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p. 431, 2:
in Extremis, dying at home, no Priest or Priests dare administer the Prayer. T. p. 357. Oyl to him ; it is expresly forbidden by my Caronarion to be given eis tous Can Stredévouras to any dying Persons whatsoever. This farther thews that the sžom, pše Greeks lookt upon him who received it, as, petavoâv, a Penitent, and as one capable of yet bearing at least some meet fruit of his Repentance, which a dying Man is utterly incapable of.
There were of old feven Priests employ’d by the Latins themselves in their Extreme Vnition, as A Lapide, Menardus, and others, nay, even Goar himfelf, acknowledge; and yet Sym. Thessal. is feverely taxed by him, because, in locum faith he, impiè asseverat, he impiously asserts that one Priest without the help p. 170. and assistance of others cannot confer this Sacrament; But if there were originally in both Churches seven employ’d, the Greeks Practice is then most Catholick; and how can the Latins answer their dropping of six, and reducing all to one ? and if there were seven of old in both Churches, this must not only justify the present Greeks, but make my Conjecture yet more likely. The Sick were visited by all about them; the more Priests amongst them, so much the better. They all Pray’d, faith Arcudius, ut faciliùs impetrarent veniam, that p. 461. a. they might more easily obtain Health and Pardon for the sick Person; that is, that their Prayers, according to St. James, might much more avail; every Priest might have his own Prayers, and his own Lessons; For want of Priests, other good People said the Prayers and read such proper Portions of Scripture, Episles or Gospels, as in several places had been picke out as luitable Lessons ; without doubt great variety of good Forms of Prayer were composed and distributed
up and down and communicated mutually amongst them. I am beholderi to Arcudius, who out of Matheus Galenus fully justifies my Conjecture about p. 443. b. the Primitive Visitation. Somethings, faith he, must be repeated from An- T. P. 3586 tiquity, which as it was nearer to Apostolical Tradition, so it did apply and perform all things more Religiously. And at first it called together many Presbyters ; but if they are not to be had, then those of the Inferior Orders of the Clergy were lookt for, quorum si non fuisset Copia, vocabantur utriulque fexus Rcligiosissimi quique & omnium erat Idem labor extorquere Effectum Sacramenti; of whom if there were not Store, or some, all the most Religious Persons of both sexes were called, and it was one and the same Labour, or Task, of them All to extort, or as it were Force out by Prayer, the Effect of the Sacrament. Here I chink it most plain that, as I have laid, Priests or the Clergy were chiefly to be called, but for want of them, (as in the beginning of Christianity they were few enough) all good People were to Visit the Sick without them; and, even when with them, they were obliged joyntly to put up their Prayers with them for the Infirm
This was Démois évepyouin, A fervent, zealous Supplication indeed, which certainly no Man of sense, can allow to that pity full jejune Form ( or rather faint with) of the Latins may the Lord by this Anoynting Pardon Thee.
Afrer Chrysostom's time the Prayer.Oyl and other Offices were contrived and taken up, as I have said, upon several Occasions and to several ends. The Gospels and Lessons in the Prayer.Oyl, I have noted as I went along, and Thall here add several others which are now daily used when Sick and Indisposed People come to the Priest in the Church, for a Gospel to be read and a Prayer to be said over them. I have their Gospels now in use printed at Venice; there these appointed ro be read upon the Head of every one that Anno 16716 comes for Help, For Men, Luc. 9. 1. to the end of verf. 6. Matr. 10. 1, (2, 3, 4, omitted) to the end of verf. 8. For Women, Marc. 5. 24. to verf. 34. I have a very fair and very large MS. Gospel
, which ( as 1 can prove ) was of Manuli MS, publick use, it was wrote in very large Letters, Anno Christi, 995. Indict. 8, P. 745. Here for Men. Marc. 11, 22. 26. Mat. 9, 36. to tbe end of c. 10. I. There is pone particularly for Women, fo these I fuppofe were used for both. I have another, which I guess by the Hand was wrote, Sec. 120. There for Men. Joh. MS. E. p.265: 4. 46. 53. Marc. 6. 7.13. For Women Mar. 8. 14. 15. Marc. 5.24. 34. I have b.
T. p. 358. another from Prusa; I guess by the Character that it was wrote Sec. 11.
it is very large. There is written ανάγνωσμα εις αθεν εν τας άνδρας τε και γυναίκα και Leson for the Infirm, both Men and Women. Mar. 8. 14. 17. Luc. 7. 1. 10. Luc. 8. 41. 56. Joho 4. 46. 54.
Then follows this, A Gospel for the Infirm to be read at the Liturgy of the seven Presbyters, that is in the PrayerOyl; (but it is not there now, which thews Itill greater Variation, and that that Office hath been altered ) it is, Marc. 6. 7. 13.
to the Common Suppli. cation is Luc. I. 39 56. In another Copy of it, Luc. 10. 38. to the end. This strange Variety of Prayers and Lessons, Nill makes me believe that they were used at first as good Priess in several Places had composed them and chose these for their Sick; And the good People, in their absence at the Visitation, might (where they had more Prayers and Gospels then one) use them all or which they pleased. Avd the fame Liberty was left to the Priest in reading the Gospels over the Infirm Man’s Head, if there were plurality; for in their princed Gospel it is plainly left to the choice of the Pricst, aére cau Bóner, Read which you will. This is a farther Demonstration that at first none of thele Lessons and Prayers were fixt or prescribed in any uniform Way, but every Priest used what he had gotten by him. The Prayers as I have noted, are most of them devout and passionate, and might be of very ancient use before they were stufft with the Trumpery of following Ages.
The saying of these pious Prayers, and the reading of these Lessons to fick Men, exactly sets out the Primitive Visitation which I contend for; and it is evident that they were designed for such Perlons as had so much Strength and Sense left thein as to be able to be attentive to them. I have the more industriously set these Lessons all down, that our English Ministers, or the sick Mens Friends or Neighbours, in their Visitations might chuse out some of them, and read them or discourse out of them to them. And one thing more I must remark, That all these Gospels relate purely to the Recovery of Bodily Health andro
the Strengthning of the Infirm Man's Faith ; There is little or nothing of AbioT. p. 359 lution or Remission of Sins to a dying Man; which shews most plainly that
those Antieot Greeks who first chose these Gospels, made the sick Man's Recovery the principal Eod and Design of St. James his Prescription, whereas the Cardinal makes that a meer Accidental thing ; And so all the Epistles tend to move Mutual Help, mutual Comfort, Meekness, the supporting of one another, Charity, Repentance, and future Holyness of Life ; all which are proper Doctrines and Directions to Men only whilst they are in this Life, and in such a State of Strength and understanding as they may be able to receive them and practise them, All which to one, in Extremis, just a dying, would be like a Tále to a deaf Man, or a Lecture to a Man fast a sleep; This to me most evidently shews that the primitive Greeks had quite another Notion of St. James his Direction, then what the Latins now have; but all this suits most exactly and clearly with the Visitation which I have described. Corn. a Lapide thus expounds it, Confesion of Sins is to be made not only to Priests, but to lay Brethren, either for the sake of mutual Reconciliation or from the study of Humility, or to ask Advice and Help, or for a greater Bond of Charity, especially when their Dissolution and Death are approaching, Thus far is Right. But he hath cunningly prefixe this pure Jeluitical Distinstion, This is only St. James his Counsel, not his Command For niy part I take St. James his Text to be all of a piece; if all be but meer Counsel, how come the Latins to pretend to make a true Sacrament out of ir ?? if only Part of it is Counsel, and Part of it Command, I must confess that I ain pot so quicksighted as to distinguish one Part from the other. A little before he faith thus; We commonly say, Teach one another, Cure one another, Support one another, Sacrifice for one another, to wit, let the Learned teach the unlearned, let Phyfitians cure the Sick; let the Rich support the Poor, bet the Priesis Sacrifice for the Laity, This also in a plain and honcít Sepse, is right enough, and signify no more but this; That every one thould affift
bid, a, D.
the Sick Man according as he is able, by instructing him; by giving him fuch T. p. 359. Receipts and Medicines as he knew of; by giving him (if Poor) what Alms he can fpare; by offering fervent Prayers for him, which every one is bound to do as well as the Priest: But the Jesuit by using the word Sacrifice would hook in his Sacrifice of the Mass; Thus to that objection which he there mentions, St. James faith, Confess to one another, why did he not say exprefly Confess to ‘Priests? He faith, it is purely to save its from Shame, we must not Confess, saith he, to Angels, but to Men, (then to hook in Auricular Confession he foists in) pura Sacerdotibus, suppose to Priests. Again upon that, Confefs to one another, at first he owns it to be meant in General, That is, Man to Man, Like to Like, Brother tó Brother, (then he drops in a Scrap of the fame Leaven) puta Sacerdoti, suppose to a Priest.
I shall not here trouble my self, or the Reader, with any more of the SchoolMen's Jargon about the Matter and Form of this pretended Sacrament. Oyl is used (as I have shewn) and Wine mixt with it in several of the Offices and Customs above mention'd. The modern Reconcilers are at a great Loss, and quarrel with one another about what Prayer (and whether one or more) they fhall assert to be the form of it. These Terms and the like Scholastick stuff, with which the Latins have confounded all their feven Sacra. ments, are absolutely unknown (as they are upintelligible) to All, not only Ideot Greeks, but to those Papasses, Priests themselves, who have not been either train'd up and ruror'd in Italy themselves, or have not been amused and taught like Parrots by fome Latinized Brethren, or by Emissaries from Rome, and thele last are met with every where. I do positively lay it, that not one ordinary Priest of a hundred, (1 may double the Number) with whom I have converted, knows any thing of these Matters; but will be struck Dumb if you ask them, What is, úản, (which they pronounce ele ) the Matter, or eidos (which to them is edos or ethos) the Form of this, or of any other of their Sacraments. That judicious Author, Morinus, most justly taxeth both Pref. in Comthe Ignorance and Boldness of the School-Men, who were the first Inventors and Patrons of these Philosophical and Intricate Terms; and truly what he faith of them, about their Ordinations, may very truly be faid of all the reft T. p. 360. of their Sacraments. That all the antient Fathers, both Greek and Latin, have nothing in them concerning those Substantials, as they call them, wherein they place these Matters and Forms. So that School Divinity to him looks more like a Trick to embroil and copfound rather then clear
up the plain Truth. Religio sit, God forbid, faith he, that we hould ever de- ut fupr. pend upon their Decrees or Conclusions. And what another of their learned R. Simon
. in Authors truly and ingenuously confesses concerning the Eucharist, is to the full Gabr. Philad. as applicable to all the Rest; That the fubtilty of the Schools and their logical Intrigues have done far more Michief then ever they did Good. In. deed it is very Amazing, and really Ridiculous enough to see how the late Reconcilers, and other busy Latin Authors, bite and correct one another about these Matters ; every one being wonderfully conceited cf his own way, as Allatius, Arcudius, Goar, and others; and thofe great Oriental Masters, R, Simon. Gabriel Sionita and Abraham Euchellensis, both meer Parasites of Rome, are snarling at one another like two Dogs for a Bone; yet always fawning on their new Latin Masters; to whom I will add, Vanjlebius, whom I knew very thoroughly at Constantinople of whom more elsewhere. What trust can we put in the Accounts, which fuch Mercinary Slaves give us of the Opinions and Practices of che East; or how can we depend upon the Narrations of the Roman EmiíTaries, especially the Jesuits, whose real and only business it is every where to Corrupt or Misrepresent those plain Ignorant People, and their Religious Offices wherever they pals.
Why should we be startled at the Greeks word, puçágior, or Mystery; There is not a Rite or Ceremony amongst them, but a Mystery or mystical Meaning is attacke to it, as you may fufficiently see in their Celebration of the
p. 180, 181.
p. 198. a.
ment. par. 2.
T. P. 360. Synaxis or Eucharist alone, which I have given you in the beginning of this Morin. com; Treatise ; Their very bowing hath this hidden Secret in it, faith Simeon Theff.
Bending downwards, significs Christ's Descent; standing up again, represents his Resurrection and Ascension. And truly the Laiins are every jot as Sacramental, as the Greeks are Mysterious; Take this one Instance for all in
Amalarius, what wonderful Mysteries are there placed in only Tolling the Mila. col.
Bell to Prayers; The Bell it self, the Clapper, the very Rope, especially its
Dead; and we have publick Conftitutions of our own Church, and we have T. p. 361. particular Offices appointed by it, for the Confecration of Churches, the
Coronation of our Kings, and the like; and we own that every particular National Church may do the like. But the whole Catholick Church, either in a Council or otherwise, unless Christ bimself bath plainly Ordain'd both the visible Sign, and the spiritual Grace given and signified by it, cannot by its own Authority institute a true Sacrament or fæderal Rite betwixt God and Man. Without this, the Church (as the Latins call themselves) may multiply their Sacraments not only to seven, but to seventy times seven, or as far as they plcase.
Morinus out of Vitriacus tells us, That the Surians (Christians that live in the Holy Land) are really of the Greek Church; but, Latinorum prælatis, yet they outwardly pretend, (only with their Mouth and superficially, not from their Heart,) to obey the Latin Bishops in whose Dioceses they live, timore fcilicet fecularium Dominorum, only out of meer Fear of the secular
Powers, whom the Latins have made their Patrons; and as I have already Chronic. Ecc. Doted, I will, with H. Hilarius, to my own knowledge most confidently say, Graco p.485. that it is the very fame Cafe now with the Greeks at Confiantinople and elle
where, where I have been in the Grand Signor's Dominions; He is so far Head of the Greek Church, as by Money given to Him or his Ministers, all things are now transacted by them who give most. What then thall we think of a Parcel of mercinary or intimidated Ignorant Bishops, and Patriarchs, and their Church Officers and Dependants, bought or affrighted, or any other ways drawn in by a Designing and Incroaching Conclave and wavering truckling Patriarchs ? Be it a Nectarius or a Dofitheus, be it a Cyril of berrhea or a Cyril Lucar?
P. 2. p. 406.
(for as to this kind of private Cabaliing, All are alike to me) shall a few busy, T. p. 361: daring and contriving Men, whole Characters, and Designs, and Methods are sufficiently known to be Ill; under a Government where Louis d'ores and Roman Pistols are so Omnipotent; and Thousands of fearful or cautious Prelats shall stand (or rather fit) looking on, ready to let any Doctrines, or Perswasions, or Impositions quietly pass, rather then to come into any Trouble, or Hazard of loosing their Preferments; I say, shall a Imall number of fuch Men, under such circumstances gull us with modern Forgeries under the Name of the Orthodox Religion of the Great Eastern Church, be it under the Name of Confessions or the more fpecious Title of Synods ? They who in these distant Countries know nothing or very little of this Affair, may perhaps easily fwallow all this, and wiping their Mouths cry all is well; But I must beg Pardon of all the World, if I, who have lived eight years amongst them, and have well known and conversed with most of them, do folemnly profefs my Self to be of a guite other Opinion, as I have at large declared in the foregoing Treatise. Alafs! The Greeks are daily Harassed and forely Prest berwcen the Upper and the Nether Milftone, and now growing weary of supplanting and turping out one Another, they have already made a fad Beginning, and will yet daily farther submit to any thing for Quietness fake. It is an unexpressible Grief to me, and I pity them withall my Soul; The Turk hath rob'd them of their Empire, and, I fear, The Pope will soon firip them of their Faith.
I have often been amazed and wondred how such gross Errors and absurd Persuasions first rose and grew up in the Church; but I am well satisfied with what I find in the Judicious Morinus. First I find by my own Observation, par. 2. p. 23. that most of the fond Opinions and superstitious Practices which have prevailed in the Great Churches, were for the most part first Sown and 1prang up in times of Ignorance; when Men were lazy and blind Devotion had quite shut our Realon and all serious Endeavor and Searching after Truth. Now faith Morinus, if any religious Opinion or Legend (started perhaps by some doting Monk, or some other Man, for his Prayers and Fasting, or otherwise of reputed Holiness) once hath seized upon the Minds of the Vulgar, there never were wanting Men. especially fome Pretenders to Learning, who T. P. 3621 would not endeavor to defend it; either to gain the Reputation of Holiness, or the Favour and Applause of the People; and they would strain their Wits to the utmost to reconcile it with all Antiquity and primitive Truth; but if when all is done, they cannot make it out, or at most not put it beyond a bare Possibility, they bring in Oedy & Trò uenzcarns, God's Omnipotency to support their Fictions. This, to name no more, is the very Case of Transubsantiation. But of that and the other four Supernumerary Sacraments of the Latins, which Dofitheus in his pretended Synod hath grafted upon the Greek Church; I have here plainly and honestly given you my own private Thoughts; not defiring Superciliously to dictate any thing, or Imperiously or Craftily to impose upon any one; but only to declare my owo Opinion; which if it may any ways benefic the Reader, I shall be glad; but if he likes it not, let him freely follow his own, as, at present, I must do mine.
CH A P.