conceroiog R. Sim. not. in the manner and words which make this Change, be it what it will: The La- Gabr. Philad. tins fay, Christ's words do it, The present Greeks say, It is done a good Po. while after, Tótt, Then, when the Priest hath ended part of the Prayer at, changing by thy Holy Spirit: Nay, a very learned Author hath fhcwn at large, id. p. 164. b. that che Latins themselves cannot agree about this point; and he cites many p.147. b.163. of them, Men of Learning and Renown, who explode the School Opinion, and approve that of the Greeks. Nay, he cites a Bishop who is so bold as id.p. 177. b. to censure even two Infallible Popes, Gregory the Great and Innocent the Third, 178. a. for their Opinions about it. So that all the Latin School-Divinity about the Form of Tranfubftantiation, is plainly cxploded by the prefent Greek Subscribers; and as to the Matter they disfer not a little; The Greeks (as is well known) using always common fermented Bread, the Latins only a small un. fermented Wafer, and the Greeks after Confecration put hot water into the Cup, so that supposing the Wine and the first Water mixe at the Prothesis were p.524. D. Tranfubftantiated into Christ's very Blood, it is scurvily dalht with hor Water before the Communicants drink it. Give me leave here to make a Reflection or two upon thefe two Declarations: The present Greek Subscribers, though they have not used the word, uitrowors, Transubstantiation, yet they may, feein to have indced own'd the Thing, by declaring the Elements to be changed into the very proper Body, and living Blood of Christ, Really, and Truly, and Properly; as likewise we meet with the same thing in their, 'OpJ6DEO óporodica Orthodox Confession, and other late Writings, (of which more in another place;) Bur by all this we may see that thefe Subscribers (for I can by no means fay all the Greeks) are now more debauched, and by Degrees wrought much nearer to the Latins then Those in the Council of Florence; for they only faid, that the Bread by the Words of Christ, teressats, was confecrated and made the Body of Christ; this is far enough from Transubstantiation, or such a change as these modern Greeks allow ; for in a figurative Sense we say the same. The Florentine Greeks in their Declaration feem principally to aim at that Point, The compleat manner of the Confecration. However all the Contest in that Council about the Sacrament was managed, afge

' sáons oorns, by 7. 13. p. 497. word of Mouth, and what the whole Matter of Dispute was, and the Deter- D. ininarion of it, is not to be found either in Labbè or Syropulus. We meet Se&. 10. with no word tending to Tranfubftantiation ; we have, ti dellyty, consecrated, vid. etiam and Tirewors dégwo, the Consecration of the Gifts, of which the Greek p.163. a. b. Synod would say nothing, ay:osiles til å ansó ở tessuala mtegzewo, being :64. a. b. ignorant of giving any true Decision of the Matter: By, which it is plain 2: 497. that they were not then acquainted with the Latin Transubstantiation. The Cardinals urged that no Vnion could be made without a Determination of this Point, tūs iegxpoías, about the celebrating of the Sacrament. The Emperor would not have it put into the Definition, neither is it there. Again we find all the other Points of Controversy mention’d, but this not touched. At last we find two difcovános, Masters (whether Greeks or Latins is not there p.801. D. clearly exprest) taught or asserted before the Pope, that the Lord's Words, årét80, do sanctify the Bread and, Meta Tolžn, change it into the Body of Christ, not the Prayers of the Priests; and we read there, that much was said about it, but nothing was concluded. Now first, I cannot but imagine, that if the Florentine Greeks had then as thoroughly own’d Tranfubftantia. tion, as the Modern Subscribers seem to have done, surely it would have been put in the Definition, (where there is not the least jot of it,) or they would at least have dropt here and there (where so many Occasions offer’d themselves) fome plain and fully significant words to express or at least intimate their Opinion in this point, and not have been all along so cautious in using those words only, which are above mention’d, none of which imply any such Marter. The Latins who have been so bold as to translate Timelechoso Transubstantiari, me



p. 500. D.

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