Obrazy na stronie

De civit. Dei

T. p. 397. most Kaavish Actions imaginable. I never thought it safe in those Countrics to

be too warm a Disputant; my own choughts were kept to God and my self, which I have now here at large set down, if not to the Satisfaction of any other Man, I bless God it is to my own.

Varro in St. Augustin faith, that the old Heathen Romans Worshipped 1. 4. C. 31. their Gods a hundred and seventy Tears without, Simulachro, any Image or

Representation of them; and that if it had fo continued, the Gods would have been observed, castiùs, more chastly or uncorruptedly; and the same, acurissinius & doctissimus most discerning and most learned Author (as the Saint worthily called him) most oppofitely mention'd the Jews in confirmation of what he said; and in his Conclusion adds, that those who first set up Images for the People, took away from the Cities their Fear and encreased their Error, prudently thinking that the Gods might be easily brought into Contempt by the doltishness of Images. I say the very fame not only of the Latins Images and Pictures of the great God himself. ( which I have before exposed and refuted, ) but of those of the Angels and Saints also; of which as the ldeots must needs have very dull or absurd thoughts, fo the wiser fort must

have De Imag. 1. 2.

very contemptible ones. See how Bellarmine poorly shuffles off this prelc. 8. p. 314. Hising Argument; viz. If the Heathen had been taught bis distinction between

proper Images and Analogical ones, all had been well. He there faith as litAuguft. de civ.

tle to what Seneca complain’d of, viz. The Heathens representing the ImmorD. 1.6. c. 10.tal and Inviolable Gods by vile and immoveable Matter; Their fault it

seems was to the Cardinal, because the very Images were thought to be the very Gods, or, certè, certainly the Gods were judged to be like those Images.

who will fecure Christian Idcors from the same Error? Some at least may as T. p. 398. easily take the Image of God to be he himself, (for the Heathen were not at

all Duller then our common Christians) and most of them must think the l. mages like him; and the fame I say of Angels and Saints. Some will, and do, verily think that there are as many several Virgin Maries as there are several different Images and Pictures of her in several places; A Pilgrimage to this Lady, or a Mass before her, certainly helps or cures this Infirmicy ; another Lady, hath a peculiar property of effecting ease in some other particular Disease or Calamity; and all may think the Angel or Saint as like the Figures which are before their Eyes, as, certè, certainly, as the Cardinal faith the Heathens judged of their Gods. Thus there are as many several and distinct and particular Shrives of the Virgin and of the Saints amongst them now, as there

were of Venus and Jupiter and the rest of old; and the several Pilgrimages De Imag. 1. 2. to them, and Adorations of them., are thought to have as various Effects

as were attributed to those in those days. But to all this we have these doughty Answers. 1. God works Miracles by one and not by the other, but if it be but one and the fame Virgin or Saint in every place, they always must certainly have the very same Merit in every place alike, and the same Mediation and Interest in God; whose lofinite Goodness they have been so bold as to limit, and to stint the Saints Power with him as they please; for he hath no where declared or order'd any such thing, but it is purely Man's Invention; but they wave this Argument with, poftrum non est discutere, we will meddle no farther with it. Therefore as for these particular local Miracles which they pretend to, I thall consider them more by and by. 2dly. Some of these Pictures say they of the Saints were made by Saints or Holy Men, as by St. Luke, Nicodemus, and others; and therefore they deserve our peculiar Devotion both for what they signify and for the A14thor's sake; I cannot tell what Painters of old were Saints, but I fear that very few of our Modern ones are such Truly I should gladly see an Original or Primitive Copy of some of those Saints work; furcly they must be sixteen or near seventeen hundred ycars old at least, and deserve almost as much esteem for their Antiquity, as for the sake of the Author. What sige nifies it, if the Nose be broken or the Face disfigured, it may fill (for all what


c. 18.


6. C. 10.

T. p. 399


any one knows) be as like the Prototype or first Exemplar as it was before ; T. P. 392. or if it be quite decayed and not discernable, yet under the very pamo of the Saint which it goes by, it might serve the idcots Devotion berter, or with Iess harm then if it was Visible; though Patriarch Jeremiah thought that suchi.resp.2.p

. 253. Figure, riayoevt , being grown two smooth, or quite worn out, should best be burnt as they burn a useless log of Wood; and truly, as I remember, the Greck Lady Portaitetis (mention'd above) is much fuch a on. 3dly. Some Piętures say they, may excite Men to Piety more then others, being more moving, Pious and Religious and the like; that is, the Features: (as I have faid) being more choicely gathered from their Minions and Acquaintance, and put together more artfully and more suitably to their design. Besides it is said, they go to Images to pray, not to call upon them, but to rub up their Memory of him to whom they pray. But alass! Poor Ideots know nothing of this matter, and therefore cannot be thought to remember any thing of the Story. I wish the Cardinal had read that Chapter in Augustin quite thorough, and De civo Dei li well considered it from the beginning to the end; where Seneca inveighing against the Ægyptian. Figures of the Gods, some of them being very Mysle riously compounded, faith, they, sensu mixto, in a mixt' meaning put them on divers Bodies (join'd together, as in Anubis, and Canopus) and called them, Numina, Gods, which if, accepto Spiritu, taking Life they should appear would be counted Monsters. The first Inventors of them had no doubt Töme fecret Speculations reserved to themselves thereby, whereof these were outward Symbols or Characters, but they served well to amuse the poor Ignorant People; we find the fame Hieroglyphick loterpretations made, of many Catech. Rom. Figures of God and the Saints made by the Romanists; yet Bellarmine him-partes: 1.17. self is justly ashamed of many lewd Representations made of the Trinity; though De Imag. l. 2 I cannot fee how he can excuse the common one made of it (which he allows) 6.8834,2.. as I have mention'd above. Gretser and others tell us of several, axcesportointi, Piętures not made with mortal Hands, and without doubt they think that their followers may as well believe them so, or perhaps that they came down from Heaven, as well as that Image of old fell down from Župiter. Sc. Ada 19. 35. neca tells us in Augustin, That the Heathen Adored the Ignobler Gods fo; as to remember that their Worship, magis ad morem quam ad rein pertinere, was more for Fashion fake then out of any Reality; we there read that this great Man, though he was an Illustrious Philosopher, yet he was a Senator (or as we may lay a Courtier ) and therefore for Fashion fake, colebat quod reprehendebat, agebat quod arguebat, quod culpabat, adorabat

, he Worshipped what he reprehended; did what he disliked or argued against; Adored what he blamed; Philosophy had taught him not to be Superstitious, yet, propter leges civium morefque hominum, according to the Laws of the Citizens and the Customs of Men he was conformable in the Temple, which Augustin says, was, co damnabilius, so much the more damnable, because his dissembling cheated the People, who thought him in earneft; and committed down right Idolatry, being deceived and carried away with his dif-Gal. 2. 13. fimulation. I have met with many and many both Greeks and Latins, who, as to their Posts or Station in the World, were much in Seneca's Condition; and as to the outward part of Religion, they were absolutely of his Mind; and I verily believe that most of all the rest of the Wiser fort amongst them are so too; I could name many of good note both in the East and in the West, who would own that they should very hardly hazard their Preferments, or quiet, for not following the common Stream; for not paying the fashionable outward Compliments to God, to the Saints, and to Men; or by talking against Te. nets which peither they, nor perhaps any one else can well understand; they own’d a threefold Religion, Poetical, Civil, Real, (after the old Heathen way ) but least of the last. They did not stick to say and own the common Maxim, (as well as the great Cardinal himself did, noftrum non est discutere, I will 10t trouble my self about these matters) for my part I believe as


Ut fupr.

C. 3

8. C. 32.
T. p. 400.

T. O.

T. 9. 199. the Church believes, and do as the Church doth. Add truly if they meant

by the Church, not this or that particular sect or People, or Congrega. Vincent. Įirin. tion, or Nation, but what is the Belief and Practice of all Christi

ans, every where, and was so always, I think they are so far much in the right.

The Greeks of all Christians in the World seem to me, QiroGeoTorá Tatoi, the most zealous Adorers of the Mother of God; The Latins in this matter are extravagant enough, but truly the Greeks far out do them. In

many many instances, which I could give, they ascribe unto her almost as great a Providence as to God himself. Taking my leave in the Monasteries at Mount Athos, their last Farewell to me was commonly this, Nd oo's pinán ó Oeds xj ń Marzo gía, may God keep you and the all-holy Lady; Infinitely more Prayers are made particularly to her then to Christ; and that not only in their private Devotions, but in their Euchologion or Common Prayer Book it felf, and in particular Offices appointed to her Worship. On the walls of many of their Cities is this Infcription, Θεοτόκε παρθένε βοήθει ταυτη τη πόλει, OVirgin, Mother of God, help this City; and you will find, not only in Temples, but eyery

where in private Families, (that are of any Note,) and in publick Passages (especially at Mount Athos ) Lamps continually burning before her Picture, far oftner then before Christ himself or any one of the Saints. I cannot but think that this Custom was first brought into the Church by some Gentile Profelites, in Imitation of what they had done, to Isis, Minerva, Festa, Saturn, and o

ther of their Idols; of which you may see enough, in the Learned Dallee. De cult. Lat. 1. The Virgin Mary is often called by the Greeks, ódugntgía, the Guide, (or con

voy) in their way, and had a Church in Constantinople Dedicated to Her unin Alex. Mar- der that name; and that according to them very justly, for Nicetas tells us chuif. P. 364. plainly that the Greek Emperors used to make the Picture of the Mother of d. g. 1 God, Eugpétnyor

, their fellow Soldier in their Wars, yet it was taken from Goar p: 629. them in the Fight with the Latins. Poor Lady, it seems she could not fave

her. self much less their Army. This puts me in mind of a very remarkable, virgine Nico pæa inde dicta. but very true Story; and I think it is pity that it should be lost. A worthy

Sea Captain, who carried me to Malaga, and at an honourable Spanish Merchant's House there, (where we Lodged, and with whom he had many times been concern'd as he past and repast the Streights) before the whole Company, in presence of the Merchant himself, speaking of the mighty Deeds which the Spainards attribute to the Virgin Mary, recounted what had happen'd there, at his last Voyage, and told us, that in that House another Spainard (a zealous Worshipper of Her) apply'd himself mightily to him (my Captain) to make him a Convert; and told him that the next day there would be a solemn Procession in honour of Hes, and said if he ( the Captain) would see it, there would certainly be such Miracles wrought by her, as would convince him and convert him. The Captain being to go out of Town that Day about other business did not see it. As the Priests, or Bearers, were carrying her Image upon a kind of Bier on their Shoulders, by an odd chance, it fell off and pitcht upon its Face on the stones, which had much disfigur'd and spoild it. At his Friend's house at night he again met the Devoto, who immediately told him, that if he had been there, he would have seen so many wonderfull works done as would have certainly made him a good Catholick; one thing faid he, is most remarkable and to my own knowledge is very true. A poor Woman, my neighbour, who hath crept upon Crutches these several years, and her Legs and Ankles were grown so weak and distorted that she could not stand; se, as the Image past by, earnestly praying to the Virgin for her help, was immediately made whole, and throwing away her Crutches she briskly walked and leaped before them all. Truly laid my Captain, I wonder how she so Miraculously helpt the Woman; but I heard that she her self fell down and broke her Nose, I pray did she cure that. This sinart touch lo incensed the zealous Don, as his Friend and the rest of the Company had much ado to


Idem dicit, de


T. p. 4010

appease him and save the Captain from the Inquisition." This Story may teach 1. p.400.
Protestant Travellers Wisdom and Caution in passiog through Bigotted Countries,
as well as to expose the Folly (to say no worle) of these Practices when
they come home. Give me leave to add a few Instances of the Greeks, Fi-
ducia, Confidence placed in the Virgin's Picture, when they went to fight.
John Comnenus, when he was engaging and fore prest with the Scythians, looking Nicetos po 115
upon, eixóva, the Picture of the Virgin with Sighs and pitifull Gestures, S. 4. T. o.
wept drops of Tears as warm as those of Sweat in the heat of War;' and
it was not in vain, faith my Author, for be suddainly routed his Enemies,
as Mofes did the Amelechites, extdou, by spreading ont his Hands; This Vi-
ctory is as much attributed to his Devotion to this Picture, as that was to Mo-
ses. So when Manuel Comnenus had overcome the Panonians, in his Tri- Idem. 1. s: 8.
umphal.Procession; there went before him a Silver Chariot all gilt over with 3. p. 103. b.
Gold, drawn by Snow-white Horses, in which was set, éirw, the Picture of the
Mother of God, απροσμάχε συμμαχο και ακα ταγωνίς και συστρατήγε τη βασιλεί, the
Inconquerable Ally (or joint Concumbatant ) and the insuperable Fellow-
soldier of the Emperor; and that you may lee that they placed their Confi-
dence in the very Picture, or Figure it self, is added, the Axel-tree of the
Chariot did not creak much, because it carried not, derav, the terrible God.
dess, the false Virgin Minerva, but the true Virgin' who, dià, nóyor, Easy
réyor, Tó dózov, by the Word, above all Word, brought forth the Word.
Surely these Men as verily thought this Figure to be the very Virgin Mary,
as ever the Athenians or others could think that of Minerva to be her her-
felf; and attributed the Victory in like mapper wholly to it. There is a
very good Latin Note remaining there on the side, which I perceive happen'd
to pass the Paris Press, but seems not to have been minded by the Latins, nor
understood by Greeks; Ar Soli Deo, but the Glory was to be attributed, not
to the Image of the Virgin, but to God alone. Romanas Lacapenus, wheri Continuator. p.
he went to treat of Peace with Simeon Prince of Bulgaria, took out, llo-252. B. T. R.
pógiov, the Cloak, or short Vest, of the Virgin ( which was Religiously kept in
a Box) and put it on, johép nova Jágnace adidộonxtov, as an Infrangible, or Im-
penetrable Breast Plate; and making his Faith in her his Helmet, he went
out defended by these Infallible Arms. So he plainly made the Virgin's Vest
What can I think of the Words of that Famous Religous Monk, who

Conftant. Por came to Michael's General as he was going against the Saracens, and said, go, phyrog

. 1. 4. p. for you will have God to deliver you and go before you, if only you shall'i2. C. T. R. carry his beloved Disciple John Painted or Design’d upon all your shields, instead of any other Qurax mugio, Amulet or Preservative. The General had the Victory indeed, and perhaps he himself might give God the Glory as his chief helper'; but can any one think that the common Soldiers had such purely abstracted thoughts, as not to attribute it in the least upto the bare Pictures on their Shields, in which they had so plainly put their, Fiducia, Trust, and Confidence ? It is notoriously known how Heraclius carried the Picture of Christ, á xeigomroín-Cedren. P. 410. TOV, not made with Hands, with him to his Wars, and great Success was often C. D. T. E. attributed to it; yet once the People threw stones at it, and would have knockt Theoph. Simoc. his Commander Prifcus, who brought it, on the Head, if he had not fled away.1

. 3. p. 63. A. This Picture, not made with Hands, might be one of such Miraculous Copies as Gretzer speaks of, perhaps made from the famous Handkerchief at Edesa; for the Original was brought to Conftantinople after Heraclius was dead.

What must we say of the Virgin's Image (sometimes Crown'd with Stars, Goar p. 869, or with the Moon under her Feet) commonly set at the Stern of their Ships, 868.9.2.869. by Larins now, as it was formerly by the Greeks? Or what must we judge of S. 5. the Greeks, παναγία, or ύψωμα, a piece of Bread Confecrared folemnly to the Virgin, and carried by Sea-faring Men and Travellers, and Infirm People, as a sure, Qutaxtágiov, Amulet or Preservative? I have also seen it again and again in a Silver Cale hang’d about Childrens, and Sick and Infirm Persons Necks; is their no, Fiducia, Confidence, or Trust placed, (especially by the Vulgar,)

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T. P. 401. in the thing it felt? Now if according to what is above noted out of BellarSupr. p. 393. mine and the Council, any, Fiducia, Divinitas vel Vircus, Affiance or Trust,

Divinity or Virtue to be put or placed in the Images or Pictures, or other Representations of the Virgin or Saints, so quite contrary to their Cautions and Directions, (as I think the few instances which I have given (omitting mapy many more which I could add ) fufficiently prove and thew the matter of Fact, that both the Greeks and Latins, especially the Jdeots, (have been and Aill are herein notoriously Guilty) how can they with all their Tricks and So. phiftry ever clear themselves from grofs Idolatry? And though we Should aliow that Ideots could be made fo discreet, as nicely to divide their Worship. giving the greatest part to the Prototype, and fome lesser part to the Type or Representative, yer since they own even that little, ( whatever it is,) to

be, verus Cultus, true Worship, how can they ever answer their giving of it T. p. 402. to a Stock or a Stone, or a Gay, or any other fenfeless ching? Yer Beller12.6.21, de mine positively asserts, Imagines per fe & propriè colendas, ibat Images are Imag. p. 329. to be Worshipped properly and by, or for, themselves; but if he or any

other high-flying Speculator can satisfy themselves with his fublime and intricate Explications there offerd for this Affertion, they can no ways reach

the Apprehensions of the Ideots, so as to Justify or Excuse their blind Practice, Resp.2.p.245. as I have above nored; but the Patriarch Jeremiah is quite of another mind,

and puts a manifeft difference between true Worship, and that which is ooly Relative; as I have noted before.

But there is yet another Caution given by the Council and revised by the supra. p. 393. Cardinal; In the Worshipping of Images, nihil peratur, nothing Should be asked

from them. Though they allow fome part only of their true Worship, as due to their Picture or Image, yet their Prayer is wholy and intirely directed to them. They are the Principal and Immediate Objects of it ; though, in 0. bliquo, by the by, or, reductivè, reductively and in some remote Senfe, they also stretch it to God himself, be being, as they say, Glorified in this Ho. nour thus paid to bis Saints. But I have already noted that we have ncither Command oor Example of making any fuch Prayer to them; and it seems in it self a thing utterly Impossible, whereever the deceased Saints are, that they should hear us and understand our Petitions. We pray only to Persons who are present and can hear us; as for the Picture or Image, it is before their Eyes, but where the departed Saint is, no Soul alive can know; or assuredly can say that he hears their Prayers any more then the sepselels Sratue or Pi&ure it self. Therefore Seraphick Schoolmen may pretend to pray to some lovisible Phantom or Imaginary Prototype, which is they know not where, and they may fancy that he may possibly hear them they koow not how or when; but a poor Ideot muft aeeds make the Painted or Carved Image that is present before his Eyes, the only Object of his Prayers; and I could give many notorious Instances of several poor deluded Souls who to my certain knowledge have many times thus misplaced their blind, but well intended Devotions; but out of meer Pity and Compassion of my Soul, I shall not farther expose, much less (as fome do,) ridicule these fad and most lamentable Practices, which are crepe into go great parts of the Catholick Church. The Object of our Prayers must be believed to be always present to them, and able to hear them; and hence only it is that with humble Confidence and Assurance we can address our felves in Prayers to the One, only Wife and Almighty God; nay, we are commanded by him fo to do; to say Abba Father to him, who alone is always Prefent ; in Private, with every humble and Contrite Heart; and in Publick also, where two or three are gathered together in his Name, he is in the midst of them. Prayers and Praises and Thanksgivings are the highest Acts of Religious Worship and Adoration, and are without all dispute God's due and property alone; how then, without his plain Command or express Permission, fall apy Man dare to give them to any Iovisible Creature, of whose PreJence and Capacity of bearing and helping him, he is altogether Ignorant,


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