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more Majesty when he hath nothing in bis Hands, and it might represent Christ clothed with Human Flesh, and found in Humility as to his Habit ; How it should represent Majesty and Humility at once, I cannot conceive.

The Holy Ghost] The Priest and Deacon very confidently promise the Holy Gbost to come upon one another, as if they had the same commission which the Angel had, who used these very words to the Virgin Mary; They are more modest p.24. note C. and D. But I wonder, if they desigu'd this Office as a representation of Christ's Oeconomy, what part of it doth this passage here bear; for the Angel's Words were fpoken before Christ was conceived, and cannot fuir with what is here acted now.

Sacrifice of Praise. Spiritual Sacrifices ] The truc Intent and mcaping of the Primitive Christiaos, and even of the first composers of this, and some other of the following Prayers, concerning the Celebration of the Eucharist, seem plainly to me to have been meerly this, that it was only a Spiritual Sa. crifice, of Praise, of Prayer, of Thankfgiving, of Confession of Sios, in a word, of Humble Acknowledgments of the Iofinite Mercies of God vouchsafed unto us, and to all Faithful and true Penitents by the Death and Sufferings of Christ; which Spiritual Sacrifice they offer'd up in this folemn Remembrance of Him, according to his own Institution. I take this Prayer to be truly Antient and Genuine, and being said at the very beginning of this Holy Performance, when the Elements were Offer'd and see upon the Table, it related to

the whole Solemnity following, and declared that it was only a Sacrifice of tid Scapulam. Praise, and of Prayers for Sinners; According to Tertullian, we Sacrifice

to our God, pura prece, by pure Prayers. And Minucius Felix licabitis hostia, &c. An acceptable Sacrifice, is a good Mind, and a pure Heart and a sincere Conscience, &c. these are our Sacrifices. If they had been then this Roman Sacrifice he would have mention’d it; and therefore in it are mention'd only these Spiritual Sacrifices for their Sins and the Ignorances of the People ; and it is there defired of God that they might be acceptable unto him. So that they then thought of no other Sacrifice but this (of a Thankful, Humble, and Penitent Heart,) after that one real Sacrifice of Christ himself (offer'd once for all) was made upon the Cross, which they now thus Commemorated. This is indeed a Rational and Vnbloody Sacrifice, as it is truly here called, after the words of Christ (this is my Body &c.) are pronounced, and they duly there implore the Descent of the Holy Spirit upon themselves and the Gifts, (the Bread and the Wine,) the Creatures used in this Solemnity; as you have the same again afterwards. And when they are there mention'd as received unto God's Intellectual Altar for a smell of Spiritual Sweetness, this cannot be understood otherwise then in a Spiritual Sense; and therefore in the next Prayer of the Priest there, the worthy Communicants are faid to partake of the Mysteries of this Sacred and Spiritual Table; and they are said, further on, 110t to have bow'd down their Heads to Flesh and Blood, but to God in Heaven, which could not be true, if the Bread and Wine, which are now Worshipped, had been thought to have been the very Flesh and Blood of Christ. Indeed I am apt to believe that primitively there was only one long continued Prayer at the Eucharist, as we find in those called the Apoftolical Constitutions, and that at first it was even fo here one continued Prayer from hence to the end of that, ngógces xúgue 'Iroő xgite, Regard O Lord Jesus Christ. But the later Greeks have cut it into these feveral Picces, and interlaced it with a vaft deal of other Matter, and thereby have made feveral Scenes for the Deacon to Act in, whilst the Priest (who should have made only one continued Prayer of all) thus comes in at these several chops and Pieces of it. And I think my Conceit is something favour'd by the Repetitions all along of that Rubrick which in the Euchologio yet semain; the Priest

, éreóximos, (which I render) goes on Praying, or continues the Prayer. The larer Greeks by patching, and adding, and indiscreetly interwcaying new Rites and incoherent Conceirs, and

1. 8. c. 12.

P. 26.


at last blindly jumbling altogether, have sufficiently disguised and confounded their first, Primitive, Ufage, ( as is often bored,) yet here and there are plain marks of it still remaining; as I take these divided Prayers to be, according to Goar's own Judgment; concerning the sixth Copy which he mentions, which p.109. a. Prayers can never be reconciled to Transubstantiation, either as the Greek or Latin understand it.

Receive, Save &c.] These are only the begioving of Suffrages which you E. p.2.10. have at large in Goar, as also the last here (imperfectly for down) in Memory p. 74. of the V. Mary; and they are all said by the Deacon, though that Rubrick is wanting in this Edition of the Euchologion.

The Doors, the Doors ] They have fo fhuffled, and chopt, and changʻd H. p. 211 their Service, as they now understand it nor themselves, as Bessarion him- vid. ejus verba self acknowledges, as hereafter is noted. I fancy these words were ar first hic p. 49,50. the begivning only of some longer matrer, which they have forgotten, and so they now use only these which are unintelligible, yet something must be invented here to fave their Credit, and Goar gives us three Opinions for it. First, that the Doors were here to be well looke after, that all Hereticks, or Penitents or Possessed People should be excluded. But he rejects this because that is taken care of before the great Entrance, as you have it in him for the Catechumens. And I will add that if by these Doors were meant those of the Chancel, these Persons mention'd could never come there, being stope at the Northex. Sc. Tab. I. a, .. condly, Cabafilas turns the words to a Mystical meaning, viz. Not the material Doors are to be shut, but the Spiritual Doors open'd of their Minds, their Mouths, their Ears, that they might the better attend to the Creed which immediately follows. Goar likes this as little as the former, saying, it is not the meaning of the Church; and closeth with the third, of St. Germanus, which I confefs I think the worst, or altogether as trifliog; he faith, the lower Doors were to be put harch-wise (as Goar explains it) and the Curtins, which shut the part above, to be drawn, and the Holy Gifts to lie covered with the Aer; and all this represents the night in which Christ was betrayed; Indeed he hath mended the matter strangely. Yet I find in Germanus his, éppenvéa, exposition (Printed at Venice, 1672. p. 61.) an account much like the first of Cabasilas. But if the first contrivers did thus intend to make this whole service only a shadow of Christ's History froin his Birth to his Death, the following Greeks have quite lost the Cabala, and are wonderfully perplext in their new Inventions to make it out ; this whim of Germanus seems very wide of the matter, for it is here furely very abfurd, by shutting the Doors and Cur. tains to represent the Night in which Christ was betray'd, when he is now looke upon as Dead, lying in the Sepulcher or on the Table. Now if Goar and all the other learned Commentators are thus puzzled to understand this suff, how shall the poor Ignorant common People, who only gape on, be the better for it? Thus where the Priest speaking of the Angels, hath these four words, Singing, Crying, Shouting, and Saying; at every one of these words the Deacon lifts up the Asterisk and knocks it cross-wise (once at every word) upon the Dish to make the People listen to it ; ( for these words are spoken aloud) Goar gives as for this Ceremony this pretty, cunning, subtile p. 136. 126. conceit (as he calls it argula expositio) of St. Germanus. These four words (I suppose with the four Tinks which the Deacon makes with the Asterisk and Dish) do not signify, faith he, the four quarters of the World ( as perhaps was fome other Mens opinion ) but the four Animals whose figures the Cherubims and Seraphims are said in Scripture to bear, auto, singing as the Eagle, Boceto (crying, or) bellowing as an Ox, xexgayóra (Ihouting or ) roaring like a Lion, dégorta (faying or) Speaking as a Man. You will see more fuch elevated interpretations afterwards.

Let us ftand well] Standing was of old made the common and usual Po- A. p. 22. sture of Adoration, Ministring, and Praying before God. Hence to stand Deut. 18.5. and Minister before the Lord is so often mention'd as the posture of the Numb. 16.9



gils, upon

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1 King. 8.11. Priests and Levites in their Ministration under Moses's Law, and the Adoration įChron.23.30. 2Chron. 29.11.

of the whole Congregation. And this is mention'd as the Posture of Praying

in the New Testament. It was usual at their entrance into the Temple to WorMarck, b. ; 27: Ship and fall down, and kneel before the Lord, (as I have seen the Armeni. Pfal. 95. 6.

ans do it in their Church at Brusa to this Day, ) but the whole Ministration afterwards was always executed standing. And from thence I believe it is that the Greeks took up their Custom of performing all their publick services sianding. There is in their Church ar Fanar, a Throne for the Patriarch, and Seats opposite to it for the Ex-patriarchs, and Metropolites, and the Singers, and the Officers of the Church, who at certain times set, but all the rest stand during the whole Service. I have been amongst them at their aygurvía Vi.


great Festival following, where we all have food from the very beginning of the Vespers, during all the following Offices to the end of the Liturgy; that is from the Evening till Noon the next day, without sitting or kneeling ar all. This Exhortation therefore of the Deacon is to stir


their Reverence and Attention in this their folemn Posture of Adoration. And that P. 73. 5.1. admonition which I have hereafter noted, copía óptos, may be understood of this

standing; as if the sense had been, oopia, the Gospel, attend, oggol, or be ye Standing or Erect.

The Fan) See Tab. 2. Fig. 5. It hath an Angel's Head at the top surrounded with three pair of Wings. Taking hold of the handle they keep it streight

out at length over the Holy things, wriggling it very fast backwards and forP. 136. 128. wards to right and left. Goar first tells us that the plain design of this Inftru

ment, was to drive away Flies least they mould fall into the Cup; or (I

suppose) light on the Portions and defile them; it was used of old if 1. 8. c. 12. low the Apostolical Constitutions to be genuine. But he remarks (mysterium

longè profundius) a far deeper Mystery in it, out of Jobius and St. Germa.
nus, relating to the Cherubims and Seraphims above; which Mystery will be
quite spoiled, when they Fan the Holy Things with only the Covering
wrapt up conveniently for that purpose, as it happens in thoutands of poor
Congregations where to my knowledge there is no Fan, and Goar himself cau-
not but own it.

With us all] In some Copies it is ñuecore with us; in others úlcôv, with you; Sec Gr. Euchol. and in several other places of the Liturgy you will find the like variety. The P:33. Euckol. present Greeks in pronuntiation every where leave out the Aspirate; next u $2. Goar. 79, and » found and always alike, fo that sucov, úpây are both Emone ; and you must

be forced to guess at the word by the Sense, which here is much at one. See Not. G. at p. 22. following in the next page.

See Note C. at page 21. here p. 38. E. P. 22.

The Triumphing Hymn] Holy, Holy, Holy Lord of Sabaoth, Heaven and Earth are full of thy Glory, Hosanna in the Highest, &c. you have it in Goar. p. 76.

This is my Body] It is to be understood according to the usual and common speech of the Jews in our Saviour's time; This is my Body, that is, in Remembrance of my Body, as they said then, This is the Bread of Affliction,

that is, in Memory of the Bread of Affliction, as is above faid. And it is Refut. part 2. much after the same manner that Arnold is forced to own that those words P• 235, 236. (which are Sung in the Latin Church on Good Friday,) Ecce lignum Crucis.

Behold the Wood of the Cross, are not to be expounded fo groslly, as if they were real Wood, (for they may perhaps be Silver or of some other matter) or the very Cross on which,Christ died, but, seulement l'image, only the Image or representation of Christ. So not unlike this, where in Moses's Law a Sacrifice for Sin is only called absolutely sometimes bun a fault or offence, fometimes raun á Sin, it is expounded (Heb. 10. 3.) by żyérmors épagtiây, a

Remembrance of Sins; that is, the Creature Sacrificed is called a Fault or de coolt. lat. Sin, not that it self is so, but that it is in Remembrance of Faults or Sins

committed. Dalle's remark is very rational, these words (laith he) This is

or Aer

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G. P. 22

1. 3. c. 12. P.353, 354

my Body, being in the Indicative Mood and present Tense, and not in the Imperative, make nothing, but only declare what it is already. To wit, meer Bread, to be eaten in Remembrance of his Body, ás Himself declares, Cor. 11.24. afterwards, those happy Greeks Cabafilas and M.Eugenicus declared themselves of the same Judgment. Disputing for their Invocation, against the Latins infisting upon the bare words of Christ, quod tale quid evenerit, that any such change or thing (faith the first) should happen to them, who only relate the morele Edit. doing of a thing out of Scripture, is no where said. The other more fully, p. 140. 29. quod Domini fermo, that the speech, of our Lord concerning the Eucharist

, p. 96. pronounced by way of reciting, or repeating, is sufficient to the Sanctification of the Gifts, (the Bread and the Wine) no Apostle or Doctor ever said it; and therefore only as a Narrative spoken by the Priest it is absolurcly incf fectual. All the prefent Greeks of tolerable good Sepse are still most positively fixt in the faine Opinion. And the Latins will not fay that it was Christ's Body before the words were pronounced; for chey make the Pronuntiation of thein the very formal Cause of their Transibstantiation. The words of Christ in this Iostitution are recorded in Scripture very differently; for Mat. 26. 26. and Mar. 14. 22. we read only , This is my Body, Litk. 22. 19.'" there is added, which is given for you; St. Paul hath it thus, This is my 1 Cor. 11. 24• Body which is broken for you. So for the Cup we read. Mat. 26. 28. This is my Blood ( Tog which or that is ) of the New Testament, which is med for many for the remission of Sins; Mar. 14. 24. the fame, but for the remission of Sins, is left out. Luk. 22. 20. This Cup. (is) the new Testament in my Blood, which (Cup) is shed for you. i Cor. 11. 25. This Cup is the New Testament in my Blood, and no more. Now if only Christ's own words, being pronounced, Tranfubftantiates the Bread and Wine, who will tell me which of all these forms were his very Words? The Greeks both in Chrysoston's Liturgy and Bafil's, have this form here set down only, in some printed Copies ( as this 1673 ) in both there is úèp specê instead of uãrThe present Latins fay for the Bread only, for this is my Body; and for the Wine, for this is the Cup of my Blood, of the the New and Eternal Testament, the Mystery of Faith, which, (Blood or Cup) Shall be shed for you and for many for the Remision of Sins. In my Ms. of the Latin Mass turn'd into Greek, for the Bread is, Tg7oégal to stó muc. us, this is my Body, without the Enim, for; and for the Cup, TðTO É o Trotagior Tő divato Ney ij zawñs xj αιωνίες διαθήκης, το μυστήριον της πίστως, το υπέρ υμών και πολλών εκχυνόμενον εις άφεσιν α. Magtiã, This is the Cup of my Blood, and of the New aid Eternal Testament, the Mystery of Faith, which (Cup) is shed for yori and for many for the Remission of Sins. The Enim, or For is here also left out. This Greek Copy of the Latin Canon is supposed to be made at the Council of Florence by Bestarion, and is in many places different from the present Latin Canon ; qui effunderut, which shall be shed, is here, which is shed; so that whensoever this Greek Version was made, it is plain the Latin Original was not what it is now. Our English Form for the Bread is, This is my Body ( Mat. 26. 26.) which is given for you (Luk. 22. 19:) do this in Remembrance of me ( 1 Cor. 11. 24.) Our form for the Wine is, This is my Blood of the New Testament which is shed (Mat. 26. 28.) for you (Luk. 22. 20.) and for many for the remision of Sins. (Mat. 26. 28.) Do this as oft as ye jhall drink it, in remembrance of me. (1 Cor. 11. 25.) Neither the Greek por Latin Forms, nor ours are exactly word for word, according to anyone Form set down either in the Évangelists or St. Paul. Now since the Latins lay such stress upon the bare words of Christ, first methinks they fhould have left out that insignificant word, Enim, For; because it is neither in the Evangelists nor in St. Paul; and since they say, thar the fole Repetition of Christ's words at the Sacrament does Transubstantiate the Elements in an Instant, why should they not add to, This is my Body, either, which is given for you, with St. Luke, or, Broken for you, with St, Paul; for these words would more fully


p. 99. 2.

favour their Ablurdity, by specifying that very Body of Flesh, which was given or broken for us upon the Cross, into which very Body, they tell us, that The Bread is turn'd. Surely these words are a more necessary part of Christ's Form then their, Enim, For, which they have foisted in of themselves. As to their Form of Coosecrating the Cup; it is strange they should make one

purely of their own, which agrees not with any one of those see down in Aquin. tert. Scripture; and is at best confessedly but a figurative Speech. Now how this 9.78: art.3o. figurative Form of their own Invention, framed and stuffed with foreign Mat

ters, should have in it the Power and Efficacy to turn the Wine and Water into Christ's very Blood, without bis own Words or Authority, I cannot see; I am sure, this is the Cup of my Blood, are not his Words.

Now as for our English Form, since we look upon thele Words, This is my Body, This is my Blood, as meant only, In remembrance of my Body, and of my Blood, the worthy Compilers of our Synaxis, have justly and discreetly added out of all the Forms in Scripture, what is most proper to excite such a devout Remembrance in us.

And here give me leave to add this one thing. There is a great Con

troversy between the Latins and Greeks, whether Fermenred or UnlcavenNot. in Gabr. ed Bread ought to be used at the Sacrament, I find in the learned R. Simon Philudelph.

this whole Controversy called royonaxía, a meer squabble about Words ; cum divina virtus &c. seeing the Divine Power, or God, can change as well the one as the other. Yet with thar Authors leave I must confess that I have still this scruple about it. It is certain that the Bread which Christ used at the first Institution was either only one or the other. Now if Christ by his own words, This is my Body, Tranfubftantiated ( as they would have it) leavened Bread, how dare the Priest pretend to Tranfubftantiate unleavened Bread by only repeating Christ's words upon it? By what Authority, or Power, or Example doch he do it? The like may be faid of the Greeks leavened Bread, if Christ used only uplcavened Bread. Whereas if the Sacrament be only a Conimemoration of Christ's Passion, and the Bread be only a Figure or Reprelentation

of His Body, and the Wine of His Blood, (as we believe and fay, ) the AA. 2.42,46. Scruple cannot be so great. And if those passages, The new Converts and

the Apostles continued in breaking of Bread and Prayer, and daily with one accord in the Temple, and breaking of Bread from House to House, and there

coming together the first day of the Week to break Bread, i say, if these C. à lapide ini passages are meant of the Eucharist, as the Latines cxpound them, we cannot

conceive but that it was celebrated with Common fermented Bread, such as we use. And they that say that after the Eucharist was over, immediately follow'd the Agapæ or love Feasts, cannot think that there was anleavened Bread for that, and leavened Bread for these, but that it was the same Common Bread in both.

In like manner also] These words are left out in fomc Printed Copies (as Ven. 1622. and 1673. and others) by mistake of the Printer, but are in most others (as 1672. &c.) and are always in this place used by him that celebrates.

Thine of Thine ] This 1 fancy (tua ex tuis, Thine of Thine.) was taken up

and inserted in Justinian's time, who having re-cdified the Cupelo of St. Sop. 386. c. phia, and made a new Holy Table under it with Gold, Silver, precious Stones

and all other Materials of immense Value, wrote round about the side of it,
thy Servants, O Christ, Justinian and Theodora offer unto thee Thine of Tbine,
&c. And the Patriarch might probably insert this scrap from thence to flatter
the Emperor. But if this Phrase was before in the Liturgy, Juftinian's In-
fcription fairly interprets it ; viz. that these Elements were not after consecra-
tion Christ's Body and Blood, but meer Bread and Wine, Creatures of God
as Justinian's Gold and Silver and Jewels were ; and were, as His, offer'd
unto him again. And the words here following, Offering to Thec, Tbine of
Thine, xeru marta xj de zeyta, in all things and for all things, must signify
that, all things, whatever we offer to God, are his Creatures, or Gifts, or

C, 20.7, 11.


H. p. 22.

A. p. 23•


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