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or at the best Uncertain and absolutly Doubting? And therefore I cannot but T. p. 402; think that Prayer, in Goar, to Chrysostom, a very plain piece of Modern Forge- p. 86. ry, there foitted in by fome Latinizing Prelates, Πάπρ Ιωάννη χρυσόσομε, πρέσβευε XSITô Tô Dewy owflüc tàs fugas gwr, O Father John Chryfoftom interceed with Christ our God, that our Souls may be saved. It is indeed in some
An. 1672. done. Copies Printed at Venice, but it is not in any of my MSS. nor in Leo S. p. 42, 43. Turcus his Latin Edition; I am sure it is to part of Chrysostom's own Li-r. p. 15. turgy.
I shall now Examine how well these three Cautions abovefaid are observed by them, io that fiugle Instance of their Adoring and Worshipping the Cross. First, if there be no Divineness, or Power, or Virtue to be believed in it, how comes those Glorious and Marvelous Effects ascribed to it by the Cardi. De Imag. I. 2. nal? It afrights, faith he, and chases away Devils; it drives away alli: 30. p. 338. Diseases and all Evils; it fanétifies all things upon which it is imprest or made; by it all Magick is dissolved, or made ineffectual. What
greater er can be ascribed to the Mightiest Angel of Light? For all this he gives us this threefold account. 1. When the Devil, faith he, fees the Cross, he remembers that by the Cross of Christ (or by Christ's suffering upon it) he was T. p. 403. overcome, Spoil'd, bound, and weakned, and therefore he is afraid, and fleeth from it as a Dog doth from a Stone or a Stick with which he is fmitten. But docs not the Devil know all this before and remember it, unless we put him in Mind of it by our imprinting the Cross or making the sign of it with our Finger? When we have renounced the Devil and all his works at our Baptism, and folemnly renewed our Promise and Vow at our Confirmation, and have been piously recommended to the Lord's Defence by the Bishop, and by laying his holy Hands upon us are certified of God's Favour and Goodness towards us, and publick Prayers have been made, that his Fatherly hand should be ever over us, and that his mighty Protection should ever preserve us in Body and Soul; can the bare Mark or Sign of the Cross add any thing more to my fafe-guard or farther security ? Methinks it looks like too airy a Conceit, that we can fright or scare away Devils, by pelting them with our Crosses, as we chase away Dogs or Birds with Stones. The wise Erasmus Colloquiis Expleasantly, but very justly. Ridicules, the Circle, and the Crosses, and Ho- orcism. Zy Water, and Agnus Dei's, and all the other Trumpery, quibus olim se mupiebant adversus poxios Dæmones, which of old, in those days, were used as Arms and Ammunition against mischievous Devils; under the Perion of Faunus and the Parish Priest, he there represents to the Life the Sottilh belief and Practice of poor, silly, credulous Ideots concerning the wonderfull Power of the Cross.
The Cardinal's second reason is, that the sign of the Cross hath its effect a. gainst the Devil, ex opere operantis, from the Work, or Inward lotention, of the Worker, or of him that makes it. It is, faith he, Invocatio quædam, a kind of Invocation or calling upon the Merits of Christ Crucified, and oppofing them against the Devil; so that the Effect proceeds more from the Faith and Affiance and inward Devotion of the Person, then from the Character of the Cross it felf; as when we pray, the Effect is to be attributed to our inward Faith, rather then to the outward Jound of the Voice. When any Temptation from the Devil offers it self to me, or when Troubles and Adversities opprefs me, or when any Evil either to my Body or my Soul seems to arile or come from him, if I seriously think of this Victory of Christ, and immediately with all Humility and Steadiness of Faith, I do Fervently in Praycr or Meditation recommend my self to God's most gracious Protection and Deliverance, and heartily beg of him that all those Evils which the Craft and Subtilty of the Devil or Man worketh against me, may be brought to nought, and by the Providence of his Goodness may be utterly dispersed; I shall ever think my self infinitely more safe then a thousand signs of the Cross made upon my Breast or Forehead can make me. Such a pious Address as this to the AllBbb 2
T. p. 403. mercifull and Almighty God, without any sign of the Cross, shall assuredly
terrify and Confound the Devil, and disappoint both him and all bis wicked ACcomplices; whereas, that sign alone without this, will as little Fright or Affect the Devil himself, as it doth those wicked Men who are his lostruments and Ministers.
But fuppose, the Sign of the Crofs, when join'd with Faith and Prayer, may from them obtain a Glorious effect; how will poor Idcots be benefired by making, this bare fign, without being able to make any such inward Reflectia ons of the Merits of Christ, or thinkiog of them in the leaest? They have
perhaps been told that it is a good thing to Cross themselves upon all occasions ; T. p. 404. but how many is there of them who understand this Invocation, or Calling up
on the Merits of Christ, or think one Jot of thus applying them, when they heedlesly make this Sign meerly according to Custom, or the common Fashi
In the Houses of tome Worthy Papists of my Acquaintance here in England, when a mixt Company of them, and us Protestants were fitting down to Eat at the Table, I have been (instead of Grace or openly blessing the Food) their Priest covertly with his Finger to make a Cross, and perhaps he may add, in nomine Patris, in the name of the Father, or lome such other short Suffrage to himself; A Priest or Map of some Knowledge may perhaps join an Ejaculation with the Sign when he makes it; but a poor ignorant Crearure, when he Crosseth himself, or his Table, or any thing else, hath no more Inward pious Reflection then when lic makes his Leg, or inoves his Hat to his Superior, or to any one else as they meet or pass by him.
Give me leave here to take notice of a Custom which I have often observed amongst the Greeks; when we have been Discoursing in the Evening, or otherwise, if one of them being sleepy begins to Tawn or Gape, (especially if he be a Devoto,) he will certainly with his right Thumb makc upon his Mouth a little sign of the Cross. I once took an occasion to ask a Person of some good teose (but a very Religious Man ) what was the meaning of it; He told me very seriously, that when a Man is thus drousy, and his Mouth is thus often opeo, the Devil hath a great opportunity to enter him being in this careless posture, or (as our waggish Proverb hath it) to take him napping; but having, faid he, let this powerfull Sign before our Mouth, the Devil immediately flies away and hath not power to polless us. I askt, if they used to add any words to this Sigo, he antwer’d, sometimes some will say, ĐEw XCTagruév@, or, Ew Trioxecto'gar, (as we lay to a Dog, get you out) out wicked one, or be gone thrice Accursed, or the like. bles over the Lord's Prayer, or any other, not minding what he faith, or quite thinking of something else, and speaks or repeats it to himself purely (as I may so fay) Mechanically, or like a Parrot; at this time, I cannot but think, thác there is peither true Faith nor Affiance nor Devotion in him; and how can
we think otherwise of a Drousy Yawning Greek; (perhaps then well drencht Buxtorf. Synag. with Wine?). The Jews have in an Inscription (let upon the walls of the Chamjud. c. 4. ber where one of their Women lies in,) these words, ika'y pin, Churz Lilith,
Out, or a way, Lilith; by which they think that they fright away a the Devil, which Destroys or (as old Women with us fay of the Fairies ) changes their Children; and some of our Criticks will have these Latin words, Lilla, abi, abi, made from thence; and say our Narsses common Song to their Children wiicn they rock them in their Cradle, Lullaby Baby, was jumbled from thence; but let this be as it will, I am fatisfied that not one Greck of a thousand mind the meaning of his Crossing his Mouth when he does it, more then the Nurse or Maid mind what she faith, when the Sings her Lulla-by Baby. So this shift will not do, for there is no real Faith or Affiance in the matter. Nothing is more common with Greeks ( and many Latins use the same Formality ) when they write a Letter then to fix a Crots before the first word; and in our Horn books for little Children, there is a Cross (after the old Fashion ) sct before the Alphabet which is thence commonly call'd by us to this very day.
the Christ Cross row. It is possible that he who first set up this Fashion might 1. p. 404. then have some inward Reflection upon it; but afterwards every one did it as a thing meerly in course, or fashionable, or gentile; as it is now counted to write in our Letters, Sir, at some distance at the Top from the following words, aud your Servant, as much beneach; and the Compositor of the Press, when he sets the Cross before the Child's Alphabet, hath no more any Religious thought in it, then when he adds, the &c. And per se And at the end, which the Country School-dames commonly pronounce, Anpasian.
The wife Cardinal seeing plainly that in thus making or marking the Cross, T. p. 4053 the inward thought goeth not with it once in ten thouland times, cspecially amongst Ideots, and Mechanicks, and meer formal Men, he at last confidently advanceth this singular Notion as a finishing stroak, that this very Sign hath its Power, ex opere operato, purely from it self only by its being made; and tells us, that the Devil is chased away not by the Devotion or Faith of ut fupr. 9. the Worker, or of him that makes it, but only by the sign it self; The Iconoclaters in the seventh Synod say the same, the meer Sign ycopis euxñs, with.
T.7.P.453.C. out Prayer will do all. If so, then first how can this conlist with his former caution; In Worshipping Images, Pictures and Religious representations, no Divinity or Power is to be believed to be in them? Thus to believe that a meer material Cross, or its Mark, or its bare Sign, in the Air, hach this Power in it self to drive away the Devil, must be a great and dangesous Sin at least, if not plain Idolatry, by his own Rule. But to excuse all this, he appeals to matter of fact. The Jews and Heathens, meer Infidels, faith he, have driven away the Devils by the Sign of the Cross; But his Inftances of this are so mean, that I may not say trifling, as they by no mcans come up to his purpose. I will begin with Pope Gregory's Tale of a Convert- Greg. dial. l. 3. ed Jew; you may read it fully and most ingeniously (after his usual way) de-c: 7 scribed by Angel. "Gazeus, and, in my opinion, more cleanly and modestly ; dæus vas vacua for what the other calls the Nuns, Terga, Backside, and her, Pofteriora, hin.um. der parts, he calls, dexterum humerum, her right Shoulder. Consider it well, if the Legend do not make you heartily laugh, I am confident the Poetical Pasaphrase upon it will
. It is wonderfull indeed that the Devil knew nothing of the Jews being all the while under the same roof, till some of the little puny Greg. Imps were sent by him to seek who was there; as also that they could not smell out any thing of that dreadfull Cross, formerly made on the Jews Gax. Forehead, till the stink of his Body (which was now much encrcased by his Fear ) had brought the Devilins to him. As to the firit Srory in Nazianzen, of a crowned Cross appearing in the
Orat. 1. in 740 Entrails of the Beast to Julian as he was Sacrificing, he faith indeed, that lian. p. 70.c.d. it was, Iguassuevov Sãoua, commonly reported as a Wonder; but for his part he was in dispense, whether he should write it, or disbelieve it, there being such a mixture of Credible and Incredible things in it. Give me leave to inake this short Reflection before I go any farther; a wife and a good Man may doubt of a strange report, though it is, gguna sueror, common in every bodies Mouth; but the Story in him, which the Cardinal chiefly aims at, is this in short. Julian bcing at last addicted to Magical or, what we call, black
Arts, went down into a dismal horrid Cave, with a pretended Conjurer or So• phifter, to confer with Subterraneous Devils about future Events; and there perceiving strange Noises, filthy Smells, and fiery Apparitions, and being
struck with these surprising Things, he betook himlelf to the Cross, to παλαι" Óv odga xov, the old Remedy; and being sign’d with it, the sign prevailed, “the Devils were worsted, his Fears were diffolved. All this might be, as the “ former was, Igum Suevor Jãuje zo only a common wonderfull Report ; For Nazianzen tells it not upon his own Knowledge ; nay, he calls all these Appearances above mention'd, Enous xj angous, old Wives Fables, mad, juggling Tricks of the Conjuring Impostures, as indeed many such Stories prove to be but meer Knarish contrivances of cheating or designing Villains. ' Next it is plain that
T. p. 405. Julian was then, ófejede eius tai tulauta, but lately or newly instructed in, or giv
en to, these vile Practices; he had not quite thrown off his old Belief, but fill thought that there was much in it; and therefore lign’d himself with the sign of the Cross, which is there call’d his old Remedy; i. c. that to which he had been used whilst he was a profest Christian; and it is very probable that he then used with it, in the name of God, or of Christ, or Jesus, or such like words (as I can easily prove that it was the Custom in those days, as it is now with us to say on such occasions, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, &c.) so that here were many manifest tokens of great Relicks of his former
true Faith still resting in him; so that it was not the bare Crossing himself 1 alone (which the Cardinal pretends to,) that did the Effect. Now for my part
I must freely confess, that what the Devils are said to Act in this Tragi-comedy,
in making noises and the rest, and then at last yielding, feems to me as meer a T. p. 406. trick of some that had a desire to bring Julian back to his old Rcligion again,
(whom they saw begin to dote upon Conjurers and Magicians,) as whar Polus put upon Credulous Faunus in Erasmus; when he Acted the Devil's
most nicely, in terrifying him and then fleeing from him as occasion ferved. But I offer this only as my own Conjecture, and leave the candid Reader to judge for himself. It is enough that this Passage doth not in the least favour the pretended Power of the bare Cross alone. Julian was indeed Learned and of great Parts, but when he began to Dote, and was inclinéd to believe these wild Fancies and Stories, he might be, for all that, as well imposed upon in thcsc matters, as many learned Men, amongst us (to my Koowledge ) have been, when they too easily listen and believe every Tale of Witches and Apparitions of Spirits; That learned Mathematician 4. Dee, I think is ge
nerally lookt upon as a notorious Example, of Wife-men's being deceived. Harel. 32. So Thus in Epiphanius the young brutish Lover, who endeavour'd by Court
ship and Magical and Diabolical Charms and Practices to Debauch a Beautifull Woman, with all the Craft and Subtilty of the Devil and bimself could
not indeed in the Icast prevail against her; for the was not an lofidel, or p. 131. D. Jew, but a Christian; she signed her felf, e's 'voue xg98, In the name of p. 132. D. Christ, and by this figu, sý Fiqews bouting and by Faith she was delivered;
there is nothing there attributed to the bare Cross alone, but to ber Faith And the next Story there of Jofepus, a Jew, is altogether as far from his desigo ;
For Christ himself had appear’d to him several times, and exhorted him to S. 9, 10.
believe in him; and when twice or thrice he was Sick, étayyorduer Gävéopene, he promising to believe did recover. At last Christ appearing to him told him, eis #ngopogíav Trígews, for the Confirmation of his Faith, that, if he desir'd that in his name any divine Token should be wronght, tricóreczue x'qeyco Toow, be should call upon him and it should be done ; he said, call upon me, not
make a Cross. He had Faith enough at least to try it upon a Mad-man, Met. 14. 31.diçal w de, yet doubting (as Peter, and lome other of the Apostles even after
the Resurrection did,) and taking Water and signing it (not signing the Man ) he faid in the name of Jefiis the Nazarene, who was Crucified, come out of him, Devil, and let him be whole; which within an hour caine to pass; he also wrought another Miracle by making Fire burn which Magicians had hindred or quite put our. He was bealed and evilly Treated by the other Jews, but at last when his Faith was compleated he was Baptized and was highly favour'd by Constantine, to whom he related how the Lord had invit. ed him by several repeated Visions to embrace his Gospel. Now I must think this Story far enough from proving that the Sign or Mark of the Cross alone in it self drives away the Devil; it is plain that this Jew had some Faith from the very beginning, though it was weak and but little as a grain of Mustard seed, which by degrees sprang up and daily increased. But fuppole that in Primitive or Elder times, God had gratified some Jews or Heathens so far as by the name of Jesus, or the meer Sign of the Cross, they had done Miracles (as I have already taken notice that he did, ) will any one
C. 28. 17.
Rom. 11. 33.
Act. 19.13, 19.
dare so far positively to expound the un searchable Judgments and ways of T. p. 406. God past finding out, as to say it was only to give tuch Power to that meer name or fign, as whoever he was that used them lhould do thefe Wonders? Is it not more plain that God by permitting these Practices did often use them as pure Seeds of Faith, both to the Practiser (as it was in this Josephs) and to the Observer or stander by? When the Disciples told Chrift of one that caft Mark. 9. 38, out Devils in his name, he said, forbid them not, for there is no Man which 39. fall do 4 Miracle in my name that can lightly speak evil of me; he that is nat against us is on our part; as if he had said, he at least gives occasion to others to think and believe on me. It is plain that the Sons of Sceva, Vagabond Jews, and the Men of curious Arts at Ephesus, did not so much mind the common good of Mankind, or the Glory of God by their 'Exorcisms, as they did their own Profit and vain Reputation; they only desired ( as Simon Magus did) eveés tias pezon85, to be, or be accounted, great Men, of A&. 8. 9. 10. the Power of God; you see therefore that God suffer'd pot, opus operatum, 19, their meer naming of the Lord Jefus to have their desired Effect, bue quite the contrary; and so to any drousy Greek or other ldeot, that only formally makes a Crofs, or Signs himself with it; the Devil may justly say, the Crucified Jesus I know, and his Victory over me I know, but who art T. p. 404tbou?
The case amongst us, who are already profeffed Christians, is quite different from what it was then amongst the Jews and Heathens ; ideors, and Wizards, and old Wives amongst us, who make the sign of the Cross, or write it, or the name of Jesus, or the first or fourteenth verfe of St. John's Gospel; or the like, to fright away the Devil, or to care or defend any one; perhaps understand it not, or however Then think no more of the true God, then they understand or think of Apollo, when they hang Abracadabra about ones Neck to cure an Ague ; or Cardan's Amulets for the falling Sickness and pain in De fubtil. l. 1g. the Head; they make them all meer Charms and nothing else. The Jews to this day have the name of God, 90, Schadday, Bountifull or (as we render Gen. 17. 1. it ) Almighty, written on their Mefusan, or little Parchment Rowl, which is.c. 28. 3. t. pur in a little hole in the left Hand post of their doors going out, which the Religious couch with their Finger going out and coming in, saying withall, may God preserve my going out and my coming in, from hence forth and forever. I am confident no Jew of Sepse will deny that the virtue of this performance lies in the Prayer; or will say, that it is wholly in the formal Touch; though I believe many careless unthinking Jews may only use the lat
so when any Christian Cross himself, in a Moroing, or at any other time, with lifting up his Soul to God in some short Prayer or Ejaculation, I must ascribe the power to the Action of his Soul, and not to the outward Compli. ment of the Body; There is some Devotion in such a Jew and such a Christian; but if a Christian Mechanically or only Formally Crosses himself, and thinks no farther of the matter, ( as thousands do,) I must think that he hath much less Devotion, and is far less secure or recommended to God's Protection, then the poor Spainard, who (they say ) used every Morning only to spread abroad the whole Alphabet, and desired God to compose a Prayer out of it which would be acceptable, and to it he promised heartily to fay, Amen; or then a wretch that should only say, God thou knowejt my wants and my mind better then I do; so good Morning, good Night. Thus vaio and ridiculous must I think the implicite Faith in Ideots, ( which the School-men so much boast of,) and their tacite Application of Christ's Sufferings and Victory, by the bare Sign or Mark of the Cross.
But the Cardinal still urgeth, opus operatum, the meer making of the Sign of the Cross, and faith, It is effectual, ex inftituto Dei, from the
very Insti. tion of God himself. This I would very fain see; God's word for it, would
Ut fur. G.
put the matter quite out of all Dispute. I am sure that Prayer without the sign of the Cross, is commanded by him; and if ic be accompanied with unshaken