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Sozom. I. 2. c.
Deut. 21. 22;
tells us that Christ redeem'd us not by the Golden or Silver 'or Stone
John, ébyxe éxi tõ çocugs, we Trani state it, put it or the Cros. Now Conden. T. p. 411. ing the length or largeness of that Title written is Greek, Latin and Hebrew, Luk? 23.38. if it was written or Engraved upon the very Cross; it mult make the top of the long Cross very very broad; and if it was on the T Chrit's' Head would cer. tainly have covered or hidden a great part of it. But if each cacings, be gendred over the Cross, as certainly it ought to be; (for-lo it is exactly agreeable to all the rest, fraico tās nepanas, over bis Head, and, ért" autas over him or hver Mat. 27. 37. it, if you will have it mean the Cross ) then it suits as well if bot "Better with Luk. 23. 38. the Crotch, then with the formal Cross; wherher the Title was only a written Schedule hang’d over his Head, (as our Custom in fuchi Cafes is, ) ot, odvis' Soerat. ",17. Zúaos év vad gee deux cua to, whether it wasla Board Painted white and then written within or Carved, ( as some will have it, ) it is all one in this point'; we are told, that when the three Crosses were found, that this Title lay féparated by it telf, and it could not be discovered to which of them it belonged, and therefore was as capable to have been fixt over any one of them. We may also consider that in those words apply'd to our Saviour's Crucifixion in the Scriprure, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a Tree, the Hebrew'word T. p. 412. 133. gnetz, is not only taken for a Gibbet, or. Gallows, or Tree, or dry Wood in Gal. 3. 13. general; but is by the Septuagint' once remarkably rendred, 471 guns didúcis , n. and by the vulgar Latin, in patibulo, on a crotched Stake, or upon an open raf-jos. 8. 29. ter of Wood, as Causabon hath made it good. I might add that I have observed that many of the oldest Crosses, as Charing, Geddington, Northampton, Coventry, and several others in England, as well as elsewhere, are placed in ...d ilqi what we call, a three way Leet, that is, where only three ways meet like, Y which may give fome colour to chis conceit; and there fcem to have been great notice of old taken of fuch a place, by that Paffage ir Ezechiel, where c. 21. 21. the King of Babylon using Devination, food at the parting of the way (Heb. 22:47 (on the Mother of the way), at the Head of the two ways, The LXX,.inser ja tüv apgaiar odèr én” depreñs tão dúo dôv, fuper antiquam viam in Principio dyarum + .? miet: viarum, on the old way at the beginning of two ways. Bue I remember that I have read it somewhere, that ari Anathema was once folemnly pronounced (as agaiost Hereticks) tois tipelor saupòv penzey & moxadgor; againft all tbobé ubo call the Honourable Cross, a Fork, or Crotched Stake; and therefore I will vid. Du Cange. meddle po farther in this point, being in these matters perfectly of $e. Angu. Gloff. in pšastin's mind, errare poffum, Hæreticus effe nolo, I may be mistaken, in my con me propostes ) ceits, but I will not be a Heretick, by urging them to the Offence and DE furbance of good Men who think otherwise.
Now my whole design in all this long Digression is only this, to 'know, if the Devil, as they tell us, flees from the bare sign or mark of the Cross, inn, which Cross or Mark is most Effectual ? Or whether all these Signs and barely and purely in themselves will do this basiefs alike? Again the Cardinal or the Cross painted or sign d in the Air, fed illâ unâ ligneâ cujus eft Imago quam veneramur; but by that one Wooden Cross of which this we nowo Worthip is only the Image; and again, we Worship, all Crosses, becaiife "they c. 30. P. 337. are all Images of the true Cross; and again, all are made to express, that i. first Cross; and so are Images of it; thus then every common Cross is but a Type of the true Cross which it felf (according to him) is but a Type of Christ's Suffering; so that in fine it is but a Type of a type of the Prototype. But now if Christ really died upou an ordinary crotched Stake like Y all the common Crosses, or any one of those numerous ones which the Heralds have invented, or the T it felf, would be very absurd and improper Images or Types of it.
Yer for my pare I fhall freely profess, that I can by no means blame our Custom in England of fetting up the Figure of the common Cross upon our Churches and in other publick places; for I shall by the Grace of God pay this Reverence to it, and to all the rest of those other
. Marks and Signs, ++. T. ¥. IHC. XPC. 1C: XC. NIKA. and the like, (and I question not but that
De Imag. I. 2.
C. f. 7.
i Cor. 2. 2.
T. p. 4127 every Pious, Understanding, Thinking, good Christian in our Church will al
low the same as the true use of them) wherever I see any one of theem I shall look upon them as constant Memorials, designed, only to put me in Mind of Christ's Sealing the Covenant of Grace and Remission of Sins, by Shedding his Blood for me, and for every true Penitent Believer. I should pot scruple to use, with this alteration, the very words which are in the Roman Pontifical, at the Consecration of a Cross, I beseech thee Mercifull Father, that as often as I Mall see any of these Marks of the Humility of Christ Cruci. fied, I may reflect upon it, and obtain greater Afiance in thee, and more Courage against the Enemy, and ever Practice all humbleness of Mind from his most glorious Example. And I hope by God's help that all our Hearts
upon every such Memorial will, (as time will give leave,) ever break forth in. to a serious and hearty Sacrifice of Thanks and Praise to our inost merci. full God, who hath vouchsafed to us such Gracious and Wonderfull means of obtaining our Salvation. Such pious Meditations and Reflections, as chese, upon the light of any one of these Memorials, will indeed be able to drive away the Devil from us, and chase away (his whole Black guard,) all evil Thoughts which are always ready to assault us. Resist the Devil and be will flee from you, faith St. James; is any so void of common Sepse as to think this will be done by a slight Mark, or by a quick firoak or two of my Fingers? Or can any one thick litterally, that it is by struggling with him
as with a Man? No, it is only by such an inward Couragious chought as this, Eph. 6.16. this, our only Shield of Faith, will enable us to quench all the fiery Darts
of the Devil. What can guard us more safely from the Devil or his Abeciers in all Temptations, then a ready Faithfull Thought of Cbrisl, and him Cruci
fied for us? O Christian, In hac Fide non in hoc signo vinces, by this Faith Rom. 8. 37: and ioward steady Reflection, not by this or that poor outward Cypber; thou
T; P: 413;, wilt be more then Conqueror over the Flesh and the World, as well as Joba 5: 4?over the Devil himself. As I have said of the Pictures of Saints, we may
rightly use them not only as Oroaments of our Churches, but as Memorials to put the Intelligent Persons in mind of their glorious Deeds, and encourage them to imitate them; fo I say all these Marks and Signs may be rightly used as oores, very significant to every skillfull Christian, to raise in his Mind
Humility, Patience, Forgiveness, by that most Ravishing and Triumphant + Cor: 15. 57, thought, that Christ died to deliver him from the Power of the Devil,
and Sin and everlasting Death. Had I a good Picture of any Modern notorious Traitor, or a true one of even Judas himself, I should never cast
my Eye upon them but I should be inwardly fiered with Indignation and abhor
rence of all I reason and Rebellion, and all such abominable and accursed InMat. 27. So
gratitude. Should a Romish Bigot Thew me a bloody Stone, and say it was one of those killed St. Stephen, I should pity his credulity, but certainly magpify that Captain of the Martyrs. I fhall rejoice at any Memorial which Thall remind me of my Christian Profession, of my Condition, and of my Duty; and must heartily commend, any sensible way.faring Man, who as he passes by a Gibber or Gallows, should bless God who hath so far preserved him from all such Wicked ways, such urighteous Courses, such wretched Companions as usually bring Men to so lamentable an End, and most earnestly beseech God to be Atill his Keeper. Were I a Country Farmer I should be glad whenever I took a Fork in my Hand, not that I jould Worship or Adore it, but that
God Thould then immediately touch my Heart with an Humble and Thankful 2 Cor. 5. 21. Meditation in Memory of the Innocent Jesus, who for my Sins was made Sin
and hanged upon a Tree. Should I fee a Red Cross upon the Door of an
Infected House, I lhould (as pious Bishop Hall once did,) cerrainly make some αυτοφιδιάσμ.
serious Reflection upon it; bewailing our grievous Sins which juftly brings down these heavy 'Judgments upon us, and humbly beseeching God, for the Crucified Jefus sake to remove them from us; This I am sure would be acceptable in his fight, but whether my sight bowing down to it, or a faint
33. out of Leo
stroke or two upou my Forehead or Breast, would chase away the destroy-, T: P: 413; ing. Angel, very much must doubt. I am very well satisfied that the Original and Primitive use of the Sign of the plain Cross, when it was taken first into Practice, was meerly to distinguish a Christian from an Unbeliever; and therefore ię was in many places, and upon mapy occasions, branded or markcd
upon the Forehead, or some visible part of the Face, to thew that that Perfon sa markt was a Professed Christian. When I was in Africa to view the Ruins of Carthage, in a Valley some little way distapt, we found a Colony or Company of people who live like the Antient Nomades; (they call them, as I remember, now Beduines, or Beguines ) they were Arabs who live only in Tents, and move up and down with their Herds, (of almost all sorts of Catcle) as they find Forage; we had the Curiosity to go amongst them; all I shall now rehearse, is thiş; Every one of their Women had (amongst other marks) a plain blew Cross, (made as the potęs upon the Pilgrims Arms at Jerufaa lem) either on their Cheeks, or on the side of their Nose, or Mouth, or Chio, but most commonly upon their Forehead; the Occasion I learnid to have been this. Some Africans formerly; who first were Professed Christians, did afterwards Apostarize to Mahometanism; afterwards they, who Professed themfelves to be Christians amongst them, had a Cross sec on their Face, by which they thought them secured from turning Maliometans again, or leaving their Religion for apy other. However in process of time Mahometanism prevailing, and Christianity by degrees being quite extinct, the Women potwithstanding kepe up this blew Crofs upon their faces still, as a fashionable Beauty-Spor, though the Original of it is quite forgotten amongst them; I have at large difcourled of this Practice in another place; and thall here only add, that the Ja- Smet. Antiq. çobites in Mefopotamia, and elsewhere in the East, not only Baptize their lo- Neomag. p. 49. fants but Burn their foreheads with a hot Iron in the mark or Form of a vol. 1. p. 32. Cross. This pfe then of the Cross at that time was not to drive away the De. Afric
. Victor vil from them, ( as if he fled from it,) but to drive them from him; to Zonaras &c. keep them by Fear and Shame from leaving their first Love.
But I am fully perswaded that at first there was yer this more general and common use amongst Christians of Signing themselves with the Cross, viz. To fignify to one anosher privately or publickly, (even before the Heathen on occasion) by this outward Action that they were Christians; It was ( as I may so say )'as a kind of Shibbaleth, (as it is to this very day all over the East, to profess ones felf a Christian; when you can by no other Language be understood this very Crossing your self expresses to every one what you are; no Turk, or Jew, or Heathen will do it. Many and many times, as poor Russian Slaves and others, came Begging and Singing by in the Streets, and I could speak no Language to their understanding, if looking out of my Window upon them, I Croft my Breast, they would certainly do fo too to thew me that they were my fellow Christians; and often Travelling in Turkish Habit ( as we are Privileged to do in that Countrey) when we came to a great Village or Town they should be afraid to give us any Entertainment, or say that they had any thing to sell, especially Wine (a very necessary comfort upon the Road) for fear we thould take and deftroy all they had as being forbidden ware; But when I Crost my self and faid, eis To Evoje ce tê mateos, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, and thereby only own'd my self to be a Christian, they would bring forth what they had, and freely let us have any thing which they had for our Money. I shall here briefly recount part of a remarkable thivg which happen'd when I was at Constantinople. I have largely fee it down in my Travels, and you have much of it out of a letter of mine to my most Worthy and most Reverend friend Dr. Womock, afterward Bishop of St. David's, which he made use of in his excellent Treatise against Alfop's Me- Verdict upon lius Inquirendum, in Vindication of the sign of the Cross used by our Church the Dissenters in Baptism. A poor Greek was by fome Bigotted Turks craftily ensnared and to 247
Kevel. 2. 4.
De cultu Imag.
338. E. H.
T. p. 414. drawn in to read in one of their books those words, which are commonly lookt
upon as their folemn confession; God is but one God, and Mahomet is his Prophet; upon this by force they immediately circumcised him; and then because he would not absolutely renounce his Christianity and turn Turk, he was, after much barbarous usage, at last beheaded before his own door. I faw him when he was led to his Execution ; (as I had often done before ;) and all the way as he went through the Streets, when we could not hear any thing which he said in the throng which prest about him, he almost continually Croft himself after the Greeks manner; publickly and stedfastly thereby professing himself to live and die a Christian. Thus according to the very words of our Church in Baptism, he was not ashamed 10 confess the Faith
Christ Crucified, and manfully to fight under his Banner, as his Faith. full Soldier and Servant to his Lives end. This ihew's the Grand and Primitive use of this Sign of the Cross; and every one of us, at our Confirmation, taking upon us what was stipulated for us by our God-fathers at our Baptism, is bound to give at least this pubiick outward Testimooy of his Faith, when he cannot otherwise express it. I know that many weak People amongst us here at home, think that the Cross in Baptism, and this folemn declaration upon it, is at least an insignificant, if not a scandalous thing; but they who go abroad amongst Barbarians and Infidels will find it much otherwise upon occasion, if they be not ashamed of their Christian Profession. Thus with Christians this Signing of themselves with the Sign of the Cross, was at first a very lopocent, Pious, and Laudable usage; but it is now made a meer form.al thing, I may fay, a plain Charm or Scarecrow to fright away the De.
vil. Bellarmine counts all Magical Characters and Figures superstitious 1. 3. C. 30. p.and unlawfull, quia non funt operativæ naturaliter, because they can work
nothing by their own Nature; And thus much he expreilly confesseth of the T. p. 415. Sign of the Cross, non operatur ex virtute sua naturali, it doth not work by its
own natural Virtue, or Power; Then Magical characters, saith he, bave not their Effects from God, cum pulla talis Dei promissio reperiatur, for there is no such Promise of God to be found for them; and I would fain fee such a Promise for the Sign of the Cross as to make it a Philaftory, lastly, nec Deus invocatur, neither doth the Magicians, faith he, (neither need the Staurolaters or Cross-makers, say I, according to him) invoke God; for according to his Doctrine the bare Sign of the Cross alone is fufficient to guard us,
as I have our of him shewn above; wherefore I must say of the Latins use De rebus Eccle of the Cross what Walafridus Strabo faith of Images and Pictures, there may
be devout use made of (both it and ) them, fed fuperstitionem & Hebetudinem, but the Superstition and sottish Dullnefs of Worshipping them, (or it) must be condemned, by which mistaken or deluded Men endeavor to tra. duce, or bring down, Spiritual Worship, to meer corporeal or bodily Performances. If then the Sign of the Cross, used or made as a Phylactory, hath no Institution or Promise of God for its Effect; nor can work any thing naturally of it self, neither is God called upon in its application, ( as is manifest in most of the Devoto's, especially the Ideots, ) it is as plain Magick, according to the Cardinals Declaration, as any thing else. If any devour Person wears a Cross or Crucifix about his Neck, or in his bosom only, as a Memorial, to put him in Mind of his belief and trust in Christ Cruci. fied, I shall blame him no more then I would do for his wearing a Ring in remembrance of his departed or absent Friends; both of these may often ftir him up to pray for himself and them, or to imitate the Virtues of the Dead; but if it is worn as a Phylactory: to keep him from the Devil, I
must think it is as gross Superstition and folly, as what is said of the Turks in his LiteOnce striving for, and wearing, pieces of Scanderbegh's bones in their Pockets, verius forum. or Jewsdans, to make them as Bold and Couragious as he was.
The Jews in Turkey are obliged to wear a Cap (like the deep crown of a Hat without any brims) to distinguish them from all other People, and if any devour Christian
fiaflicis. c. 8.
should wear a Cross or Crucifix (either voluntarily or by Command )oöły to top. 415 Thew what he was, I know no harm in it; bur if he should wear, Agnus Dei, the Lamb of God in wax, or the little Gospels, or his hours of Prayer, ör a Cross, or Crucifix, of Wood or any other matter, only as a Philattory, as some superstitious Women even in St. Jerom's days did; I Should with him
In Mat. 23. 4. condemo him, and fay, væ vobis miferis, wobe to us wretches to whom the vices of the Pharisees are come;':such as these have a Zeal of God but not according to knowledge; their Presses and Cabinets, faith he, have Godly Books (and perhaps Crosses, Crucifixes and Pictures 100;') but they have not the Knowledge of God; no more have theset poor deluded Souls. :... I shall in the last place consider but one caution more above mentioned, as given by the Cardinal according to the Synod, about the Worshipping of Pičtures and Images:;- and the case must be the fame in Worshipping the Cross or Crucifix. Ab eis non aliquid petatur, nothing must be asked from them. I know their common thife in this Point is, that they pray not to the image or Picture it self, but to the Prototype, to the Saint or Perfon which is represented by it; and that their Prayer is only this, ora pro nobis, pray for us. But how can they Justify even that? They must believe, or at least suppose; that the Saints are, Omniscientes & Omnipresentes, able (let that be, as I have noted, made out by them as well as they can ) to know all our Want's and Necessities and Conditions at all times whatever they are ; that they are prefent with us, and hear us in all the most secret and distant places over the whole world; they hear us here, and all those also at the same time, who call upon them in the utmost Indies and the Antipodes. But even this will not yet do their Business ; 7 for it is most notoriously known, and Evident by their publick Books of Devotion, Printed and allow'd by the Authority of their Popes and Inquisitors, that Petunt, they ask of them, or pray to them, T. p. 416. to do. such great and mighty Deeds for them, and grant such Blessings to them, as are only in the Power of God himself to give, and belong to him alone to bestow upon them; asking such mighty and wonderfull Blessings as these must make the Saiots also, Omnipotentes , Almighty and Alfufficient. I fhould be extravagantly tedious should I recite all those amazing Pecitions which are daily offer'd up to the Virgin Mary alone; I will touch only an Office or two which by chance I have now by me, there amongst others we have these; they pray her, to deliver them from their Enemies, to offic. B. Mariai receive them at the hour of Death, to loose the bonds of the Guilty, to give confirm. Bulla. Light to the blind (bodily or spiritually) to drive away all evils; (these vin. 16. 1677. are to be said in all her Festivals ;) to come with all the Saints to their helpp. 53. and Counsel in their Prayers and Petitions, in all their streights and neces
85 fities, in all things which they are to do, or to speak, or think, all the days p: 352, 353. and nights and bours and moments of their Life. But then as being coofcious of her not being any ways able to do this for them of her felf, they pray her to obtain it of her Son. So again, to make their Heart flame with the love
P. 358, 9, 60, of Christ, to make them lament and sympathize with him, to be defended in i, 2. the day of Judgment, to be glorified in Paradise, to take into ber Custody their Soul and Body daily and in the hour of Death, committing to her all their Hope and Comfort in all their Streights and Miseries throughout their whole Life; that by her Intercession and Merits all their works may be directed and disposed aecording to Her Will and the will of ber Son; (her Will and her Merits are not only to have their equal share in this work, but they are put before those of her Son) that by her they may escape eternal Damnation. You have something to the fame purpose in her Litany there. Pope Gregory che XIII. Established a Confraternity of her Rosary and Coro-p. 422. na, (the use of their Beads, ) and Prayers were appointed for every particular division of their Chappler, which are almost all of the very fame nature with these. You have
the like in the Office of the Virgin's Immaculate conception Edit. Answerp. approved by Paul y, 1615. Yet one thing I cannot but note there, we are 1661.